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|UBV(RI)C JHK observations of Hipparcos-selected nearby stars|
We present homogeneous, standardized UBV(RI)C photometry forover 700 nearby stars selected on the basis of Hipparcos parallaxes.Additionally, we list JHK photometry for about half of these stars, aswell as L photometry for 86 of the brightest. A number of stars withpeculiar colours or anomalous locations in various colour-magnitudediagrams are discussed.
|Rotation and Magnetic Activity in a Sample of M-Dwarfs|
We have analyzed the rotational broadening and chromospheric activity ina sample of 123 M-dwarfs, using spectra taken at the W.M. KeckObservatory as part of the California Planet Search program. We findthat only seven of these stars are rotating more rapidly than ourdetection threshold of v sin i ? 2.5 km s-1.Rotation appears to be more common in stars later than M3 than in theM0-M2.5 mass range: we estimate that less than 10% of early-M stars aredetectably rotating, whereas roughly a third of those later than M4 showsigns of rotation. These findings lend support to the view thatrotational braking becomes less effective in fully convective stars. Bymeasuring the equivalent widths of the Ca II H and K lines for the starsin our sample, and converting these to approximate L Ca/Lbol measurements, we also provide constraints on theconnection between rotation and magnetic activity. Measurable rotationis a sufficient, but not necessary condition for activity in our sample:all the detectable rotators show strong Ca II emission, but so too do asmall number of non-rotating stars, which we presume may lie at highinclination angles relative to our line of sight. Our data areconsistent with a "saturation-type" rotation-activity relationship, withactivity roughly independent of rotation above a threshold velocity ofless than 6 km s-1. We also find weak evidence for a"gap" in L Ca/L bol between a highly activepopulation of stars, which typically are detected as rotators, andanother much less active group.
|M dwarfs: effective temperatures, radii and metallicities|
We empirically determine effective temperatures and bolometricluminosities for a large sample of nearby M dwarfs, for which highaccuracy optical and infrared photometry is available. We introduce anew technique which exploits the flux ratio in different bands as aproxy of both effective temperature and metallicity. Our temperaturescale for late-type dwarfs extends well below 3000K (almost to the browndwarf limit) and is supported by interferometric angular diametermeasurements above 3000K. Our metallicities are in excellent agreement(usually within 0.2dex) with recent determinations via independenttechniques. A subsample of cool M dwarfs with metallicity estimatesbased on hotter Hipparcos common proper motion companions indicates ourmetallicities are also reliable below 3000K, a temperature rangeunexplored until now. The high quality of our data allows us to identifya striking feature in the bolometric luminosity versus temperatureplane, around the transition from K to M dwarfs. We have compared oursample of stars with theoretical models and conclude that thistransition is due to an increase in the radii of the M dwarfs, a featurewhich is not reproduced by theoretical models.
|The effect of activity on stellar temperatures and radii|
Context: Recent analyses of low-mass eclipsing binary stars haveunveiled a significant disagreement between the observations andpredictions of stellar structure models. Results show that theoreticalmodels underestimate the radii and overestimate the effectivetemperatures of low-mass stars but yield luminosities that accord withobservations. A hypothesis based upon the effects of stellar activitywas put forward to explain the discrepancies. Aims: In this paper westudy the existence of the same trend in single active stars and providea consistent scenario to explain systematic differences between activeand inactive stars in the H-R diagram reported earlier. Methods: Theanalysis is done using single field stars of spectral types late-K and Mand computing their bolometric magnitudes and temperatures throughinfrared colours and spectral indices. The properties of the stars insamples of active and inactive stars are compared statistically toreveal systematic differences. Results: After accounting for a numberof possible bias effects, active stars are shown to be cooler thaninactive stars of similar luminosity therefore implying a larger radiusas well, in proportions that are in excellent agreement with those foundfrom eclipsing binaries. Conclusions: The present results generalisethe existence of strong radius and temperature dependences on stellaractivity to the entire population of low-mass stars, regardless of theirmembership in close binary systems.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/478/507
|Further observations of Hipparcos red stars and standards for UBV(RI)C photometry|
We present homogeneous and standardized UBV(RI)C JHKphotometry for over 100 M stars selected from an earlier paper on thebasis of apparent photometric constancy. L photometry has been obtainedfor stars brighter than about L = 6. Most of the stars have asubstantial number of UBV(RI)C observations and, it is hoped,will prove useful as red supplementary standards. Additionally, we listJHK photometry for nearly 300 Hipparcos red stars not selected asstandards, as well as L photometry for the brightest stars.
|Pulkovo compilation of radial velocities for 35495 stars in a common system.|
|Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission Lines in Late-K and M Dwarfs|
We have measured the profiles of the Ca II H and K chromosphericemission lines in 147 main-sequence stars of spectral type M5-K7 (masses0.30-0.55 Msolar) using multiple high-resolution spectraobtained during 6 years with the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck Itelescope. Remarkably, the average FWHM, equivalent widths, and lineluminosities of Ca II H and K increase by a factor of 3 with increasingstellar mass over this small range of stellar masses. We fit the Ca II Hand K lines with a double-Gaussian model to represent both thechromospheric emission and the non-LTE central absorption. Most of thesample stars display a central absorption that is typically redshiftedby ~0.1 km s-1 relative to the emission. This implies thatthe higher level, lower density chromospheric material has a smalleroutward velocity (or higher inward velocity) by 0.1 km s-1than the lower level material in the chromosphere, but the nature ofthis velocity gradient remains unknown. The FWHM of the Ca II H and Kemission lines increase with stellar luminosity, reminiscent of theWilson-Bappu effect in FGK-type stars. Both the equivalent widths andFWHM exhibit modest temporal variability in individual stars. At a givenvalue of MV, stars exhibit a spread in both the equivalentwidth and FWHM of Ca II H and K, due both to a spread in fundamentalstellar parameters, including rotation rate, age, and possiblymetallicity, and to the spread in stellar mass at a given MV.The K line is consistently wider than the H line, as expected, and itscentral absorption is more redshifted, indicating that the H and K linesform at slightly different heights in the chromosphere where thevelocities are slightly different. The equivalent width of Hαcorrelates with Ca II H and K only for stars having Ca II equivalentwidths above ~2 Å, suggesting the existence of a magneticthreshold above which the lower and upper chromospheres become thermallycoupled.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by both NASA and theUniversity of California.
|The Solar Neighborhood. XIII. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 Meter Program: Stars with μ >= 1.0" yr-1 (MOTION Sample)|
We present the first set of definitive trigonometric parallaxes andproper motions from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory ParallaxInvestigation. Full astrometric reductions for the program arediscussed, including methods of reference star selection, differentialcolor refraction corrections, and conversion of relative to absoluteparallax. Using data acquired at the 0.9 m telescope at CTIO, fullastrometric solutions and VRIJHKs photometry are presentedfor 36 red and white dwarf stellar systems with proper motions fasterthan 1.0" yr-1. Of these, 33 systems have their first evertrigonometric parallaxes, which comprise 41% of MOTION systems (thosereported to have proper motions greater than 1.0" yr-1) southof δ=0deg that have no parallaxes. Four of the systemsare new members of the RECONS 10 pc sample for which the first accuratetrigonometric parallaxes are published here: DENIS J1048-3956(4.04+/-0.03 pc), GJ 1128 (LHS 271, 6.53+/-0.10 pc), GJ 1068 (LHS 22,6.97+/-0.09 pc), and GJ 1123 (LHS 263, 9.02+/-0.16 pc). In addition, twored subdwarf-white dwarf pairs, LHS 193AB and LHS 300AB, are identified.The white dwarf secondaries fall in a previously uncharted region of theH-R diagram.
|Chromospheric Ca II Emission in Nearby F, G, K, and M Stars|
We present chromospheric Ca II H and K activity measurements, rotationperiods, and ages for ~1200 F, G, K, and M type main-sequence stars from~18,000 archival spectra taken at Keck and Lick Observatories as a partof the California and Carnegie Planet Search Project. We have calibratedour chromospheric S-values against the Mount Wilson chromosphericactivity data. From these measurements we have calculated medianactivity levels and derived R'HK, stellar ages,and rotation periods from general parameterizations for 1228 stars,~1000 of which have no previously published S-values. We also presentprecise time series of activity measurements for these stars.Based on observations obtained at Lick Observatory, which is operated bythe University of California, and on observations obtained at the W. M.Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University ofCalifornia and the California Institute of Technology. The KeckObservatory was made possible by the generous financial support of theW. M. Keck Foundation.
|Improved Astrometry and Photometry for the Luyten Catalog. II. Faint Stars and the Revised Catalog|
We complete construction of a catalog containing improved astrometry andnew optical/infrared photometry for the vast majority of NLTT starslying in the overlap of regions covered by POSS I and by the secondincremental Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) release, approximately 44%of the sky. The epoch 2000 positions are typically accurate to 130 mas,the proper motions to 5.5 mas yr-1, and the V-J colors to0.25 mag. Relative proper motions of binary components are measured to 3mas yr-1. The false-identification rate is ~1% for11<~V<~18 and substantially less at brighter magnitudes. Theseimprovements permit the construction of a reduced proper-motion diagramthat, for the first time, allows one to classify NLTT stars intomain-sequence (MS) stars, subdwarfs (SDs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We inturn use this diagram to analyze the properties of both our catalog andthe NLTT catalog on which it is based. In sharp contrast to popularbelief, we find that NLTT incompleteness in the plane is almostcompletely concentrated in MS stars, and that SDs and WDs are detectedalmost uniformly over the sky δ>-33deg. Our catalogwill therefore provide a powerful tool to probe these populationsstatistically, as well as to reliably identify individual SDs and WDs.
|The Solar Neighborhood. VII. Discovery and Characterization of Nearby Multiples in the CTIO Parallax Investigation|
We report the discovery of eight new multiple star systems among 191stellar systems targeted for parallax determinations in the RECONS(Research Consortium on Nearby Stars) southern parallax program, CTIOPI(Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation). Theeight new companions have separations of 1.42" to 14.90" andinstrumental magnitude differences at VRI of 0.06-6.07 mag. Orbitalmotion has not been detected in any of these systems. These newcompanions increase the multiplicity fraction of this sample, made upprimarily of nearby (less than 25 pc) M dwarfs, to 15%. Comparison withsamples that have been more completely scrutinized for companionsindicates that probably only half of all multiples have so far beendiscovered. Given the large number of frames acquired for theastrometric series, the eight new systems and 16 known multiples havebeen searched for variability at VRI during the 3 year duration ofCTIOPI. A flare has been detected in the secondary of the RX J1132-264system, while at least one component in the GJ 2006 system is a probablelong-term variable. Variables were detected in only 9% of the systemssearched, primarily as a result of the restrictive 0.05 mag thresholdrequired for variability confirmation.
|The radii and spectra of the nearest stars|
We discuss direct measurements of the radii of 36 stars located closerthan 25 parsecs to the Sun. We present the data on 307 radii and 326spectral types and luminosity classes for the nearest stars locatedinside the sphere with a radius of 10 parsecs.
|Radial Velocities for 889 Late-Type Stars|
We report radial velocities for 844 FGKM-type main-sequence and subgiantstars and 45 K giants, most of which had either low-precision velocitymeasurements or none at all. These velocities differ from the standardstars of Udry et al. by 0.035 km s-1 (rms) for the 26 FGKstandard stars in common. The zero point of our velocities differs fromthat of Udry et al.: =+0.053km s-1. Thus, these new velocities agree with the best knownstandard stars both in precision and zero point, to well within 0.1 kms-1. Nonetheless, both these velocities and the standardssuffer from three sources of systematic error, namely, convectiveblueshift, gravitational redshift, and spectral type mismatch of thereference spectrum. These systematic errors are here forced to be zerofor G2 V stars by using the Sun as reference, with Vesta and day sky asproxies. But for spectral types departing from solar, the systematicerrors reach 0.3 km s-1 in the F and K stars and 0.4 kms-1 in M dwarfs. Multiple spectra were obtained for all 889stars during 4 years, and 782 of them exhibit velocity scatter less than0.1 km s-1. These stars may serve as radial velocitystandards if they remain constant in velocity. We found 11 newspectroscopic binaries and report orbital parameters for them. Based onobservations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operatedjointly by the University of California and the California Institute ofTechnology, and on observations obtained at the Lick Observatory, whichis operated by the University of California.
|UBV(RI)C photometry of Hipparcos red stars|
We present homogeneous and standardized UBV(RI)C photometryfor nearly 550 M stars selected from the Hipparcos satellite data baseusing the following selection criteria: lack of obvious variability (noHipparcos variability flag); δ<+10°(V-I)>1.7 and Vmagnitude fainter than about 7.6. Comparisons are made between thecurrent photometry, other ground-based data sets and Hipparcosphotometry. We use linear discriminant analysis to determine aluminosity segregation criterion for late-type stars, and principalcomponent analysis to study the statistical structure of the colourindices and to calibrate absolute magnitude in terms of (V-I) for thedwarf stars. Various methods are used to determine the mean absolutemagnitude of the giant stars. We find 10 dwarf stars, apparentlypreviously unrecognized (prior to Hipparcos) as being within 25pc,including five within 20pc.
|Revised Coordinates and Proper Motions of the Stars in the Luyten Half-Second Catalog|
We present refined coordinates and proper-motion data for the highproper-motion (HPM) stars in the Luyten Half-Second (LHS) catalog. Thepositional uncertainty in the original Luyten catalog is typicallygreater than 10" and is often greater than 30". We have used the digitalscans of the POSS I and POSS II plates to derive more accurate positionsand proper motions of the objects. Out of the 4470 candidates in the LHScatalog, 4323 objects were manually reidentified in the POSS I and POSSII scans. A small fraction of the stars were not found because of thelack of finder charts and digitized POSS II scans. The uncertainties inthe revised positions are typically ~2" but can be as high as ~8" in afew cases, which is a large improvement over the original data.Cross-correlation with the Tycho-2 and Hipparcos catalogs yielded 819candidates (with mR<~12). For these brighter sources, theposition and proper-motion data were replaced with the more accurateTycho-2/Hipparcos data. In total, we have revised proper-motionmeasurements and coordinates for 4040 stars and revised coordinates for4330 stars. The electronic version of the paper5 contains the updated information on all 4470stars in the LHS catalog.
|The Palomar/MSU Nearby Star Spectroscopic Survey. III. Chromospheric Activity, M Dwarf Ages, and the Local Star Formation History|
We present high-resolution echelle spectroscopy of 676 nearby M dwarfs.Our measurements include radial velocities, equivalent widths ofimportant chromospheric emission lines, and rotational velocities forrapidly rotating stars. We identify several distinct groups by theirHα properties and investigate variations in chromospheric activityamong early (M0-M2.5) and mid (M3-M6) dwarfs. Using a volume-limitedsample together with a relationship between age and chromosphericactivity, we show that the rate of star formation in the immediate solarneighborhood has been relatively constant over the last 4 Gyr. Inparticular, our results are inconsistent with recent large bursts ofstar formation. We use the correlation between Hα activity and ageas a function of color to set constraints on the properties of L and Tdwarf secondary components in binary systems. We also identify a numberof interesting stars, including rapid rotators, radial velocityvariables, and spectroscopic binaries. Observations were made at the 60inch telescope at Palomar Mountain, which is jointly owned by theCalifornia Institute of Technology and the Carnegie Institution ofWashington.
|Astrometric positions of stars with high proper motions in the Southern Hemisphere|
Several stars with large proper motions, cited by W.J. Luyten, wereincluded in the preliminary programme for the HIPPARCOS mission. Whenperforming preparatory measurements of plates, difficulties wereencountered in identifying certain of these stars when relying only onpublished coordinates. We have taken advantage of this work whichrelates to the southern sky in order to determine the astrometricposition of the greatest possible number of these objects, even forthose which were not included in the programme. Catalogue is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The Palomar/MSU Nearby Star Spectroscopic Survey.II.The Southern M Dwarfs and Investigation of Magnetic Activity|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....112.2799H&db_key=AST
|Photometry of Stars with Large Proper Motion|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....112.2300W&db_key=AST
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|The Palomar/MSU Nearby-Star Spectroscopic Survey. I. The Northern M Dwarfs -Bandstrengths and Kinematics|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.1838R&db_key=AST
|The general catalogue of trigonometric [stellar] paralaxes|
|A volume-limited ROSAT survey of extreme ultraviolet emission from all nondegenerate stars within 10 parsecs|
We report the results of a volume-limited ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC)survey of all nondegenerate stars within 10 pc. Of the 220 known starsystems within 10 pc, we find that 41 are positive detections in atleast one of the two WFC filter bandpasses (S1 and S2), while weconsider another 14 to be marginal detections. We compute X-rayluminosities for the WFC detections using Einstein Imaging ProportionalCounter (IPC) data, and these IPC luminosities are discussed along withthe WFC luminosities throughout the paper for purposes of comparison.Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) luminosity functions are computed for singlestars of different spectral types using both S1 and S2 luminosities, andthese luminosity functions are compared with X-ray luminosity functionsderived by previous authors using IPC data. We also analyze the S1 andS2 luminosity functions of the binary stars within 10 pc. We find thatmost stars in binary systems do not emit EUV radiation at levelsdifferent from those of single stars, but there may be a fewEUV-luminous multiple-star systems which emit excess EUV radiation dueto some effect of binarity. In general, the ratio of X-ray luminosity toEUV luminosity increases with increasing coronal emission, suggestingthat coronally active stars have higher coronal temperatures. We findthat our S1, S2, and IPC luminosities are well correlated withrotational velocity, and we compare activity-rotation relationsdetermined using these different luminosities. Late M stars are found tobe significantly less luminous in the EUV than other late-type stars.The most natural explanation for this results is the concept of coronalsaturation -- the idea that late-type stars can emit only a limitedfraction of their total luminosity in X-ray and EUV radiation, whichmeans stars with very low bolometric luminosities must have relativelylow X-ray and EUV luminosities as well. The maximum level of coronalemission from stars with earlier spectral types is studied also. Tounderstand the saturation levels for these stars, we have compiled alarge number of IPC luminosities for stars with a wide variety ofspectral types and luminosity classes. We show quantitatively that ifthe Sun were completely covered with X-ray-emitting coronal loops, itwould be near the saturation limit implied by this compilation,supporting the idea that stars near upper limits in coronal activity arecompletely covered with active regions.
|Far infrared properties of late type dwarfs. Infrared fluxes of K & M dwarfs|
IRAS fluxes/upper limits are presented for a large sample of K and Mdwarfs. Good agreement is found between the 12 micrometer fluxes andthose derived from the photospheric models of Mould (1976).Relationships between the optical and infrared colors are derived. Theactive dMe/dKe stars appear systematically brighter in the infraredcompared with the less active dM/dK stars, which could be attributed tomore efficient nonradiative heating in their atmosphere. Any systematicdifferences found in our results when compared with those obtained fromprevious studies are attributed to the different analysis packages used.
|The importance of surface inhomogeneities for K and M dwarf chromospheric fluxes|
We present published and archived spectroscopic and spectrophotometricdata of H-alpha, Ca II, Mg II, and X-rays for a large sample of K and Mdwarfs. The data set points to the importance that surfaceinhomogeneities have in the flux luminosity diagrams in these late-typedwarfs, irrespective of whether the Balmer lines are in emission orabsorption. Although supporting the fact that cooler stars exhibitincreasing levels of surface activity, evident through an increasingincidence of Balmer emission, surface inhomogeneities, or variations inthe local temperature and density structure, at the chromospheric level,dominate the total Ca II and Mg II fluxes. We show that the flux-fluxand luminosity-luminosity relations indicate differing extents ofinhomogeneity from the chromosphere through to the corona. A goodcorrelation between Ca II and Mg II fluxes indicates that they areformed in overlapping regions of the chromosphere, so that thecontribution of surface inhomogeneities is not evident from thisparticular flux-flux diagram. In the region of the upper chromospherethrough to the transition and corona, the correlation between Ly-alphaand X-ray fluxes indicates regions with similar levels of arealinhomogeneity. This appears to be uncorrelated with that at thechromospheric level.
|Infrared colors of low-mass stars|
A total of 322 red dwarf stars are studied in a review of IR IJHKphotometry to discern chromospheric activity and kinematic dataregarding metallicity effects in the IR color:color diagrams. Themetallicity variations are employed to assess changes in the H(-)continuum opacity and water-vapor characterizations. The stars areclassified in terms of metal-richness with five categories includingyoung disk, old disk, and halo types with attention given to the inverserelationship between metallicity and water-band absorption strength. Theresults include IR photometric parallax relations for each metallicitygroup and absolute magnitudes for single stars as well as temperatures,intrinsic colors, and spectral types. The body of data is useful forconstraining models of the interiors and atmospheres of this class ofstars.
|Chromospheric diagnostics in late-type stars|
Moderate and low resolution spectroscopic observations of late typedwarfs covering a broad range of activity are presented. The strength ofthe TiO band in 4762 A is used for spectral classification. Calibratedfluxes for the Balmer and the Ca II H and K lines are derived. H-alphaequivalent widths are given for those stars where the line is inabsorption as well as those in emission. It is confirmed that stars withno detectable or very weak H-alpha do exist. It is also shown that starswith very weak or no detectable emission in Ca II H and K also exist,this occurring preferentially in late M dwarfs. Although this can beexplained in terms of reduced nonradiative heating in the chromosphere,the results cannot be conclusive due to the limited resolution of thedata.
|Catalogue of Variable or Suspected Stars Nearby the Sun|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1990A&AS...85..971P&db_key=AST
|Optical and infrared photometry of dwarf M and K stars|
Absolute U, B, V, R, I, J, H, K, and L photometry are given for a groupof dwarf M and K stars. Using black-body fits to the data, bolometricluminosities and radii are derived. The derived bolometric luminositiesare good to + or - 10 percent and the effective temperatures to + or -100 K. A comparison is made with the values derived by other authors.The derived radii are 14 percent smaller than those derived from therevised Barnes et al. (1978) relation involving (V - R).
|BVRI photometry of the Gliese Catalogue stars|
Photoelectri BVRI photometry on the Cousins (Kron-Cape) system has beenobtained for many of the southern faint stars in the Gliese Catalog(1969). This extends the work of Cousins (1980) and provides a uniformset of data for the nearby stars. Several red dwarfs are noted, whichwere used to define the red end of the Cousins system.
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