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# α Car (Canopus)

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 Computed Hβ indices from ATLAS9 model atmospheresAims.Grids of Hβ indices based on updated (new-ODF) ATLAS9 modelatmospheres were computed for solar and scaled solar metallicities[+0.5], [+0.2], [0.0], [ -0.5] , [ -1.0] , [ -1.5] , [ -2.0] , [ -2.5]and for α enhanced compositions [+0.5a], [0.0a], [ -0.5a] , [-1.0a] , [ -1.5a] , [ -2.0a] , [ -2.5a] , and [ -4.0a] . Methods:.Indices for T_eff > 5000 K were computed with the same methods asdescribed by Lester et al. (1986, LGK86) except for a differentnormalization of the computed natural system to the standard system.LGK86 used special ODFs to compute the fluxes. For T_eff ≤ 5000 K wecomputed the fluxes using the synthetic spectrum method. In order toassess the accuracy of the computed indices comparisons were made withthe indices computed by Smalley & Dworetsky (1995, A&A, 293,446, MD95) and with the empirical relations T_eff-Hβ given byAlonso et al. (1996, A&A, 313, 873) for several metallicities.Furthermore, for cool stars, temperatures inferred from the computedindices were compared with those of the fundamental stars listed byMD95. The same kind of comparison was made between gravities for B-typestars. Results: .The temperatures from the computed indices are ingood agreement, within the error limits, with the literature values for4750 K ≤ T_eff ≤ 8000 K, while the gravities agree for T_eff> 9000 K. The computed Hβ indices for the Sun and for Procyonare very close to the observed values. The comparison between theobserved and computed Hβ indices as function of the observedHβ has shown a very small trend which almost completely disappearswhen only stars hotter than 10 000 K are considered. The trend due tothe cool stars is probably related with the low accuracy of thefundamental T_eff which are affected by large errors for most of thestars. Improved oscillator strengths and wavelengths in Hf II, with applications to stellar elemental abundancesAims. We present new and improved radiative lifetimes for eight levelsin Hf I and 18 levels in Hf II, along with oscillator strengths andwavelengths for 195 transitions in Hf II. With these data we determinethe abundance of hafnium in two chemically peculiar stars: the hot-Amstar HR 3383 and the HgMn star χ Lupi, and discuss the implicationsof the new data to the hafnium abundance for the Sun and the metal-poorgalactic halo stars CS 22892-052 and CS 31082-001. Methods: . Theoscillator strengths are derived by combining radiative lifetimesmeasured with the laser induced fluorescence technique and branchingfractions determined from intensity calibrated Fourier transformspectra. The hafnium abundance in the two sharp-lined peculair stars isdetermined by comparison of spectra obtained from instruments onboardthe Hubble Space Telescope with synthetic spectra, while the abundanceof hafnium in the solar photosphere and the metal-poor halo stars isdiscussed in terms of rescaling previous investigations using the new gfvalues. Results: . The abundance enhancement of hafnium has beendetermined in HR 3383 to be +1.7 dex and that for χ Lupi A is +1.3dex. In the course of the analysis we have also determined an abundanceenhancement for molybdenum in HR 3383 to be +1.2 dex, which is similarto that known for χ Lupi A. The abundances in the metal-poor halostars CS 31082-001 and CS 22892-052 were rescaled to log ɛ(Hf) =-0.75 and -0.82 respectively, with smaller 1σ uncertainty. Thishas the effect of improving the theoretical fits of r-processnucleosynthesis to abundance data for heavy elements. The change of gfvalues also implies that the hafnium abundance in the solar photosphereshould be reduced by up to 0.2 dex, thereby inducing a discrepancy withthe meteoritic hafnium abundance. CNO in evolved intermediate mass starsIn order to investigate the possible influence of rotation on theefficiency of the first dredge-up we determined atmospheric parameters,masses, and abundances of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in a sample ofevolved intermediate mass stars. We used high resolution spectra andconducted a model atmosphere analysis. The abundances were calculatedthrough spectral synthesis and compared to the predictions of rotatingand non-rotating evolutionary models. Almost all those objects in oursample where carbon and nitrogen abundances could be determined showsigns of internal mixing. The stars, however, seem to be mixed todifferent extents. Among the mixed stars we identify five in our samplewith abundances in agreement with the non-rotating models, four starsthat seem to be mixed beyond that, and one star that seems to beslightly less mixed than predicted for the first dredge-up. There arealso five stars that seem to be slightly more mixed than expected, buttheir abundances are in marginal agreement with both rotating andnon-rotating models. Such differences in the extent of the mixing arenot predicted by the standard models and imply the action of othermixing mechanisms than solely the convective dredge-up. We alsoidentified for the first time an important correlation between the [N/C]ratio and the stellar mass. Site testing in summer at Dome C, AntarcticaWe present summer site testing results based on DIMM data obtained atDome C, Antarctica. These data were collected on the bright star Canopusduring two 3-months summer campaigns in 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. Weperformed continuous monitoring of the seeing and the isoplanatic anglein the visible. We found a median seeing of 0.54'' and a median isoplanatic angle of 6.8''. The seeing appears to have a deep minimum around 0.4'' almost every day in late afternoon. A reappraisal of some proposed historical supernovaeNot Available The epoch of the constellations on the Farnese Atlas and their origin in Hipparchus's lost catalogueNot Available First results from the ESO VLTI calibrators programThe ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is one of the leadinginterferometric facilities. It is equipped with several 8.2 and 1.8 mtelescopes, a large number of baselines up to 200 m, and with severalsubsystems designed to enable high quality measurements and to improvesignificantly the limits of sensitivities currently available tolong-baseline interferometry. The full scientific potential of the VLTIcan be exploited only if a consistent set of good quality calibrators isavailable. For this, a large number of observations of potentialcalibrators have been obtained during the commissioning phase of theVLTI. These data are publicly available. We briefly describe theinterferometer, the VINCI instrument used for the observations, the dataflow from acquisition to processed results, and we present and commenton the volume of observations gathered and scrutinized. The result is alist of 191 calibrator candidates, for which a total of 12 066observations can be deemed of satisfactory quality. We present a generalstatistical analysis of this sample, using as a starting point theangular diameters previously available in the literature. We derive thegeneral characteristics of the VLTI transfer function, and its trendwith time in the period 2001 through mid-2004. A second paper will bedevoted to a detailed investigation of a selected sample, aimed atestablishing a VLTI-based homogeneous system of calibrators. A Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Survey of Luminous Cool StarsThe Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) ultraviolet spectra ofeight giant and supergiant stars reveal that high-temperature(3×105 K) atmospheres are common in luminous cool starsand extend across the color-magnitude diagram from α Car (F0 II)to the cool giant α Tau (K5 III). Emission present in thesespectra includes chromospheric H Lyβ, Fe II, C I, and transitionregion lines of C III, O VI, Si III, and Si IV. Emission lines of FeXVIII and Fe XIX signaling temperatures of ~107 K and coronalmaterial are found in the most active stars, β Cet and 31 Com. Ashort-term flux variation, perhaps a flare, was detected in β Cetduring our observation. Stellar surface fluxes of the emission of C IIIand O VI are correlated and decrease rapidly toward the cooler stars,reminiscent of the decay of magnetically heated atmospheres. Profiles ofthe C III λ977 lines suggest that mass outflow is underway atT~80,000 K and the winds are warm. Indications of outflow at highertemperatures (3×105 K) are revealed by O VI asymmetriesand the line widths themselves. High-temperature species are absent inthe M supergiant α Ori. Narrow fluorescent lines of Fe II appearin the spectra of many giants and supergiants, apparently pumped by HLyα, and formed in extended atmospheres. Instrumentalcharacteristics that affect cool star spectra are discussed. CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 The solar model problem' solved by the abundance of neon in nearby starsThe interior structure of the Sun can be studied with great accuracyusing observations of its oscillations, similar to seismology of theEarth. Precise agreement between helioseismological measurements andpredictions of theoretical solar models has been a triumph of modernastrophysics. A recent downward revision by 25-35 per cent of the solarabundances of light elements such as C, N, O and Ne (ref. 2) has,however, broken this accordance: models adopting the new abundancesincorrectly predict the depth of the convection zone, the depth profilesof sound speed and density, and the helium abundance. The discrepanciesare far beyond the uncertainties in either the data or the modelpredictions. Here we report neon-to-oxygen ratios measured in a sampleof nearby solar-like stars, using their X-ray spectra. The abundanceratios are all very similar and substantially larger than the recentlyrevised solar value. The neon abundance in the Sun is quite poorlydetermined. If the Ne/O abundance in these stars is adopted for the Sun,the models are brought back into agreement with helioseismologymeasurements. Analysis of the Na, Mg, Al, and Si Abundances in the Atmospheres of Red Giants of Different Spectral SubgroupsWe analyze the Na, Mg, Al, and Si abundances in the atmospheres of morethan 40 stars, includingred giants of different spectral subgroups(normal red giants, mild and classical barium stars) and severalsupergiants. All these elements exhibit abundance excesses, with theoverabundance increasing with the star’s luminosity. Thedependence of the overabundances for each of these elements on theluminosity (or log g) is the same for all the spectral subgroups,testifying to a common origin: they are all products of hydrogen burningin the NeNa and MgAl cycles that have been dredged up from the stellarinteriors to the outer atmospheric layers by convection that graduallydevelops during the star’s evolution from the main sequence to thered-giant stage. The sodium abundances derived for several stars arelower than for other stars with similar atmospheric parameters. The agesand kinematic characteristics of these two groups of stars suggest thatthey probably belong to different stellar generations. A catalog of stellar magnetic rotational phase curvesMagnetized stars usually exhibit periodic variations of the effective(longitudinal) magnetic field Be caused by their rotation. Wepresent a catalog of magnetic rotational phase curves, Be vs.the rotational phase φ, and tables of their parameters for 136stars on the main sequence and above it. Phase curves were obtained bythe least squares fitting of sine wave or double wave functions to theavailable Be measurements, which were compiled from theexisting literature. Most of the catalogued objects are chemicallypeculiar A and B type stars (127 stars). For some stars we also improvedor determined periods of their rotation. We discuss the distribution ofparameters describing magnetic rotational phase curves in our sample.All tables and Appendix A are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org The physical properties of normal A starsDesignating a star as of A-type is a result of spectral classification.After separating the peculiar stars from those deemed to be normal usingthe results of a century of stellar astrophysical wisdom, I define thephysical properties of the "normal" stars. The hotter A stars haveatmospheres almost in radiative equilibrium. In the A stars convectivemotions can be found which increase in strength as the temperaturedecreases. Constraining the Lifetime of Circumstellar Disks in the Terrestrial Planet Zone: A Mid-Infrared Survey of the 30 Myr old Tucana-Horologium AssociationWe have conducted an N-band survey of 14 young stars in the ~30 Myr oldTucana-Horologium association to search for evidence of warm,circumstellar dust disks. Using the MIRAC-BLINC camera on the Magellan I(Baade) 6.5 m telescope, we find that none of the stars have astatistically significant N-band excess compared to the predictedstellar photospheric flux. Using three different sets of assumptions,this null result rules out the existence of the following around thesepost-T Tauri stars: (1) optically thick disks with inner hole radii of<~0.1 AU, (2) optically thin disks with masses of less than10-6 M⊕ (in ~1 μm sized grains) within<~10 AU of these stars, and (3) scaled-up analogs of the solar systemzodiacal dust cloud with more than 4000 times the emitting area. Oursurvey was sensitive to dust disks in the terrestrial planet zone withfractional luminosity oflog(Ldust/L*)~10-2.9, yet none werefound. Combined with results from previous surveys, these data suggestthat circumstellar dust disks become so optically thin as to beundetectable at N band before age ~20 Myr. We also present N-bandphotometry for several members of other young associations and asubsample of targets that will be observed with the Spitzer SpaceTelescope by the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems LegacyScience Program. Finally, we present an absolute calibration ofMIRAC-BLINC for four filters (L, N, 11.6, and Qs) on theCohen-Walker-Witteborn system. Sunset Science. IV. Low-Altitude RefractionEstablished authorities have disagreed about the relative importance ofthe upper and lower atmosphere in producing astronomical refraction fornearly two centuries. This paper resolves the problem and corrects someprominent errors. The refraction near the horizon is explored in somedetail, and its relation to terrestrial refraction, and the effects ofthermal inversions in the nocturnal boundary layer, are examined. Atmany observatories, the refraction at the apparent horizon comes mostlyfrom the air between the observatory and sea level. The Structure of the Local Interstellar Medium. II. Observations of D I, C II, N I, O I, Al II, and Si II toward Stars within 100 ParsecsModerate- and high-resolution measurements(λ/Δλ>~40,000) of interstellar resonance lines ofD I, C II, N I, O I, Al II, and Si II (hereafter called light ions) arepresented for all available observed targets located within 100 pc thatalso have high-resolution observations of interstellar Fe II or Mg II(heavy ions) lines. All spectra were obtained with the Goddard HighResolution Spectrograph or the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrographinstrument aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, there are 41sight lines to targets within 100 pc with observations that include aheavy ion at high resolution and at least one light ion at moderate orhigh resolution. We present new measurements of light ions along 33 ofthese sight lines and collect from the literature results for theremaining sight lines that have already been analyzed. For all of thenew observations we provide measurements of the central velocity,Doppler width parameter, and column density for each absorptioncomponent. We greatly increase the number of sight lines with usefullocal interstellar medium (LISM) absorption-line measurements of lightions by using knowledge of the kinematic structure along a line of sightobtained from high-resolution observations of intrinsically narrowabsorption lines, such as Fe II and Mg II. We successfully fit theabsorption lines with this technique, even with moderate-resolutionspectra. Because high-resolution observations of heavy ions are criticalfor understanding the kinematic structure of local absorbers along theline of sight, we include 18 new measurements of Fe II and Mg II in anAppendix. We present a statistical analysis of the LISM absorptionmeasurements, which provides an overview of some physicalcharacteristics of warm clouds in the LISM, including temperature andturbulent velocity. This complete collection and reduction of allavailable LISM absorption measurements provides an important databasefor studying the structure of nearby warm clouds, including ionization,abundances, and depletions. Subsequent papers will present models forthe morphology and physical properties of individual structures (clouds)in the LISM.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS AR-09525.01A. Theseobservations are associated with program 9525. The Density of Coronal Plasma in Active Stellar CoronaeWe have analyzed high-resolution X-ray spectra of a sample of 22 activestars observed with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer onChandra in order to investigate their coronal plasma density. Densitieswere investigated using the lines of the He-like ions O VII, Mg XI, andSi XIII. Si XIII lines in all stars of the sample are compatible withthe low-density limit (i.e., ne<~1013cm-3), casting some doubt on results based on lowerresolution Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) spectra finding densitiesne>1013 cm-3. Mg XI lines betray thepresence of high plasma densities up to a few times 1012cm-3 for most of the sources with higher X-ray luminosity(>~1030 ergs s-1) stars with higherLX and LX/Lbol tend to have higherdensities at high temperatures. Ratios of O VII lines yield much lowerdensities of a few times 1010 cm-3, indicatingthat the hot'' and `cool'' plasma resides in physically differentstructures. In the cases of EV Lac, HD 223460, Canopus, μ Vel, TYPyx, and IM Peg, our results represent the first spectroscopic estimatesof coronal density. No trends in density-sensitive line ratios withstellar parameters effective temperature and surface gravity were found,indicating that plasma densities are remarkably similar for stars withpressure scale heights differing by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Ourfindings imply remarkably compact coronal structures, especially for thehotter (~7 MK) plasma emitting the Mg XI lines characterized by thecoronal surface filling factor, fMgXI, ranging from10-4 to 10-1, while we find fOVIIvalues from a few times 10-3 up to ~1 for the cooler (~2 MK)plasma emitting the O VII lines. We find that fOVIIapproaches unity at the same stellar surface X-ray flux level ascharacterizes solar active regions, suggesting that these stars becomecompletely covered by active regions. At the same surface flux level,fMgXI is seen to increase more sharply with increasingsurface flux. These results appear to support earlier suggestions thathot 107 K plasma in active coronae arises from flaringactivity and that this flaring activity increases markedly once thestellar surface becomes covered with active regions. Comparison of ourmeasured line fluxes with theoretical models suggests that significantresidual model inaccuracies might be present and, in particular, thatcascade contributions to forbidden and intercombination lines resultingfrom dielectronic recombination might be to blame. On the sizes of stellar X-ray coronaeSpatial information from stellar X-ray coronae cannot be assesseddirectly, but scaling laws from the solar corona make it possible toestimate sizes of stellar coronae from the physical parameterstemperature and density. While coronal plasma temperatures have longbeen available, we concentrate on the newly available densitymeasurements from line fluxes of X-ray lines measured for a large sampleof stellar coronae with the Chandra and XMM-Newton gratings. We compileda set of 64 grating spectra of 42 stellar coronae. Line counts of strongH-like and He-like ions and Fe XXI lines were measured with the CORAsingle-purpose line fitting tool by \cite{newi02}. Densities areestimated from He-like f/i flux ratios of O VII and Ne IX representingthe cooler (1-6 MK) plasma components. The densities scatter between logne ≈ 9.5-11 from the O VII triplet and between logne ≈ 10.5-12 from the Ne IX triplet, but we caution thatthe latter triplet may be biased by contamination from Fe XIX and Fe XXIlines. We find that low-activity stars (as parameterized by thecharacteristic temperature derived from H- and He-like line flux ratios)tend to show densities derived from O VII of no more than a few times1010 cm-3, whereas no definitive trend is foundfor the more active stars. Investigating the densities of the hotterplasma with various Fe XXI line ratios, we found that none of thespectra consistently indicates the presence of very high densities. Weargue that our measurements are compatible with the low-density limitfor the respective ratios (≈ 5× 1012cm-3). These upper limits are in line with constant pressurein the emitting active regions. We focus on the commonly used \cite{rtv}scaling law to derive loop lengths from temperatures and densitiesassuming loop-like structures as identical building blocks. We derivethe emitting volumes from direct measurements of ion-specific emissionmeasures and densities. Available volumes are calculated from theloop-lengths and stellar radii, and are compared with the emittingvolumes to infer filling factors. For all stages of activity we findsimilar filling factors up to 0.1.Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org On the analysis of band 3 of the ISO-SWS calibration sourcesWe analyse ISO-SWS 01 (R  1500) 12-27.5 μm (band 3) spectra ofthe 10 standard calibration stars with the highest flux using syntheticspectra generated from (MARCS) atmosphere models. The comparison betweenthe observed and synthetic spectra reveals the quality of (1) theatmospheric model construction and subsequent synthetic spectracomputation and of (2) the (OLP 10.1) calibration and data reduction ofthe spectrometer at these wavelengths.The models represent the general features of the observations, but thesynthetic spectrum computation is hampered by the lack of comprehensivemolecular and atomic line lists. We also suspect some problems with thetemperature distribution in the outer layers of the model andinaccuracies in the extrapolation of the collision-induced absorptioncoefficients of H2 pairs. We detect baseline ripples andfringes in the observed spectra, that survive the calibration anddetailed reduction process. Photometric calibration uncertainties areestimated by means of the scaling factors between the synthetic andobserved spectra.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA. Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE DataFor a complete 12 μm flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources(F12>=150 Jy, |b|>=5deg), the majority ofwhich are AGB stars (~87%), we have extracted light curves in seveninfrared bands between 1.25 and 60 μm using the database of theDiffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument on the CosmicBackground Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using previous infrared surveys,we filtered these light curves to remove data points affected by nearbycompanions and obtained time-averaged flux densities and infraredcolors, as well as estimates of their variability at each wavelength. Inthe time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation ofsemiregulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giantswithout circumstellar dust (i.e., V-[12]<5) and with little or novisual variation (ΔV<0.1 mag). The DIRBE 1.25-25 μm colorsbecome progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE databaseincreases along the oxygen-rich sequence nondusty slightly varying redgiants-->SRb/Lb-->SRa-->Mira-->OH/IR and the carbon-richSRb/Lb-->Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that theseare evolutionary sequences involving the continued production andejection of dust. The carbon stars are redder than their oxygen-richcounterparts for the same variability type, except in theF12/F25 ratio, where they are bluer. Of the 28sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearlyvariable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 mag at4.9 μm and ~0.6 mag at 12 μm, consistent with them being verydusty Mira-like variables. We also present individual DIRBE light curvesof a few selected stars. The DIRBE light curves of the semiregularvariable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm occur 10-20 days before those at 4.9 and 12μm, and, at 4.9 and 12 μm, another maximum is seen between the twonear-infrared maxima. Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type starsThis paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org ISO-SWS calibration and the accurate modelling of cool-star atmospheres. II. General resultsThe fine calibration of the ISO-SWS detectors (Infrared SpaceObservatory - Short Wavelength Spectrometer) has proven to be a delicateproblem. We therefore present a detailed spectroscopic study in the2.38-12 mu m wavelength range of a sample of 16 A0-M2 stars used for thecalibration of ISO-SWS. By investigating the discrepancies between theISO-SWS data of these sources, the theoretical predictions of theirspectra, the high-resolution FTS-KP (Kitt Peak) spectrum of alpha Booand the solar FTS-ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy)spectrum, both calibration problems and problems in computing thetheoretical models and the synthetic spectra are revealed. Theunderlying reasons for these problems are sought for and the impact onthe further calibration of ISO-SWS and on the theoretical modelling isdiscussed extensively.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Appendix is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org A Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Survey of Coronal Forbidden Lines in Late-Type StarsWe present a survey of coronal forbidden lines detected in FarUltraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of nearby stars. Twostrong coronal features, Fe XVIII λ974 and Fe XIX λ1118,are observed in 10 of the 26 stars in our sample. Various other coronalforbidden lines, observed in solar flares, also were sought but notdetected. The Fe XVIII feature, formed at logT=6.8 K, appears to be freeof blends, whereas the Fe XIX line can be corrupted by a C I multiplet.FUSE observations of these forbidden iron lines at spectral resolutionλ/Δλ~15,000 provides the opportunity to studydynamics of hot coronal plasmas. We find that the velocity centroid ofthe Fe XVIII feature deviates little from the stellar rest frame,confirming that the hot coronal plasma is confined. The observed linewidths generally are consistent with thermal broadening at the hightemperatures of formation and show little indication of additionalturbulent broadening. The fastest rotating stars, 31 Com, α AurAb, and AB Dor, show evidence for excess broadening beyond the thermalcomponent and the photospheric vsini. The anomalously large widths inthese fast-rotating targets may be evidence for enhanced rotationalbroadening, consistent with emission from coronal regions extending anadditional ΔR~0.4-1.3R* above the stellar photosphere,or represent the turbulent broadening caused by flows along magneticloop structures. For the stars in which Fe XVIII is detected, there isan excellent correlation between the observed Röntgensatellit(ROSAT) 0.2-2.0 keV soft X-ray flux and the coronal forbidden line flux.As a result, Fe XVIII is a powerful new diagnostic of coronal thermalconditions and dynamics that can be utilized to study high-temperatureplasma processes in late-type stars. In particular, FUSE provides theopportunity to obtain observations of important transition region linesin the far-UV, as well as simultaneous measurements of soft X-raycoronal emission, using the Fe XVIII coronal forbidden line. The Inner Rings of β PictorisWe present Keck images of the dust disk around β Pictoris atλ=17.9 μm that reveal new structure in its morphology. Within1" (19 AU) of the star, the long axis of the dust emission is rotated bymore than 10° with respect to that of the overall disk. This angularoffset is more pronounced than the warp detected at 3.5" by the HubbleSpace Telescope (HST) and is in the opposite direction. By contrast, thelong axis of the emission contours ~1.5" from the star is aligned withthe HST warp. Emission peaks between 1.5" and 4" from the star hint atthe presence of rings similar to those observed in the outer disk at~25" with the HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. A deconvolvedimage strongly suggests that the newly detected features arise from asystem of four noncoplanar rings. Bayesian estimates based on theprimary image lead to ring radii of 14+/-1, 28+/-3, 52+/-2, and 82+/-2AU, with orbital inclinations that alternate in orientation relative tothe overall disk and decrease in magnitude with increasing radius. Webelieve these new results make a strong case for the existence of anascent planetary system around β Pic. ISO-SWS calibration and the accurate modelling of cool-star atmospheres. III. A0 to G2 starsVega, Sirius, beta Leo, alpha Car and alpha Cen A belong to a sampleof twenty stellar sources used for the calibration of the detectors ofthe Short-Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO-SWS). While general problems with the calibration andwith the theoretical modelling of these stars are reported in {Decin} etal. (\cite{Decin2000b}), each of these stars is discussed individuallyin this paper. As demonstrated in {Decin} et al. (\cite{Decin2000b}), itis not possible to deduce the effective temperature, the gravity and thechemical composition from the ISO-SWS spectra of these stars. But sinceISO-SWS is absolutely calibrated, the angular diameter(thetad ) of these stellar sources can be deduced from theirISO-SWS spectra, which consequently yields the stellar radius (R), thegravity-inferred mass (Mg) and the luminosity (L) for thesestars. For Vega, we obtained thetad = 3.35 +/- 0.20 mas, R =2.79 +/- 0.17 Rsun, Mg = 2.54 +/- 1.21Msun and L = 61 +/- 9 Lsun; for Siriusthetad = 6.17 +/- 0.38 mas, R = 1.75 +/- 0.11Rsun, Mg = 2.22 +/- 1.06 Msun and L =29 +/- 6 Lsun; for beta Leo thetad = 1.47 +/- 0.09mas, R = 1.75 +/- 0.11 Rsun, Mg = 1.78 +/- 0.46Msun and L = 15 +/- 2 Lsun; for alpha Carthetad = 7.22 +/- 0.42 mas, R = 74.39 +/- 5.76Rsun, Mg = 12.80+24.95-6.35Msun and L = 14573 +/- 2268 Lsun and for alpha CenA thetad = 8.80 +/- 0.51 mas, R = 1.27 +/- 0.08Rsun, Mg = 1.35 +/- 0.22 Msun and L =1.7 +/- 0.2 Lsun. These deduced parameters are confrontedwith other published values and the goodness-of-fit between observedISO-SWS data and the corresponding synthetic spectrum is discussed.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS andNASA.}\fnmsep\thanks{Appendices A and B are only available in electronicform at http://www.edpsciences.org} Infrared spectral classification of normal stars.Moderate resolution (~400) 2.38-45.2 mu m infrared spectra of starswithout dust features were obtained with the Short WavelengthSpectrometer (SWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Theobservations are part of a larger program with the objective to extendand refine the current infrared classification schemes. In particular,our data provide the basis for a more detailed classification of the1.N-1.NO sources (ordinary and oxygen rich naked stars) as defined byKraemer et al. (\cite{kraemer}) in a comprehensive classification of theISO-SWS spectra. For our analysis, the continuum was determined byfitting Engelke's function (Engelke \cite{engelke}) to the SWS data. Thestellar angular diameters derived from these estimates of the continuumare in good agreement with values obtained by other methods. Analysis ofthe equivalent widths of the CO fundamental and first overtone molecularbands, the SiO fundamental and first overtone, as well as theH2O bending mode band as a function of MK class, reveals thatthere is sufficient information in the SWS spectra to distinguishbetween hot (B, A, F) and cool stars. Furthermore, it is possible todetermine the spectral type for the G, K and M giants, and subtyperanges in a sequence of K and M giants. The equivalent widths of the COand SiO bands are found to be well correlated in K and M stars, suchthat the equivalent widths of the CO fundamental, the SiO first overtoneand the SiO fundamental can be reasonably well extrapolated from thedepth of the CO first overtone. We have identified two stars,HR 365 and V Nor, whosemid-infrared spectrum does not correspond to their respective opticalclassification. HR 365 may have a late M companion,which dominates the observed infrared spectrum while VNor is a late type giant that was included because itsspectrum was classified as featureless under the IRAS LRS scheme.According to Kraemer et al. (\cite{kraemer}), V Norhas a thin dust shell, which distorts the analysis of its mid-infraredabsorption bands. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project withinstruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries:France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participationof ISAS and NASA. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectraWe present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033 CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom. Artifacts at 4.5 and 8.0 Microns in Short-Wavelength Spectra from the Infrared Space ObservatorySpectra from the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on board theInfrared Space Observatory exhibit artifacts at 4.5 and 8 μm. Theseartifacts appear in spectra from a recent data release, OLP 10.0, asspurious broad emission features in the spectra of stars earlier thanapproximately F0, such as α CMa. Comparison of absolutelycalibrated spectra of standard stars to corresponding spectra from theSWS reveals that these artifacts result from an underestimation of thestrength of the CO and SiO molecular bands in the spectra of sourcesused as calibrators by the SWS. Although OLP 10.0 was intended to be thefinal data release, these findings have led to an additional releaseaddressing this issue, OLP 10.1, which corrects the artifacts. Based onobservations with the Infrared Space Observatory, a European SpaceAgency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESA member states(especially the principal investigator countries: France, Germany, theNetherlands, and the UK) and with the participation of the Institute ofSpace and Astronautical Science and the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration (NASA). 21 title-1 sdgdfgdf (EN)
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