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# δ Vel (Alsephina)

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 Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of IRAS-discovered Debris DisksWe have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)5.5-35 μm spectra of 59 main-sequence stars that possess IRAS 60μm excess. The spectra of five objects possess spectral features thatare well-modeled using micron-sized grains and silicates withcrystalline mass fractions 0%-80%, consistent with T Tauri and HerbigAeBe stars. With the exception of η Crv, these objects are youngwith ages <=50 Myr. Our fits require the presence of a cool blackbodycontinuum, Tgr=80-200 K, in addition to hot, amorphous, andcrystalline silicates, Tgr=290-600 K, suggesting thatmultiple parent body belts are present in some debris disks, analogousto the asteroid and Kuiper belts in our solar system. The spectra forthe majority of objects are featureless, suggesting that the emittinggrains probably have radii a>10 μm. We have modeled the excesscontinua using a continuous disk with a uniform surface densitydistribution, expected if Poynting-Robertson and stellar wind drag arethe dominant grain removal processes, and using a single-temperatureblackbody, expected if the dust is located in a narrow ring around thestar. The IRS spectra of many objects are better modeled with asingle-temperature blackbody, suggesting that the disks possess innerholes. The distribution of grain temperatures, based on our blackbodyfits, peaks at Tgr=110-120 K. Since the timescale for icesublimation of micron-sized grains with Tgr>110 K is afraction of a Myr, the lack of warmer material may be explained if thegrains are icy. If planets dynamically clear the central portions ofdebris disks, then the frequency of planets around other stars isprobably high. We estimate that the majority of debris disk systemspossess parent body masses, MPB<1 M⊕. Thelow inferred parent body masses suggest that planet formation is anefficient process.Based on observations with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, which isoperated by the California Institute of Technology for NASA. Atlas and Catalog of Dark Clouds Based on Digitized Sky Survey IWe present a quantitative atlas and catalog of dark clouds derived byusing the optical database Digitized Sky Survey I''. Applying atraditional star-count technique to 1043 plates contained in thedatabase, we produced an AV map covering the entire region inthe galactic latitude range |b| ≤ 40°. The map was drawn at twodifferent angular resolutions of 6' and 18', and is shown in detail in aseries of figures in this paper. Based on the AV map, weidentified 2448 dark clouds and 2841 clumps located inside them. Somephysical parameters, such as the position, extent, and opticalextinction, were measured for each of the clouds and clumps. We alsosearched for counterparts among already known dark clouds in theliterature. The catalog of dark clouds presented in this paper lists thecloud parameters as well as the counterparts. Decay of Planetary Debris DisksWe report new Spitzer 24 μm photometry of 76 main-sequence A-typestars. We combine these results with previously reported Spitzer 24μm data and 24 and 25 μm photometry from the Infrared SpaceObservatory and the Infrared Astronomy Satellite. The result is a sampleof 266 stars with mass close to 2.5 Msolar, all detected toat least the ~7 σ level relative to their photospheric emission.We culled ages for the entire sample from the literature and/orestimated them using the H-R diagram and isochrones; they range from 5to 850 Myr. We identified excess thermal emission using an internallyderived K-24 (or 25) μm photospheric color and then compared allstars in the sample to that color. Because we have excluded stars withstrong emission lines or extended emission (associated with nearbyinterstellar gas), these excesses are likely to be generated by debrisdisks. Younger stars in the sample exhibit excess thermal emission morefrequently and with higher fractional excess than do the older stars.However, as many as 50% of the younger stars do not show excessemission. The decline in the magnitude of excess emission, for thosestars that show it, has a roughly t0/time dependence, witht0~150 Myr. If anything, stars in binary systems (includingAlgol-type stars) and λ Boo stars show less excess emission thanthe other members of the sample. Our results indicate that (1) there issubstantial variety among debris disks, including that a significantnumber of stars emerge from the protoplanetary stage of evolution withlittle remaining disk in the 10-60 AU region and (2) in addition, it islikely that much of the dust we detect is generated episodically bycollisions of large planetesimals during the planet accretion end game,and that individual events often dominate the radiometric properties ofa debris system. This latter behavior agrees generally with what we knowabout the evolution of the solar system, and also with theoreticalmodels of planetary system formation. VLTI near-infrared observations of the stellar multiple system delta Velorum.Not Available First results from the ESO VLTI calibrators programThe ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is one of the leadinginterferometric facilities. It is equipped with several 8.2 and 1.8 mtelescopes, a large number of baselines up to 200 m, and with severalsubsystems designed to enable high quality measurements and to improvesignificantly the limits of sensitivities currently available tolong-baseline interferometry. The full scientific potential of the VLTIcan be exploited only if a consistent set of good quality calibrators isavailable. For this, a large number of observations of potentialcalibrators have been obtained during the commissioning phase of theVLTI. These data are publicly available. We briefly describe theinterferometer, the VINCI instrument used for the observations, the dataflow from acquisition to processed results, and we present and commenton the volume of observations gathered and scrutinized. The result is alist of 191 calibrator candidates, for which a total of 12 066observations can be deemed of satisfactory quality. We present a generalstatistical analysis of this sample, using as a starting point theangular diameters previously available in the literature. We derive thegeneral characteristics of the VLTI transfer function, and its trendwith time in the period 2001 through mid-2004. A second paper will bedevoted to a detailed investigation of a selected sample, aimed atestablishing a VLTI-based homogeneous system of calibrators. CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 Variable Star Network: World Center for Transient Object Astronomy and Variable StarsVariable Star Network (VSNET) is a global professional-amateur networkof researchers in variable stars and related objects, particularly intransient objects, such as cataclysmic variables, black-hole binaries,supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts. The VSNET has been playing apioneering role in establishing the field of transient object astronomy,by effectively incorporating modern advances in observational astronomyand global electronic networks, as well as collaborative progress intheoretical astronomy and astronomical computing. The VSNET is now oneof the best-featured global networks in this field of astronomy. Wereview the historical progress, design concept, associated technology,and a wealth of scientific achievements powered by VSNET. On the Flux of Extrasolar Dust in Earth's AtmosphereMicron-size extrasolar dust particles have been convincingly detected bysatellites. Larger extrasolar meteoroids (5-35 μm) have most likelybeen detected by ground-based radar at Arecibo and New Zealand. Wepresent estimates of the minimum detectable particle sizes and thecollecting areas for both radar systems. We show that particles largerthan ~10 μm can propagate for tens of parsecs through theinterstellar medium, opening up the possibility that ground-based radarsystems can detect AGB stars, young stellar objects such as T Tauristars, and debris disks around Vega-like stars. We provide analyticaland numerical estimates of the ejection velocity in the case of a debrisdisk interacting with a Jupiter-mass planet. We give rough estimates ofthe flux of large micrometeoroids from all three classes of sources.Current radar systems are unlikely to detect significant numbers ofmeteors from debris disks such as β Pictoris. However, we suggestimprovements to radar systems that should allow for the detection ofmultiple examples of all three classes. Some anomalies in the occurrence of debris discs around main-sequence A and G starsDebris discs consist of large dust grains that are generated bycollisions of comets or asteroids around main-sequence stars, and thequantity and distribution of debris may be used to detect the presenceof perturbing planets akin to Neptune. We use stellar and disc surveysto compare the material seen around A- and G-type main-sequence stars.Debris is detected much more commonly towards A stars, even when acomparison is made only with G stars of comparable age. Detection ratesare consistent with disc durations of ~0.5 Gyr, which may occur at anytime during the main sequence. The higher detection rate for A stars canresult from this duration being a larger fraction of the main-sequencelifetime, possibly boosted by a globally slightly larger disc mass thanfor the G-type counterparts. The disc mass range at any given age is afactor of at least ~100 and any systematic decline with time is slow,with a power law estimated to not be steeper than t-1/2.Comparison with models shows that dust can be expected as late as a fewGyr when perturbing planetesimals form slowly at large orbital radii.Currently, the Solar system has little dust because the radius of theKuiper Belt is small and hence the time-scale to produce planetesimalswas less than 1 Gyr. However, the apparently constant duration of ~0.5Gyr when dust is visible is not predicted by the models. A 3-5 μ m VLT spectroscopic survey of embedded young low mass stars I. Structure of the CO iceMedium resolution (lambda /Delta lambda = 5000-10 000) VLT-ISAACM-band spectra are presented of 39 young stellar objects in nearbylow-mass star forming clouds showing the 4.67 μm stretching vibrationmode of solid CO. By taking advantage of the unprecedentedly largesample, high S/N ratio and high spectral resolution, similarities in theice profiles from source to source are identified. It is found thatexcellent fits to all the spectra can be obtained using aphenomenological decomposition of the CO stretching vibration profile at4.67 μm into 3 components, centered on 2143.7 cm-1, 2139.9cm-1 and 2136.5 cm-1 with fixed widths of 3.0, 3.5and 10.6 cm-1, respectively. All observed interstellar COprofiles can thus be uniquely described by a model depending on only 3linear fit parameters, indicating that a maximum of 3 specific molecularenvironments of solid CO exist under astrophysical conditions. A simplephysical model of the CO ice is presented, which shows that the 2139.9cm-1 component is indistinguishable from pure CO ice. It isconcluded, that in the majority of the observed lines of sight, 60-90%of the CO is in a nearly pure form. In the same model the 2143.7cm-1 component can possibly be explained by the longitudinaloptical (LO) component of the vibrational transition in pure crystallineCO ice which appears when the background source is linearly polarised.The model therefore predicts the polarisation fraction at 4.67 μm,which can be confirmed by imaging polarimetry. The 2152 cm-1feature characteristic of CO on or in an unprocessed water matrix is notdetected toward any source and stringent upper limits are given. Whenthis is taken into account, the 2136.5 cm-1 component is notconsistent with the available water-rich laboratory mixtures and wesuggest that the carrier is not yet fully understood. A shallowabsorption band centered between 2165 cm-1 and 2180cm-1 is detected towards 30 sources. For low-mass stars, thisband is correlated with the CO component at 2136.5 cm-1,suggesting the presence of a carrier different from XCN at 2175cm-1. Furthermore the absorption band from solid13CO at 2092 cm-1 is detected towards IRS 51 inthe rho Ophiuchi cloud complex and an isotopic ratio of12CO/13CO=68+/-10 is derived. It is shown that allthe observed solid 12CO profiles, along with the solid13CO profile, are consistent with grains with an irregularlyshaped CO ice mantle simulated by a Continuous Distribution ofEllipsoids (CDE), but inconsistent with the commonly used models ofspherical grains in the Rayleigh limit.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory,Paranal, Chile, within the observing programs 164.I-0605 and 69.C-0441.ISO is an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States(especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and theUK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Table \ref{SourceList} and Appendices A and B are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org High resolution spectroscopy of circumstellar material around A starsWe have analysed a time series of high resolution spectra (R=217 000) ofthe CaII K line of 9 stars which are candidates for the presence ofcircumstellar material from our previous studies. We have searched forvariable narrow absorption components similar to those extensivelystudied in the case of beta Pictoris. Our data show long-termvariations in the spectra of HR 2550 and HR 3685 which can be attributedto the dynamics of circumstellar gas. About one third of the samplestars show variable line absorption but only beta Pictoris seems toexhibit uniquely strong variations on short (nightly) timescales. Inorder to examine possible interstellar contributions we compared ourresults with interstellar data from the literature. The column densitiesof our absorption features are up to three orders of magnitude higherthan those found for the Local Interstellar Cloud.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. The Velocity Distribution of the Nearest Interstellar GasThe bulk flow velocity for the cluster of interstellar cloudlets within~30 pc of the Sun is determined from optical and ultraviolet absorptionline data, after omitting from the sample stars with circumstellar disksor variable emission lines and the active variable HR 1099. A total of96 velocity components toward the remaining 60 stars yield a streamingvelocity through the local standard of rest of -17.0+/-4.6 kms-1, with an upstream direction of l=2.3d, b=-5.2d (usingHipparcos values for the solar apex motion). The velocity dispersion ofthe interstellar matter (ISM) within 30 pc is consistent with that ofnearby diffuse clouds, but present statistics are inadequate todistinguish between a Gaussian or exponential distribution about thebulk flow velocity. The upstream direction of the bulk flow vectorsuggests an origin associated with the Loop I supernova remnant.Groupings of component velocities by region are seen, indicatingregional departures from the bulk flow velocity or possibly separateclouds. The absorption components from the cloudlet feeding ISM into thesolar system form one of the regional features. The nominal gradientbetween the velocities of upstream and downstream gas may be an artifactof the Sun's location near the edge of the local cloud complex. The Sunmay emerge from the surrounding gas patch within several thousand years. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 Orbits for five southern visual binariesFirst orbits have been calculated for the visual binaries WDS00090-5400, 01061-4643, 05248-5219 and 08447-5443 (Alzner & Argyle\cite{Alz00}; Argyle & Alzner \cite{Arg01}). The current period forthe orbit of WDS 18068-4325 (Wierzbinski \cite{Wrz58}) is too short torepresent recent observations. The period has been lengthened to 450years (Alzner & Argyle \cite{Alz01}). For 00090-5400 the period is221 years with a moderate eccentricity; 01061-4643 is currently nearperiastron but is underobserved; 05248-5219 has passed periastron butthere have been no observations since 1993. The visual component of WDS08447-5443 (= delta Vel), which is not the same as the eclipsingcomponent recently discovered by Otero (\cite{Otr00a}), has anunexpectedly short period. Rotational velocities of A-type stars. I. Measurement of v sin i in the southern hemisphereWithin the scope of a Key Programme determining fundamental parametersof stars observed by HIPPARCOS, spectra of 525 B8 to F2-type starsbrighter than V=8 have been collected at ESO. Fourier transforms ofseveral line profiles in the range 4200-4500 Å are used to derivev sin i from the frequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis ofthe sample indicates that measurement error is a function of v sin i andthis relative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 6%on average. The results obtained are compared with data from theliterature. There is a systematic shift from standard values from\citet{Slk_75}, which are 10 to 12% lower than our findings. Comparisonswith other independent v sin i values tend to prove that those fromSlettebak et al. are underestimated. This effect is attributed to thepresence of binaries in the standard sample of Slettebak et al., and tothe model atmosphere they used. Based on observations made at theEuropean Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile, in the frameworkof the Key Programme 5-004-43K. Table 4 is only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/105 An ultra-high-resolution study of the interstellar medium in the direction of α OphiuchiI present very high resolution (R=400000 and R=880000) observations ofinterstellar Caii absorption lines towards eight early-type starssituated within 15° of α Oph on the sky. I confirm an earlierresult that the interstellar structure responsible for the anomalouslystrong Caii absorption towards α Oph has a spatial extent of<~1pc (and is probably very much smaller). Many discrete interstellarabsorption components are apparent in these high-resolution data, butwhile several have velocities in the range expected for the localinterstellar medium (LISM), no convincing detections of either the localinterstellar cloud (LIC), or the so-called G cloud, were made. In theformer case, I argue that the relatively weak LIC components are maskedby components arising in more distant clouds, but which have LISM-likevelocities owing to the pervasive influence of outflow from the Sco-Cenassociation. The non-detection of the G cloud is more problematical, andI tentatively argue that, previous claims notwithstanding, this featuredoes not extend to galactic latitudes as high as +15° in thisdirection. The 76th Name-List of Variable StarsWe present the next regular Name-List of variable stars containinginformation on 1406 variable stars recently designated in the system ofthe General Catalogue of Variable Stars. Ages of A-Type Vega-like Stars from uvbyβ PhotometryWe have estimated the ages of a sample of A-type Vega-like stars byusing Strömgren uvbyβ photometric data and theoreticalevolutionary tracks. We find that 13% of these A stars have beenreported as Vega-like stars in the literature and that the ages of thissubset run the gamut from very young (50 Myr) to old (1 Gyr), with noobvious age difference compared to those of field A stars. We clearlyshow that the fractional IR luminosity decreases with the ages ofVega-like stars. Mid-Infrared Imaging of Candidate Vega-like SystemsWe have conducted deep mid-infrared imaging of a relatively nearbysample of candidate Vega-like stars using the OSCIR instrument on theCerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 4 m and Keck II 10 m telescopes.Our discovery of a spatially resolved disk around HR 4796A has alreadybeen reported in 1998 by Jayawardhana et al. Here we present imagingobservations of the other members of the sample, including the discoverythat only the primary in the HD 35187 binary system appears to harbor asubstantial circumstellar disk and the possible detection of extendeddisk emission around 49 Ceti. We derive global properties of the dustdisks, place constraints on their sizes, and discuss several interestingcases in detail. Although our targets are believed to be main-sequencestars, we note that several have large infrared excesses compared withprototype Vega-like systems and may therefore be somewhat younger. Thedisk size constraints we derive, in many cases, imply emission fromrelatively large (>~10 μm) particles at mid-infrared wavelengths. CCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars from the Southern Hemisphere. III. Differential PhotometryTwo hundred seventy-two magnitude difference measures of 135 double starsystems are presented. The results are derived from speckle observationsusing the Bessel V and R passbands and a fast readout CCD camera.Observations were taken at two 60 cm telescopes, namely the Helen SawyerHogg Telescope, formerly at Las Campanas, Chile, and the Lowell-TololoTelescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. Thedata analysis method is presented and, in comparing the results to thoseof Hipparcos as well as to recent results using adaptive optics, we findvery good agreement. Overall, the measurement precision appears to bedependent on seeing and other factors but is generally in the range of0.10-0.15 mag for single observations under favorable observingconditions. In four cases, multiple observations in both V and R allowedfor the derivation of component V-R colors with uncertainties of 0.11mag or less. Spectral types are assigned and preliminary effectivetemperatures are estimated in these cases. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Research Note Hipparcos photometry: The least variable starsThe data known as the Hipparcos Photometry obtained with the Hipparcossatellite have been investigated to find those stars which are leastvariable. Such stars are excellent candidates to serve as standards forphotometric systems. Their spectral types suggest in which parts of theHR diagrams stars are most constant. In some cases these values stronglyindicate that previous ground based studies claiming photometricvariability are incorrect or that the level of stellar activity haschanged. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/367/297 Incidence and survival of remnant disks around main-sequence starsWe present photometric ISO 60 and 170 μm measurements, complementedby some IRAS data at 60 μm, of a sample of 84 nearby main-sequencestars of spectral class A, F, G and K in order to determine theincidence of dust disks around such main-sequence stars. Fifty starswere detected at 60 μm. 36 of these emit a flux expected from theirphotosphere while 14 emit significantly more. The excess emission weattribute to a circumstellar disk like the ones around Vega and betaPictoris. Thirty four stars were not detected at all; the expectedphotospheric flux, however, is so close to the detection limit that thestars cannot have an excess stronger than the photospheric flux densityat 60 μm. Of the stars younger than 400 Myr one in two has a disk;for the older stars this is true for only one in ten. We conclude thatmost stars arrive on the main sequence surrounded by a disk; this diskthen decays in about 400 Myr. Because (i) the dust particles disappearand must be replenished on a much shorter time scale and (ii) thecollision of planetesimals is a good source of new dust, we suggest thatthe rapid decay of the disks is caused by the destruction and escape ofplanetesimals. We suggest that the dissipation of the disk is related tothe heavy bombardment phase in our Solar System. Whether all starsarrive on the main sequence surrounded by a disk cannot be established:some very young stars do not have a disk. And not all stars destroytheir disk in a similar way: some stars as old as the Sun still havesignificant disks. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project withinstruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries:France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participationof ISAS and NASA. Tables 2, 3 and 4 are also available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)} orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/545 Delta Velorum is an Eclipsing BinaryFrom visual and Galileo star scanner observations the principalcomponent of the bright multiple star delta Velorum is found to be aneclipsing binary, in an eccentric orbit, with a period of 45.150 days.The system probably contains two early A-type stars. Spectroscopy and Time Variability of Absorption Lines in the Direction of the Vela Supernova RemnantWe present high-resolution (R~75,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N~100) CaII λ3933.663 and Na I λλ5889.951, 5895.924 spectraof 68 stars in the direction of the Vela supernova remnant. The spectracomprise the most complete high-resolution, high S/N optical survey ofearly-type stars in this region of the sky. A subset of the sight lineshas been observed at multiple epochs, 1993/1994 and 1996. Of the 13stars observed twice, seven have spectra revealing changes in theequivalent width and/or velocity structure of lines, most of which arisefrom remnant gas. Such time variability has been reported previously forthe sight lines toward HD 72089 and HD 72997 by Danks & Sembach andfor HD 72127 by Hobbs and coworkers. We have confirmed the ongoing timevariability of these spectra and present new evidence of variability inthe spectra of HD 73658, HD 74455, HD 75309, and HD 75821. We havetabulated Na I and Ca II absorption-line information for the sight linesin our sample to serve as a benchmark for further investigations of thedynamics and evolution of the Vela SNR. Based on observations obtainedat the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. The Three-dimensional Structure of the Warm Local Interstellar Medium. II. The Colorado Model of the Local Interstellar CloudIn this second paper in a series on the structure of the localinterstellar medium (LISM), we construct a three-dimensional model ofthe local interstellar cloud (LIC) based on Hubble Space Telescope(HST), Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), and ground-based Ca IIspectra. Starting with hydrogen column densities derived from deuteriumcolumn densities measured with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrographinstrument on HST for 16 lines of sight to nearby stars, we derive amodel consisting of the sum of nine spherical harmonics that best fitthe data. We then rederive the model by including the lines of sight tothree hot white dwarfs observed by EUVE and 13 lines of sight with Ca IIcolumn densities at the projected LIC velocity. The LIC model is clearlynot a long thin filamentary structure like optical images of someinterstellar clouds (e.g., reflection nebulae in the Pleiades), butneither is it spherical in shape. As seen from the north Galactic pole,the LIC is egg-shaped with an axis of symmetry that points in thedirection l~315deg. Since the direction of the center of theScorpius-Centaurus association is l=320deg, the shape of theLIC could be determined by the flow of hot gas from Sco-Cen. The modelshows that the Sun is located just inside the LIC in the direction ofthe Galactic center and toward the north Galactic pole. The absence ofMg II absorption at the LIC velocity toward α Cen indicates thatthe distance to the edge of the LIC in this direction is <=0.05 pcand the Sun should cross the boundary between the LIC and the Galactic(G) cloud in less than 3000 yr. We estimate that the volume of the LICis about 93 pc3 and its mass is about 0.32 Msolar.The physical parameters and hydrogen column density of the LIC areroughly consistent with theoretical models of the warm interstellarmedium that assume pressure and ionization equilibrium. However, theempirical hydrogen ionization of the LIC is much higher and the gastemperature lower than the theoretical models predict. Therefore, theionization is likely due to shock activity from a nearby supernova thathas not yet reached equilibrium. The higher ionization increases the gascooling, which can explain why the gas is 2400 K cooler than theionization equilibrium models predict. Computed and observedtemperatures are in agreement for a model with the observed LIC electrondensity. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., underNASA contract NAS 5-26555. CCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars from the Southern Hemisphere. II. Measures from the Lowell-Tololo Telescope during 1999Speckle observations of 145 double stars and suspected double stars arepresented and discussed. On the basis of multiple observations, a totalof 280 position angle and separation measures are determined, as well as23 high-quality nondetections. All observations were taken with the(unintensified) Rochester Institute of Technology fast-readout CCDcamera mounted on the Lowell-Tololo 61 cm telescope at the Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory during 1999 October. We find that themeasures, when judged as a whole against ephemeris positions of binarieswith very well-known orbits, have root mean square deviations of1.8d+/-0.3d in position angle and 13+/-2 mas in separation. Elevendouble stars discovered by Hipparcos were also successfully observed,and the change in position angle and/or separation since the Hipparcosobservations was substantial in three cases. Hipparcos: The StarsNot Available Disappearance of stellar debris disks around main-sequence stars after 400 million years.Not Available Revision and Calibration of MK Luminosity Classes for Cool Giants by HIPPARCOS ParallaxesThe Hipparcos parallaxes of cool giants are utilized in two ways in thispaper. First, a plot of reduced parallaxes of stars brighter than 6.5,as a function of spectral type, for the first time separates members ofthe clump from stars in the main giant ridge. A slight modification ofthe MK luminosity standards has been made so that luminosity class IIIbdefines members of the clump, and nearly all of the class III stars fallwithin the main giant ridge. Second, a new calibration of MK luminosityclasses III and IIIb in terms of visual absolute magnitudes has beenmade.
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#### Observation and Astrometry data

 Constellation: Vela Right ascension: 08h44m42.20s Declination: -54Â°42'30.0" Apparent magnitude: 1.96 Distance: 24.45 parsecs

Catalogs and designations:
 Proper Names Alsephina   (Edit) Bayer δ Vel HD 1989 HD 74956 USNO-A2.0 USNO-A2 0300-04917297 BSC 1991 HR 3485 → Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR