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 Precise radial velocities of giant stars. I. Stable starsContext: .Future astrometric missions such as SIM PlanetQuest need verystable reference stars. K giants have large luminosities, which placethem at large distances and thus the jitter of their photocenters bycompanions is relatively small. Therefore K giants would be best suitedas references. To confirm this observationally a radial velocity surveyis performed to quantify the level of intrinsic variability in Kgiants. Aims: .From this radial velocity survey we present 34 Kgiants with an observed standard deviation of the radial velocity ofless than 20 m/s. These stars are considered "stable" and can be used asradial velocity standards. Methods: .The radial velocity surveycontains 179 K giants. All K giants have a declination between -30°and +65° and visual magnitude of 3{-}6 mag. The CoudéAuxiliary Telescope (CAT) at UCO/Lick Observatory is used to obtainradial velocities with an accuracy of 5{-}8 m/s. The number of epochsfor the 34 stable stars ranges from 11 to 28 with a total timespan ofthe observations between 1800 and a little over 2200 days. Results: .The observational results of the 34 "stable" stars are showntogether with a discussion about their position in the MV vs.B-V diagram and some conclusions concerning the radial velocityvariability of K giants. These results are in agreement with thetheoretical predictions. K giants in a certain range of theMV vs. B-V diagram are suitable reference stars. High angular resolution N-band observation of the silicate carbon star IRAS08002-3803 with the VLTI/MIDI instrument . Dusty environment spatially resolvedWe present the results of N-band spectro-interferometric observations ofthe silicate carbon star IRAS08002-3803 with the MID-infraredInterferometric instrument (MIDI) at the Very Large TelescopeInterferometer (VLTI) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Theobservations were carried out using two unit telescopes (UT2 and UT3)with projected baseline lengths ranging from 39 to 47 m. Ourobservations of IRAS08002-3803 have spatially resolved the dustyenvironment of a silicate carbon star for the first time and revealed anunexpected wavelength dependence of the angular size in the N band: theuniform-disk diameter is found to be constant and 36 mas (72Rstar) between 8 and 10 μm, while it steeply increaseslongward of 10 μm to reach 53 mas (106 Rstar) at 13μm. Model calculations with our Monte Carlo radiative transfer codeshow that neither spherical shell models nor axisymmetric disk modelsconsisting of silicate grains alone can simultaneously explain theobserved wavelength dependence of the visibility and the spectral energydistribution (SED). We propose that the circumstellar environment ofIRAS08002-3803 may consist of two grain species coexisting in the disk:silicate and a second grain species, for which we consider amorphouscarbon, large silicate grains, and metallic iron grains. Comparison ofthe observed visibilities and SED with our models shows that such diskmodels can fairly - though not entirely satisfactorily - reproduce theobserved SED and N-band visibilities. Our MIDI observations and theradiative transfer calculations lend support to the picture whereoxygen-rich material around IRAS08002-3803 is stored in a circumbinarydisk surrounding the carbon-rich primary star and its putativelow-luminosity companion. First results from the ESO VLTI calibrators programThe ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is one of the leadinginterferometric facilities. It is equipped with several 8.2 and 1.8 mtelescopes, a large number of baselines up to 200 m, and with severalsubsystems designed to enable high quality measurements and to improvesignificantly the limits of sensitivities currently available tolong-baseline interferometry. The full scientific potential of the VLTIcan be exploited only if a consistent set of good quality calibrators isavailable. For this, a large number of observations of potentialcalibrators have been obtained during the commissioning phase of theVLTI. These data are publicly available. We briefly describe theinterferometer, the VINCI instrument used for the observations, the dataflow from acquisition to processed results, and we present and commenton the volume of observations gathered and scrutinized. The result is alist of 191 calibrator candidates, for which a total of 12 066observations can be deemed of satisfactory quality. We present a generalstatistical analysis of this sample, using as a starting point theangular diameters previously available in the literature. We derive thegeneral characteristics of the VLTI transfer function, and its trendwith time in the period 2001 through mid-2004. A second paper will bedevoted to a detailed investigation of a selected sample, aimed atestablishing a VLTI-based homogeneous system of calibrators. Aldebaran's angular diameter: How well do we know it?The bright, well-known K5 giant Aldebaran,α Tau, is probably the star with the largestnumber of direct angular diameter determinations, achieved over a longtime by several authors using various techniques. In spite of thiswealth of data, or perhaps as a direct result of it, there is not a verygood agreement on a single angular diameter value. This is particularlyunsettling if one considers that Aldebaran is also used as a primarycalibrator for some angular resolution methods, notably for optical andinfrared long baseline interferometry. Directly connected to Aldebaran'sangular diameter and its uncertainties is its effective temperature,which also has been used for several empirical calibrations. Among theproposed explanations for the elusiveness of an accurate determinationof the angular diameter of Aldebaran are the possibility of temporalvariations as well as a possible dependence of the angular diameter onthe wavelength. We present here a few, very accurate new determinationsobtained by means of lunar occultations and long baselineinterferometry. We derive an average value of 19.96±0.03milliarcsec for the uniform disk diameter. The correspondinglimb-darkened value is 20.58±0.03 milliarcsec, or 44.2±0.9Rȯ. We discuss this result, in connection with previousdeterminations and with possible problems that may affect suchmeasurements.Based on observations collected at TIRGO (Gornergrat, Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CNR - CAISMI Arcetri, Italy. CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. Precise radial velocity measurements of G and K giants. Multiple systems and variability trend along the Red Giant BranchWe present the results of our radial velocity (RV) measurements of G andK giants, concentrating on the presence of multiple systems in oursample. Eighty-three giants have been observed for 2.5 years with thefiber-fed echelle spectrograph FEROS at the 1.52 m ESO telescope in LaSilla, Chile. Seventy-seven stars (93%) of the targets have beenanalyzed for RV variability using simultaneous Th-Ar calibration and across-correlation technique. We estimate the long-term precision of ourmeasurement as better than 25 m s-1. Projected rotationalvelocities have been measured for most stars of the sample. Within ourtime-base only 21 stars (or 27%) show variability below 2\sigma, whilethe others show RV variability with amplitudes up to several kms-1. The large amplitude (several km s-1) andshape (high eccentricity) of the RV variations for 11 of the programstars are consistent with stellar companions, and possibly brown dwarfcompanions for two of the program stars. In those systems for which afull orbit could be derived, the companions have minimum masses from0.6 M\sun down to 0.1 M\sun. To thesemultiple systems we add the two candidates of giant planets alreadydiscovered in the sample. This analysis shows that multiple systemscontribute substantially to the long-term RV variability of giant stars,with about 20% of the sample being composed of multiple systems despitescreening our sample for known binary stars. After removing binaries,the range of RV variability in the whole sample clearly decreases, butthe remaining stars retain a statistical trend of RV variability withluminosity: luminous cool giants with B-V≥1.2 show RV variationswith \sigma_{/lineRV} > 60 m s-1, while giants with B-V< 1.2 including those in the clump region exhibit less variability orthey are constant within our accuracy. The same trend is observed withrespect to absolute visual magnitudes: brighter stars show a largerdegree of variability and, when plotted in the RV variability vs.magnitude diagram a trend of increasing RV scatter with luminosity isseen. The amplitude of RV variability does not increase dramatically, aspredicted, for instance, by simple scaling laws. At least two luminousand cooler stars of the sample show a correlation between RV andchromospheric activity and bisector asymmetry, indicating that in thesetwo objects RV variability is likely induced by the presence of(chromospheric) surface structures.Based on observations collected at the 1.52 m-ESO telescope at the LaSilla Observatory from Oct 1999 to Feb. 2002 under ESO programs and theESO-Observatório Nacional, Brazil, agreement and in part onobservations collected on the Alfred Jensch 2 m telescope of theThüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg. Improved Astrometry and Photometry for the Luyten Catalog. II. Faint Stars and the Revised CatalogWe complete construction of a catalog containing improved astrometry andnew optical/infrared photometry for the vast majority of NLTT starslying in the overlap of regions covered by POSS I and by the secondincremental Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) release, approximately 44%of the sky. The epoch 2000 positions are typically accurate to 130 mas,the proper motions to 5.5 mas yr-1, and the V-J colors to0.25 mag. Relative proper motions of binary components are measured to 3mas yr-1. The false-identification rate is ~1% for11<~V<~18 and substantially less at brighter magnitudes. Theseimprovements permit the construction of a reduced proper-motion diagramthat, for the first time, allows one to classify NLTT stars intomain-sequence (MS) stars, subdwarfs (SDs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We inturn use this diagram to analyze the properties of both our catalog andthe NLTT catalog on which it is based. In sharp contrast to popularbelief, we find that NLTT incompleteness in the plane is almostcompletely concentrated in MS stars, and that SDs and WDs are detectedalmost uniformly over the sky δ>-33deg. Our catalogwill therefore provide a powerful tool to probe these populationsstatistically, as well as to reliably identify individual SDs and WDs. Precise radial velocity measurements of G and K giants. First resultsWe present the first results of our precise radial velocity (RV)measurements of G and K giants. A number of stars from our list of 80targets have been observed for 14 months using the fibre-fed echellespectrograph FEROS at the 1.52 m ESO telescope in La Silla, Chile. Thissample increases the number of giants surveyed with precise stellarradial velocity measurements at least by a factor of 10. During thisperiod we are able to estimate the long-term accuracy of our measurementas better than 11 m s-1. We use the simultaneous Th-Arcalibration and cross-correlation technique to compute the radialvelocity by applying a numerical template for K-type stars. Standarddeviation sigma of mean radial velocity variations between 3 ms-1 and 4 km s-1 with timescales between severaldays and years are measured for 21 of G and K giants which are presentedin this paper. Fifteen stars show definite variability above 3 sigma ofour measurement uncertainties. Two stars with RV variations above 800 ms-1 are tentatively identified as new binaries. Althoughdefinitive trends between RV variations and stellar evolutionary statuscannot yet be established, all the luminous cool giants of our sampleseem to have significant radial velocity variations, while those starsin the giant's clump region can be either variable or constant.Based on observations collected at the ESO 1.52 m telescope at the LaSilla Observatory under program ESO No. 64.L-0047, 65.L-0571, 66.D-0592and from Nov. 99 to Feb. 01 under the ESO-Observatório Nacional,Brazil, agreement.} The latitude and epoch for the formation of the southern Greek constellationsNot Available Lick Spectral Indices for Super-Metal-rich StarsWe present Lick spectral indices for a complete sample of 139 candidatesuper-metal-rich stars of different luminosity classes (MK type from Ito V). For 91 of these stars we were able to identify, in anaccompanying paper, the fundamental atmosphere parameters. This confirmsthat at least 2/3 of the sample consists of stars with [Fe/H] in excessof +0.1 dex. Optical indices for both observations and fiducialsynthetic spectra have been calibrated to the Lick system according toWorthey et al. and include the Fe I indices of Fe5015, Fe5270, andFe5335 and the Mg I and MgH indices of Mg2 and Mg b at 5180Å. The internal accuracy of the observations is found to beσ(Fe5015)=+/-0.32 Å, σ(Fe5270)=+/-0.19 Å,σ(Fe5335)=+/-0.22 Å, σ(Mg2)=+/-0.004 mag,and σ(Mg b)=+/-0.19 Å. This is about a factor of 2 betterthan the corresponding theoretical indices from the synthetic spectra,the latter being a consequence of the intrinsic limitations in the inputphysics, as discussed by Chavez et al. By comparing models andobservations, we find no evidence for nonstandard Mg versus Fe relativeabundance, so [Mg/Fe]=0, on the average, for our sample. Both theWorthey et al. and Buzzoni et al. fitting functions are found tosuitably match the data and can therefore confidently be extended forpopulation synthesis application also to supersolar metallicity regimes.A somewhat different behavior of the two fitting sets appears, however,beyond the temperature constraints of our stellar sample. Its impact onthe theoretical output is discussed, as far as the integratedMg2 index is derived from synthesis models of stellaraggregates. A two-index plot, such as Mg2 versus Fe5270, isfound to provide a simple and powerful tool for probing distinctiveproperties of single stars and stellar aggregates as a whole. The majoradvantage, over a classical CM diagram, is that it is both reddeningfree and distance independent. Based on observations collected at theInstituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica(INAOE) G. Haro'' Observatory, Cananea (Mexico). On the Photometric Variability of Red Clump GiantsHipparcos photometry of the 308 red clump giants identified by Paczynskiet al. (1999) is investigated. These stars are found to be quite stableduring the three years of observation, but questions remain about longerterm stability. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Observations of Hipparcos Red Clump Giants: Metallicity and Mass DeterminationsWe obtain high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of 39red clump giants selected from the Hipparcos Catalogue. We determinetheir atmospheric parameters, iron abundances, α-elementenhancements, and masses. We find that the sample can be divided into ametal-poor group and a metal-rich group. The majority of the stars aremetal-rich (Z>0.3 Zsolar) with mass around 2Msolar, while the metal-poor group has lower surface gravityand lower mass. The variation of α-element abundances with [Fe/H]agrees with that of local G and K disk dwarfs. We also show that themetallicity is weakly correlated with the I-band absolute magnitude andthe V-I color, in agreement with Udalski's recent findings. We make thehigh-resolution spectra available over the internet for interestedreaders. On the Wilson-Bappu relationship in the Mg II k lineAn investigation is carried out on the Wilson-Bappu effect in the Mg Iik line at 2796.34 Å. The work is based on a selection of 230 starsobserved by both the IUE and HIPPARCOS satellites, covering a wide rangeof spectral types (F to M) and absolute visual magnitudes (-5.4<=MV <=9.0). A semi-automatic procedure is used to measurethe line widths, which applies also in the presence of strong centralabsorption reversal. The Wilson-Bappu relationship here provided isconsidered to represent an improvement over previous recent results forthe considerably larger data sample used, as well as for a properconsideration of the measurement errors. No evidence has been found fora possible dependence of the WB effect on stellar metallicity andeffective temperature. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222 Observations and Atmospheric Parameters of Super-Metal-rich CandidatesThe spectroscopic properties of a sample of 92 Population I bright stars(V<8) with literature values of [Fe/H]>=+0.1 are reviewed in orderto study the metallicity scale at supersolar regimes. For 73 of thesecandidate super-metal-rich (SMR) stars we identified the photosphericfiducial parameters (Teff, logg, [M/H]) from among publishedparameter sets via a comparison of new observations in the wavelengthrange 5034-5398 Å with synthetic spectra derived from the 1997database of Chavez et al. As a main issue in our analysis, we find thata genuine'' SMR stellar component in the Galactic disk exists withmore than one-fourth of the stars in our sample fulfilling the criterion[Fe/H]>=0.2 dex, and three of them as rich as [Fe/H]>+0.4 dex.Based on observations collected at the INAOE G. Haro'' Observatory,Cananea (Mexico). A study of the activity of G and K giants through their precise radial velocity. Breaking the 10-m/sec accuracy with FEROS.Not Available K-Band Calibration of the Red Clump LuminosityThe average near-infrared (K-band) luminosity of 238 Hipparcos red clumpgiants is derived and then used to measure the distance to the Galacticcenter. These Hipparcos red clump giants have been previously employedas I-band standard candles. The advantage of the K-band is a decreasedsensitivity to reddening and perhaps a reduced systematic dependence onmetallicity. In order to investigate the latter, and also to refer ourcalibration to a known metallicity zero point, we restrict our sample ofred clump calibrators to those with abundances derived fromhigh-resolution spectroscopic data. The mean metallicity of the sampleis [Fe/H]=-0.18 dex (σ=0.17 dex). The data are consistent with nocorrelation between MK and [Fe/H] and only weakly constrainthe slope of this relation. The luminosity function of the sample peaksat MK=-1.61+/-0.03 mag. Next, we assemble published opticaland near-infrared photometry for ~20 red clump giants in a Baade'swindow field with a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-0.17+/-0.09 dex, whichis nearly identical to that of the Hipparcos red clump. Assuming thatthe average (V-I)0 and (V-K)0 colors of these twored clumps are the same, the extinctions in the Baade's window field arefound to be AV=1.56, AI=0.87, andAK=0.15, in agreement with previous estimates. We derive thedistance to the Galactic center: (m-M)0=14.58+/-0.11 mag, orR=8.24+/-0.42 kpc. The uncertainty in this distance measurement isdominated by the small number of Baade's window red clump giantsexamined here. Alpha element abundances in the red clump giants.Not Available Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over more than twocenturies and summarized in the FK5. Part I of the FK6 (abbreviatedFK6(I)) contains 878 basic fundamental stars with direct solutions. Suchdirect solutions are appropriate for single stars or for objects whichcan be treated like single stars. From the 878 stars in Part I, we haveselected 340 objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since theirinstantaneous proper motions and mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,199 of the stars in Part I are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives in addition to the SI mode the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(I) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.35 mas/year. This isabout a factor of two better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.67 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(I) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.50 mas/year, which is by a factor of more than 4better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 2.21mas/year (cosmic errors included). Revision and Calibration of MK Luminosity Classes for Cool Giants by HIPPARCOS ParallaxesThe Hipparcos parallaxes of cool giants are utilized in two ways in thispaper. First, a plot of reduced parallaxes of stars brighter than 6.5,as a function of spectral type, for the first time separates members ofthe clump from stars in the main giant ridge. A slight modification ofthe MK luminosity standards has been made so that luminosity class IIIbdefines members of the clump, and nearly all of the class III stars fallwithin the main giant ridge. Second, a new calibration of MK luminosityclasses III and IIIb in terms of visual absolute magnitudes has beenmade. The effective temperature scale of giant stars (F0-K5). I. The effective temperature determination by means of the IRFMWe have applied the InfraRed Flux Method (IRFM) to a sample ofapproximately 500 giant stars in order to derive their effectivetemperatures with an internal mean accuracy of about 1.5% and a maximumuncertainty in the zero point of the order of 0.9%. For the applicationof the IRFM, we have used a homogeneous grid of theoretical modelatmosphere flux distributions developed by \cite[Kurucz (1993)]{K93}.The atmospheric parameters of the stars roughly cover the ranges: 3500 K<= T_eff <= 8000 K; -3.0 <= [Fe/H] <= +0.5; 0.5 <= log(g) <= 3.5. The monochromatic infrared fluxes at the continuum arebased on recent photometry with errors that satisfy the accuracyrequirements of the work. We have derived the bolometric correction ofgiant stars by using a new calibration which takes the effect ofmetallicity into account. Direct spectroscopic determinations ofmetallicity have been adopted where available, although estimates basedon photometric calibrations have been considered for some stars lackingspectroscopic ones. The adopted infrared absolute flux calibration,based on direct optical measurements of stellar angular diameters, putsthe effective temperatures determined in this work in the same scale asthose obtained by direct methods. We have derived up to fourtemperatures, TJ, TH, TK and T_{L'},for each star using the monochromatic fluxes at different infraredwavelengths in the photometric bands J, H, K and L'. They show goodconsistency over 4000 K, and there is no appreciable trend withwavelength, metallicity and/or temperature. We provide a detaileddescription of the steps followed for the application of the IRFM, aswell as the sources of error and their effect on final temperatures. Wealso provide a comparison of the results with previous work. Catalogs of temperatures and [Fe/H] averages for evolved G and K starsA catalog of mean values of [Fe/H] for evolved G and K stars isdescribed. The zero point for the catalog entries has been establishedby using differential analyses. Literature sources for those entries areincluded in the catalog. The mean values are given with rms errors andnumbers of degrees of freedom, and a simple example of the use of thesestatistical data is given. For a number of the stars with entries in thecatalog, temperatures have been determined. A separate catalogcontaining those data is briefly described. Catalog only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Evolution of X-ray activity and rotation on G-K giantsThe recent availability of stellar parallaxes provided by the Hipparcosstar catalogue (ESA 1997) enables an accurate determination of thepositions of single field giants in a theoretical H-R diagram and areliable estimate of their masses. The present study combines these newastrometric data with previously published X-ray fluxes and rotationalvelocities. The results confirm the existence of a sharp decrease ofX-ray emission at spectral type K1 for 2.5 M_sun < M < 5 M_sungiants. The study shows that the rotational velocity of these starsreaches a minimum at the same location in the H-R diagram. However, notight relationship between X-ray luminosities and projected equatorialvelocities was found among the sample stars. I suggest that theseresults could reflect the importance of differential rotation indetermining the level of coronal emission among >= 2.5Msun G and K giants. The restoration of rigid rotation at thebottom of the red giant branch could prevent the maintenance of largescale magnetic fields, thus explaining the sharp decrease of coronalX-ray emission at spectral type K1. Probing the {Na} BT I D and {K} BT I lambda 7699 resonance lines sensitivity to background opacity in late-type starsWe have measured the equivalent width WK of the K i resonanceline at 7699 Angstroms for a large sample of low activity late-typestars observed with high spectral resolution and we have verified thatthe relation WK vs. Teff is monotonicallydecreasing, for both dwarf and giant stars. This behaviour is differentfrom that of the Na I D lines for stars of the same type, which showedthat the relation WNa vs. Teff has a maximum forTeff ~ 4000 K, which is better defined for giants than fordwarfs (Tripicchio et al. 1997). The fit of the observed K I equivalentwidths by means of a NLTE spectral line synthesis using conventionalbackground opacity shows that, for dwarf stars, the adopted modelsoverestimate the observed WK for temperatures <~ 4000 K.This result is similar to that discussed for the Na I D lines in ourprevious paper. On the other hand, for giant stars with Teff<~ 3800 K these models in general underestimate WK. Thediscrepancies between observed and computed WK andWNa for cool stars are much stronger than the variations dueto uncertainties in either atmospheric model or line parameters, likeeffective temperature and surface gravity, or Van der Waals broadening.For M dwarf stars, the most convincing explanation for the disagreementis the lack of atomic and molecular line opacity in the adopted models.In fact, a NLTE spectral synthesis including an additional backgroundopacity reproduces with a good level of accuracy the equivalent widths,as well as the general shape of the profiles for both the Na I D and K Ilines, in a subsample of early-M dwarfs. Based on observations collectedat the European Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile, and at theMcDonald Observatory, Mt. Locke, Texas, USA Broad-band JHK(L') photometry of a sample of giants with 0.5 > [Fe/H] > -3We present the results of a three-year campaign of broad-band photometryin the near-infrared J, H, K and L' bands for a sample of approximately250 giant stars carried out at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife,Spain). Transformations of the Telescopio Carlos Sanchez systeminto/from several currently used infrared systems are extended to theredward part of the colour axis. The linearity of our photometric systemin the range -3 mag [Fe/H] >-3. Data of comparable quality previouslypublished have been added to the sample in order to increase thereliability of the relations to be obtained. We also provide mean IRcolours for giant stars according to spectral type.ables 1, 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form via the CDS(anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circleThe sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30. Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution SpectraIRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed. Systematic Errors in the FK5 Catalog as Derived from CCD Observations in the Extragalactic Reference Frame.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114..850S&db_key=AST
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