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Measuring Stellar Velocity Dispersions in Active Galaxies
We present stellar velocity dispersion (σ*)measurements for a significant sample of 40 broad-line (type 1) activegalaxies for use in testing the well-known relation black hole mass andstellar velocity dispersion. The objects are selected to contain Ca IItriplet, Mg I b triplet, and Ca H+K stellar absorption features in theiroptical spectra so that we may use them to perform extensive tests ofthe systematic biases introduced by both template mismatch andcontamination from the active galactic nucleus (AGN). We use the Ca IItriplet as a benchmark to evaluate the utility of the other spectralregions in the presence of AGN contamination. Broad Fe II emission,extending from ~5050 to 5520 Å, in combination with narrow coronalemission lines, can seriously bias σ* measurements fromthe Mg I b region, highlighting the need for extreme caution in its use.However, we argue that at luminosities constituting a moderate fractionof the Eddington limit, when the Fe II lines are both weak and smoothrelative to the stellar lines, it is possible to derive meaningfulmeasurements with careful selection of the fitting region. Inparticular, to avoid the contamination of coronal lines, we advocate theuse of the region 5250-5820 Å, which is rich in Fe absorptionfeatures. At higher AGN contaminations, the Ca H+K region may providethe only recourse for estimating σ*. These features arenotoriously unreliable, due to a strong dependence on spectral type, asteep local continuum, and large intrinsic broadening. Indeed, we find astrong systematic trend in comparisons of Ca H+K with other spectralregions. Luckily the offset is well described by a simple linear fit asa function of σ*, which enables us to remove the biasand thus extract unbiased σ* measurements from thisregion. We lay the groundwork for an extensive comparison between blackhole mass and bulge velocity dispersion in active galaxies, as describedin a companion paper by Greene & Ho.

The K-band properties of Seyfert 2 galaxies
Aims. It is well known that the [O iii]λ5007 emission line andhard X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosities are good indicators of AGN activitiesand that the near and mid-infrared emission of AGN originates fromre-radiation of dusty clouds heated by the UV/optical radiation from theaccretion disk. In this paper we present a study of the near-infraredK-band (2.2 μm) properties for a sample of 65 Seyfert 2 galaxies. Methods: .By using the AGN/Bulge/Disk decomposition technique, weanalyzed the 2MASS K_S-band images for Seyfert 2 galaxies in order toderive the K_S-band magnitudes for the central engine, bulge, and diskcomponents. Results: .We find that the K_S-band magnitudes of thecentral AGN component in Seyfert 2 galaxies are tightly correlated withthe [O iii]λ5007 and the hard X-ray luminosities, which suggeststhat the AGN K-band emission is also an excellent indicator of thenuclear activities at least for Seyfert 2 galaxies. We also confirm thegood relation between the central black hole masses and bulge's K-bandmagnitudes for Seyfert 2s.

Dust Morphology of Hidden Broad-Line Region and Non-Hidden Broad-Line Region Seyfert 2 Galaxies
We investigate the nuclear dust properties of hidden broad-line region(HBLR) and non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies. Optical images obtained from theHubble Space Telescope for a selected sample of HBLR and non-HBLRSeyfert 2 galaxies are fitted with the Galfit package to probe the innerstructures of these galaxies within the central 1 kpc regions. Most ofthe galaxies show complicated dust features in these regions. However,the dust morphology shows no significant difference between the HBLR andnon-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies. Dust masses inside the 1 kpc nuclearregions (M1kpc) are estimated from the obscuration levels inthe central regions of these galaxies. We compare our results with otherobserved properties, including [O III], far-infrared, and radioemission. We find that the HBLR and non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies showdifferent near-infrared colors and M1kpc-FIR correlations,indicating that these two classes of Seyfert 2 galaxies are dominated bydifferent emission mechanisms. We suggest that they are intrinsicallydifferent and cannot be explained by the standard unification model.

Probing the Dust Obscuration in Seyfert Galaxies using Infrared Spectroscopy. II. Implication for the Unification of Seyfert Galaxies
We report near-IR spectroscopic observations of 11 Seyfert galaxies (sixSeyfert 1s, one Seyfert 1.9, and four Seyfert 2s) and additionalgalaxies (four LINERs, two H II, and one type 2 transition) forcomparison, obtained using the Gemini twin-channel near-IR camera on theShane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory. With the unique design of theGemini camera, full J and K spectra were taken simultaneously throughthe same slit. This produced accurate line ratios of hydrogenrecombination lines over a large wavelength baseline. For the Seyfert 1s(<=1.5), the line ratios of Paβ/Brγ are not onlycomparable in both broad- and narrow-line regions but also consistentwith case B recombination, indicating little or no reddening in bothnarrow- and broad-line regions. Seyfert 2 (>1.5) galaxies, however,show substantial reddening toward the narrow-line regions. We compareoptical reddening data from the literature and find significant supportfor the dichotomy between Seyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s, at least inlow-luminosity objects. Two different scenarios are explored to explainthe observed difference in reddening: a difference in reddening due toan extended dusty torus under active galactic nucleus unification, and adifference due to a different grain size distribution between the twoSeyfert types. We also discuss a similar potential difference found inthe strength of the 9.7 μm silicate line, along with a possiblecorrelation between the narrow-line reddening and the strength of thesilicate absorption line. We also analyzed CO band head absorptionfeatures longward of 2.3 μm to look for nonstellar contamination andevidence of recent star formation activity. The CO band head in Seyfert1s shows heavy contamination from nonstellar radiation, which iscorrelated with an H-K nuclear color excess. We confirm that the COspectroscopic indices in both Seyfert types do not show evidence ofrecent star formation. Taking the nonstellar contamination into account,there is little evidence from the CO index for a difference in starformation rates in the nuclei of Seyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s in ourlow-luminosity sample.

The star formation history of Seyfert 2 nuclei
We present a study of the stellar populations in the central ~200 pc ofa large and homogeneous sample comprising 79 nearby galaxies, most ofwhich are Seyfert 2s. The star formation history of these nuclei isreconstructed by means of state-of-the-art population synthesismodelling of their spectra in the 3500-5200 Åinterval. Aquasar-like featureless continuum (FC) is added to the models to accountfor possible scattered light from a hidden active galactic nucleus(AGN).We find the following. (1) The star formation history of Seyfert 2nuclei is remarkably heterogeneous: young starbursts, intermediate-ageand old stellar populations all appear in significant and widely varyingproportions. (2) A significant fraction of the nuclei show a strong FCcomponent, but this FC is not always an indication of a hidden AGN: itcan also betray the presence of a young, dusty starburst. (3) We detectweak broad Hβ emission in several Seyfert 2s after cleaning theobserved spectrum by subtracting the synthesis model. These are mostlikely the weak scattered lines from the hidden broad-line regionenvisaged in the unified model, given that in most of these casesindependent spectropolarimetry data find a hidden Seyfert 1. (4) The FCstrengths obtained by the spectral decomposition are substantiallylarger for the Seyfert 2s which present evidence of broad lines,implying that the scattered non-stellar continuum is also detected. (5)There is no correlation between the star formation in the nucleus andeither the central or overall morphology of the parent galaxies.

The infrared continuum of active galactic nuclei
We discuss the different physical processes contributing to the infraredcontinuum of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), assuming that bothphotoionization from the active centre and shocks ionize and heat thegas and dust contained in an ensemble of clouds surrounding the nucleus.In our model, radiation transfer of primary and secondary radiationthroughout a cloud is calculated consistently with collisional processesdue to the shock. We consider that the observed continuum corresponds toreprocessed radiation from both dust and gas in the clouds. Collisionalprocesses are important in the presence of shocks. The grains aresputtered crossing the shock front. The models are constrained bysputtering as well as by the far-infrared data. The model is applied tothe continuum of Seyfert galaxies from which the best estimate of thenuclear, stellar subtracted, emission is available. The results showthat radiation-dominated high-velocity clouds are more numerous inSeyfert 1-1.5 whereas shock-dominated low-velocity clouds are dominantin Seyfert type 2. This result is in full agreement with the unifiedmodel for AGNs, by which high-velocity clouds, placed deeper into thecentral region and therefore reached by a more intense radiation, shouldplay a more significant role in the spectra of broad-line objects. Wecould therefore conclude that in type 2 objects, radiation is partlysuppressed by a central dusty medium with a high dust-to-gas ratio. Oncethe model approach is tested, a grid of models is used to provide aphenomenological analysis of the observed infrared spectral energydistribution. This empirical method is a useful tool to rapidly accessthe physical conditions of the AGN emitting clouds. For this, analyticalforms are derived for the two processes contributing to the infraredemission: dust emission and thermal bremsstrahlung produced by thenarrow-line region clouds. Their relative contribution provides ameasurement of the dust-to-gas ratio.

A Green Bank Telescope Search for Water Masers in Nearby Active Galactic Nuclei
Using the Green Bank Telescope, we have conducted a survey for 1.3 cmwater maser emission toward the nuclei of nearby active galaxies, themost sensitive large survey for H2O masers to date. Among 145galaxies observed, maser emission was newly detected in 11 sources andconfirmed in one other. Our survey targeted nearby (v<12,000 kms-1), mainly type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) north ofδ=-20deg and includes a few additional sources as well.We find that more than one-third of Seyfert 2 galaxies have strong maseremission, although the detection rate declines beyond v~5000 kms-1 because of sensitivity limits. Two of the masersdiscovered during this survey are found in unexpected hosts: NGC 4151(Seyfert 1.5) and NGC 2782 (starburst). We discuss the possiblerelations between the large X-ray column to NGC 4151 and a possiblehidden AGN in NGC 2782 to the detected masers. Four of the masersdiscovered here, NGC 591, NGC 4388, NGC 5728, and NGC 6323, havehigh-velocity lines symmetrically spaced about the systemic velocity, alikely signature of molecular gas in a nuclear accretion disk. The masersource in NGC 6323, in particular, reveals the classic spectrum of a``disk maser'' represented by three distinct groups of Dopplercomponents. Future single-dish and VLBI observations of these fourgalaxies could provide a measurement of the distance to each galaxy andof the Hubble constant, independent of standard candle calibrations.

Circumnuclear Structure and Black Hole Fueling: Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging of 250 Active and Normal Galaxies
Why are the nuclei of some galaxies more active than others? If mostgalaxies harbor a central massive black hole, the main difference isprobably in how well it is fueled by its surroundings. We investigatethe hypothesis that such a difference can be seen in the detailedcircumnuclear morphologies of galaxies using several quantitativelydefined features, including bars, isophotal twists, boxy and diskyisophotes, and strong nonaxisymmetric features in unsharp-masked images.These diagnostics are applied to 250 high-resolution images of galaxycenters obtained in the near-infrared with NICMOS on the Hubble SpaceTelescope. To guard against the influence of possible biases andselection effects, we have carefully matched samples of Seyfert 1,Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst, and normal galaxies in their basicproperties, taking particular care to ensure that each was observed witha similar average scale (10-15 pc pixel-1). Severalmorphological differences among our five different spectroscopicclassifications emerge from the analysis. The H II/starburst galaxiesshow the strongest deviations from smooth elliptical isophotes, whilethe normal galaxies and LINERs have the least disturbed morphology. TheSeyfert 2s have significantly more twisted isophotes than any othercategory, and the early-type Seyfert 2s are significantly more disturbedthan the early-type Seyfert 1s. The morphological differences betweenSeyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s suggest that more is at work than simply theviewing angle of the central engine. They may correspond to differentevolutionary stages.

Radio emission from AGN detected by the VLA FIRST survey
Using the most recent (April 2003) version of the VLA FIRST survey radiocatalog, we have searched for radio emission from >2800 AGN takenfrom the most recent (2001) version of the Veron-Cetty and Veron AGNcatalog. These AGN lie in the ˜9033 square degrees of sky alreadycovered by the VLA FIRST survey. Our work has resulted in positivedetection of radio emission from 775 AGN of which 214 are new detectionsat radio wavelengths.Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/35

A Possible Signature of Connection between Blazars and Seyfert Galaxies
The accretion rates (dot{M}) and their correlation with cosmologicalredshifts for a sample of blazars and Seyfert galaxies are presented.The sample includes 77 blazars (28 FSRQs, 26 LBLs, and 23 HBLs) and 60Seyfert galaxies, of which the extended spectral energy distributioninformation and redshifts are available. Within the framework ofaccreting black holes, the accretion rates for these sources wereestimated based on their bolometric luminosities. The result shows thatthe accretion rates are significantly different for each subclass of theblazars and Seyfert galaxies. Their averages are, respectively, 50.2,17.0, 1.0, 0.1Modot yr-1 for the FSRQs, LBLs, HBLs, and theSeyfert galaxies, exhibiting a well descending sequence ofFSRQs-LBLs-HBLs-Seyfert galaxies. They are strongly correlated with theredshifts for both blazars and Seyfert galaxies. The linear correlationcoefficients are 0.81 and 0.68 with a chance probab ility of p <0.0001, respectively. A plot of dot{M} - z shows that the blazars andthe Seyfert galaxies distribute in a distinguishable regions with aconnection at z ˜ 0.7 and almost all the sources lie in a narrowregion of z1.40 ≤ dot{M} ≤ 250 z1.40,illustrating a strong correlation between the two quantities for thewhole sample. The regression line is dot{M} = (14.5 ± 1.2)z1.40±0.06 Modot yr-1 with a linearcoefficient of 0.93 and a chance probability of p < 0.0001,suggesting a connection between blazars and Seyfert galaxies. Thisconnection might imply that the two classes are on the same evolutionarysequence. Although the correlations of the data are formally solid, theconclusion may be affected by one source of considerable uncertainty atthe data level, which is also discussed.

A Fundamental Plane of black hole activity
We examine the disc-jet connection in stellar mass and supermassiveblack holes by investigating the properties of their compact emission inthe X-ray and radio bands. We compile a sample of ~100 active galacticnuclei with measured masses, 5-GHz core emission, and 2-10 keVluminosities, together with eight galactic black holes with a total of~50 simultaneous observations in the radio and X-ray bands. Using thissample, we study the correlations between the radio (LR) andthe X-ray (LX) luminosity and the black hole mass (M). Wefind that the radio luminosity is correlated with bothM andLX, at a highly significant level. In particular, we showthat the sources define a `Fundamental Plane' in the three-dimensional(logLR, logLX, logM) space, given bylogLR= (0.60+0.11-0.11)logLX+ (0.78+0.11-0.09) logM+7.33+4.05-4.07, with a substantial scatter ofσR= 0.88. We compare our results to the theoreticalrelations between radio flux, black hole mass, and accretion ratederived by Heinz & Sunyaev. Such relations depend only on theassumed accretion model and on the observed radio spectral index.Therefore, we are able to show that the X-ray emission from black holesaccreting at less than a few per cent of the Eddington rate is unlikelyto be produced by radiatively efficient accretion, and is marginallyconsistent with optically thin synchrotron emission from the jet. On theother hand, models for radiatively inefficient accretion flows seem toagree well with the data.

Compact Nuclear Starbursts in Seyfert 2 Galaxies from the CfA and 12 Micron Samples
We present infrared 2.8-4.1 μm slit spectra of 32 Seyfert 2 galaxiesin the CfA and 12 μm samples. The 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatichydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature was used to estimate the absolutemagnitude of a compact nuclear starburst (less than a few hundredparsecs in size) that is presumed to have occurred in the outer regionof an obscuring dusty molecular torus around a central supermassiveblack hole. We detected 3.3 μm PAH emission in 11 of the 32 Seyfert 2nuclei in our sample, providing evidence for the presence of compactnuclear starbursts in a significant fraction of Seyfert 2 nuclei.However, the rest-frame equivalent widths of the 3.3 μm PAH emissionand the 3.3 μm PAH-to-infrared luminosity ratios measured in thisstudy suggest that compact nuclear starbursts generally do notcontribute significantly to the observed 3-4 μm nuclear fluxes or tothe infrared luminosities of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Absorption features at3.4 μm from bare dust were clearly detected in only two of thenuclei, and features at 3.1 μm from ice-covered dust were detected inonly one nucleus. If the dust properties in the direction of theseSeyfert 2 nuclei do not differ significantly from the Galacticinterstellar medium, then these small absorption optical depths suggestthat dust extinction toward the 3-4 μm continuum emitting region inthe innermost part of the obscuring dusty torus is modest:AV<50-60 mag. Finally, the 3.3 μm PAH emissionluminosities measured in this study were found to be significantlycorrelated with IRAS 12 and 25 μm and nuclear N-band (10.6 μm)luminosities. If these three luminosities trace the power of the activegalactic nucleus (AGN), then the luminosities of compact nuclearstarbursts and AGNs are correlated. This correlation is in agreementwith theories predicting that the presence of a compact nuclearstarburst in the torus leads to an enhancement of the mass accretionrate onto the central supermassive black hole.

Circumnuclear Dust in Nearby Active and Inactive Galaxies. II. Bars, Nuclear Spirals, and the Fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei
We present a detailed study of the relation between circumnuclear dustmorphology, host-galaxy properties, and nuclear activity in nearbygalaxies. We use our sample of 123 nearby galaxies withvisible-near-infrared color maps from the Hubble Space Telescope tocreate well-matched, ``paired'' samples of 28 active and 28 inactivegalaxies, as well as 19 barred and 19 unbarred galaxies, that have thesame host-galaxy properties. Comparison of the barred and unbarredgalaxies shows that grand-design nuclear dust spirals are found only ingalaxies with a large-scale bar. These nuclear dust spirals, which arepresent in approximately one-third of all barred galaxies, also appearto be connected to the dust lanes along the leading edges of thelarge-scale bars. Grand-design nuclear spirals are more common thaninner rings, which are present in only a small minority of the barredgalaxies. Tightly wound nuclear dust spirals, in contrast, show a strongtendency to avoid galaxies with large-scale bars. Comparison of theactive galactic nuclei (AGNs)and inactive samples shows that nucleardust spirals, which may trace shocks and angular momentum dissipation inthe interstellar medium, occur with comparable frequency in both activeand inactive galaxies. The only difference between the active andinactive galaxies is that several inactive galaxies appear to completelylack dust structure in their circumnuclear region, while none of theAGNs lack this structure. The comparable frequency of nuclear spirals inactive and inactive galaxies, combined with previous work that finds nosignificant difference in the frequency of bars or interactions betweenwell-matched active and inactive galaxies, suggests that no universalfueling mechanism for low-luminosity AGNs operates at spatial scalesgreater than a ~100 pc radius from the galactic nuclei. The similaritiesof the circumnuclear environments of active and inactive galaxiessuggest that the lifetime of nuclear activity is less than thecharacteristic inflow time from these spatial scales. Anorder-of-magnitude estimate of this inflow time is the dynamicaltimescale. This sets an upper limit of several million years to thelifetime of an individual episode of nuclear activity.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

The Unified Model and Evolution of Active Galaxies: Implications from a Spectropolarimetric Study
We extend the analysis presented in Paper I of a spectropolarimetricsurvey of the CfA and 12 μm samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (S2s). Weconfirm that polarized (hidden) broad-line region (HBLR) S2s tend tohave hotter circumnuclear dust temperatures, show mid-IR spectra morecharacteristic of Seyfert 1 galaxies (S1s), and are intrinsically moreluminous than non-HBLR S2s. The levels of obscuration and circumnuclearstar formation, however, appear to be similar between HBLR and non-HBLRS2 galaxies, based on an examination of various observationalindicators. HBLR S2s, on average, share many similar large-scale,presumably isotropic, characteristics with S1s, as would be expected ifthe unified model is correct, while non-HBLR S2s generally do not. Theactive nuclear engines of non-HBLR S2s, then, appear to be truly weakerthan HBLR S2s, which in turn are fully consistent with being S1s viewedfrom another direction. There is also evidence that the fraction ofdetected HBLRs increases with the radio power of the active galacticnucleus. Thus, all S2 galaxies may not be intrinsically similar innature, and we speculate that evolutionary processes may be at work.

Spectral Energy Distributions of Seyfert Nuclei
We present nuclear spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the range0.4-16 μm for an expanded CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies. Thespectral indexes (fν~ν-αIR)from 1 to 16 μm range from αIR~0.9 to 3.8. Theshapes of the spectra are correlated with Seyfert type in the sense thatsteeper nuclear SEDs (νfν increasing with increasingwavelength) tend to be found in Seyfert 2's, and flatter SEDs(νfν is constant) in Seyfert 1-1.5's. The galaxiesoptically classified as Seyferts 1.8's and 1.9's display values ofαIR as in type 1 objects, or values intermediatebetween those of Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's. The intermediate SEDs ofmany Seyfert 1.8-1.9's may be consistent with the presence of a pureSeyfert 1 viewed through a moderate amount (AV<~5 mag) offoreground galaxy extinction. We find, however, that between 10% and 20%of galaxies with broad optical line components have steep infrared SEDs.Torus models usually adopt high equatorial opacities to reproduce theinfrared properties of Seyfert 1's and 2's, resulting in a dichotomy ofinfrared SEDs (flat for type 1's, and steep for type 2's). Such adichotomy, however, is not observed in our sample. The wide range ofspectral indexes observed in the type 2 objects, the lack of extremelysteep SEDs, and the large numbers of objects with intermediate spectralindexes cannot be reconciled with predictions from existing opticallythick torus models. We discuss possible modifications to improve torusmodels, including low optical depth tori, clumpy dusty tori, and highoptical depth tori with an extended optically thin component.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Classifications of the Host Galaxies of Supernovae
Classifications on the DDO system are given for the host galaxies of 177supernovae (SNe) that have been discovered since 1997 during the courseof the Lick Observatory Supernova Search with the Katzman AutomaticImaging Telescope. Whereas SNe Ia occur in all galaxy types, it isfound, at a high level of statistical confidence, that SNe Ib, Ic, andII are strongly concentrated in late-type galaxies. However, attentionis drawn to a possible exception provided by SN 2001I. This SN IInoccurred in the E2 galaxy UGC 2836, which was not expected to harbor amassive young supernova progenitor.

Comparisons of Infrared Colors and Emission-line Intensities between Two types of Seyfert 2 Galaxies
We study the relation between the infrared colors, [OIII] emissionlines, gaseous absorbing column density (NH),and thedetectability of the polarized (hidden) broad-line region (HBLR) in alarge sample of 75 Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s). From the indicators ofstar-formation activity, f60/f100 andLFIR/LB, we find some evidence that the Sy2swithout HBLR show higher star-formation activities than those with HBLR,in agreement with previous prediction. Also, we confirm that the HBLRSy2s tend to have a larger luminosity ratio of the core to the hostgalaxy, suggesting that the HBLR Sy2s display more powerful AGNactivity. However, the level of obscuration found in previous papers isnearly indistinguishable between the two types of Sy2s. The resultssupport the statement that the non-HBLR Sy2s, with a weaker corecomponent and a stronger star-formation activity component, areintrinsically different from the HBLR Sy2s, which are Sy1 systems with ahidden powerful AGN core and a low star-formation activity. Theindications are that the non-HBLR Sy2s might be at an earlierevolutionary phase than the HBLR Sy2s.

Active Galactic Nucleus Black Hole Masses and Bolometric Luminosities
Black hole mass, along with mass accretion rate, is a fundamentalproperty of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Black hole mass sets anapproximate upper limit to AGN energetics via the Eddington limit. Wecollect and compare all AGN black hole mass estimates from theliterature; these 177 masses are mostly based on the virial assumptionfor the broad emission lines, with the broad-line region size determinedfrom either reverberation mapping or optical luminosity. We introduce200 additional black hole mass estimates based on properties of the hostgalaxy bulges, using either the observed stellar velocity dispersion orthe fundamental plane relation to infer σ these methods assumethat AGN hosts are normal galaxies. We compare 36 cases for which blackhole mass has been generated by different methods and find, forindividual objects, a scatter as high as a couple of orders ofmagnitude. The less direct the method, the larger the discrepancy withother estimates, probably due to the large scatter in the underlyingcorrelations assumed. Using published fluxes, we calculate bolometricluminosities for 234 AGNs and investigate the relation between blackhole mass and luminosity. In contrast to other studies, we find nosignificant correlation of black hole mass with luminosity, other thanthose induced by circular reasoning in the estimation of black holemass. The Eddington limit defines an approximate upper envelope to thedistribution of luminosities, but the lower envelope depends entirely onthe sample of AGNs included. For any given black hole mass, there is arange in Eddington ratio of up to 3 orders of magnitude.

Seyfert 2 Galaxies with Spectropolarimetric Observations
We present a compilation of radio, infrared, optical, and hard X-ray(2-10 keV) data for a sample of 90 Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s) withspectropolarimetric observations (41 Sy2s with detection of polarizedbroad lines [PBLs] and 49 without PBLs). Compared to Sy2s without PBLs,Sy2s with PBLs tend to be earlier type spirals and show warmermidinfrared color and significant excess of emissions (including thehard X-ray [2-10 keV], [O III] λ5007, infrared [25 μm], andradio). Our analyses indicate that the majority of Sy2s without PBLs arethose sources having less powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN)activities, most likely caused by a low accretion rate. It implies thatthe detectability of the polarized broad emission lines in Sy2s maydepend on their central AGN activities in most cases. Based on theavailable data, we find no compelling evidence for the presence of twotypes of Sy2s; one of which has been proposed to be intrinsicallydifferent from Sy2s claimed in the unification model.

The Relation between Mid-Infrared Emission and Black Hole Mass in Active Galactic Nuclei: A Direct Way to Probe Black Hole Growth?
We use a large, heterogeneous sample of local active galactic nuclei(AGNs) that includes Seyfert 1 galaxies, Seyfert 2 galaxies, andPalomar-Green quasars to investigate for the first time the relationbetween black hole mass (MBH) and mid-infrared nuclearemission. We find a clear relation between MBH and 10 μmnuclear luminosity for these local AGNs. There are no significantdifferences between type 1 and type 2 objects, implying that thereprocessing of the 10 μm nuclear emission is not severely affectedby geometric and optical depth effects. We also confirm thatMBH is related to the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity, but only forCompton-thin galaxies. We present a theoretical basis for theseempirical relations and discuss possible reasons for the observedscatter. Our results show that rest-frame 10 μm and hard X-rayluminosities (especially the former, which is applicable to all AGNtypes) can be powerful tools for conducting a census of BH masses athigh redshift and for probing their cosmological evolution.

Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Circumnuclear Environments of the CfA Seyfert Galaxies: Nuclear Spirals and Fueling
We present archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the nuclearregions of 43 of the 46 Seyfert galaxies found in the volume-limited,spectroscopically complete CfA Redshift Survey sample. Using an improvedmethod of image contrast enhancement, we create detailed high-quality``structure maps'' that allow us to study the distributions of dust,star clusters, and emission-line gas in the circumnuclear regions(100-1000 pc scales) and in the associated host galaxy. Essentially allof these Seyfert galaxies have circumnuclear dust structures withmorphologies ranging from grand-design two-armed spirals to chaoticdusty disks. In most Seyfert galaxies there is a clear physicalconnection between the nuclear dust spirals on hundreds of parsec scalesand large-scale bars and spiral arms in the host galaxies proper. Theseconnections are particularly striking in the interacting and barredgalaxies. Such structures are predicted by numerical simulations of gasflows in barred and interacting galaxies and may be related to thefueling of active galactic nuclei by matter inflow from the host galaxydisks. We see no significant differences in the circumnuclear dustmorphologies of Seyfert 1s and 2s, and very few Seyfert 2 nuclei areobscured by large-scale dust structures in the host galaxies. If Seyfert2s are obscured Seyfert 1s, then the obscuration must occur on smallerscales than those probed by HST. Based on observations made with theNASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at theSpace Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contractNAS 5-26555.

Far-Infrared Census of Starburst-Seyfert Connection
Far-infrared flux densities are newly extracted from the IRAS databasefor the Revised Shapley-Ames and CfA complete samples of Seyfertgalaxies. These data are used to classify the Seyfert galaxies intothose where the far-infrared continuum emission is dominated by theactive galactic nucleus (AGN), circumnuclear starburst, or host galaxy.While AGN-dominant objects consist of comparable numbers of Seyfert 1and 2 galaxies, starburst- and host-dominant objects consistpreferentially of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Thus, in addition to the dustytorus, the circumnuclear starburst region and host galaxy are importantin hiding the broad-line region. Morphologically, starburst-dominantSeyfert galaxies are of later types and more strongly interacting thanAGN-dominant Seyfert galaxies. In a later type galaxy, the AGN centralengine has a lower Eddington luminosity, and the gaseous content ishigher. The gas is efficiently supplied to the starburst via agalaxy-galaxy interaction. Morphologies of host-dominant Seyfertgalaxies are of various types. Since starbursts in Seyfert galaxies areolder than those in classical starburst galaxies, we propose anevolution from starburst to starburst-dominant Seyfert to host-dominantSeyfert for a late-type galaxy. An evolution from AGN-dominant Seyfertto host-dominant Seyfert is proposed for an early-type galaxy. Thesesequences have durations of a few times 108 yr and occurrepeatedly within a galaxy during its evolution from a late type to anearly type.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Supernova 2001Y in NGC 3362
IAUC 7593 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

Supernova 2001Y in NGC 3362
IAUC 7592 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the CfA Seyfert 2 Galaxies: Near-Infrared Surface Photometry and Nuclear Bars
We present near-infrared J and H surface photometry of 24 of the nearbySeyfert 1.8, 1.9, and 2 galaxies from the CfA Seyfert sample. Theexcellent angular resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope probesspatial scales as small as tens of parsecs in most of these activegalactic nuclei (AGNs) and is sensitive to the presence of nuclear barsand other potential signatures of the AGN fueling process that channelshost galaxy gas and dust to the nuclear region. We have used ellipticalisophote techniques to search for nuclear bars in all of these galaxiesand have employed a two-dimensional fitting technique to model thenuclear point source and surface brightness distribution of a brightsubsample of these galaxies in an attempt to alleviate the impact of thenuclear point source on our sensitivity to nuclear bars. We find stellarnuclear bar candidates in four of these galaxies: Mrk 471, Mrk 270, Mrk573, and NGC 5929, nearly 20% of the total sample. The percentage risesto ~30% when systems with disturbed morphologies or high inclinationsare excluded. The nuclear bars in Mrk 573 and Mrk 270 exhibit someevidence for dust lanes along their leading edges, analogous to thestructures seen in host galaxy bars, while the dust lanes in Mrk 471 andNGC 5929 exhibit a more complex morphology. The fact that most of theseAGNs do not appear to contain stellar nuclear bars suggests that theyare not the fueling mechanism for most low-luminosity AGNs. Based onobservations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at theSpace Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contractNAS5-26555.

A Far-Infrared Study of the CfA Seyfert Sample. I. The Data
We present mid- and far-IR Infrared Space Observatory data of the CfASeyfert galaxy sample. These data allow a detailed study of the far-IRspectral energy distribution (SED) of these galaxies. A Bayesianinversion method has been used to invert the SED of these objects and toidentify three characteristic temperature ranges of dust emission. Themethod yields two fundamental results, namely, (1) that the mid- andfar-IR SED of Seyfert galaxies can be explained solely through thermalreradiation of higher energy photons by dust; and (2) that this thermalemission is made up of three different components, a warm, a cold, and avery cold dust component. These components are characterized by a peaktemperature and their emission dominated in each case by a singleastrophysical mechanism. These mechanisms have been readily explained asproduced, respectively, by warm dust heated by either the active nucleusor circumnuclear starbursts, cold dust heated by a star-forming regionin the galaxy disk, and very cold dust heated by the generalinterstellar radiation field. Comparisons between the parametersobtained from the analysis of the IR SEDs (fluxes, temperatures,luminosities) have been made. Our results suggest that the emission inthe mid-IR is anisotropic and the differences found between Seyfert 1and Seyfert 2 galaxies could be explained with thin molecular torimodels. Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO),an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especiallythe PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UnitedKingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

Hidden Broad-Line Seyfert 2 Galaxies in the CFA and 12 μM Samples
We report the results of a spectropolarimetric survey of the CfA and 12μm samples of Seyfert 2 (S2) galaxies. Polarized (hidden) broad-lineregions (HBLRs) are confirmed in a number of galaxies, and several newcases (F02581-1136, MCG -3-58-7, NGC 5995, NGC 6552, NGC 7682) arereported. The 12 μm S2 galaxy sample shows a significantly higherincidence of HBLRs (50%) than its CfA counterpart (30%), suggesting thatthe latter may be incomplete in hidden active galactic nuclei. Comparedto the non-HBLR S2 galaxies, the HBLR S2 galaxies display distinctlyhigher radio power relative to their far-infrared output and hotter dusttemperature as indicated by the f25/f60 color.However, the level of obscuration is indistinguishable between the twotypes of S2 galaxies. These results strongly support the existence oftwo intrinsically different populations of S2 galaxies: one harboring anenergetic, hidden S1 nucleus with a broad-line region and the other a``pure'' S2 galaxy, with a weak or absent S1 nucleus and a strong,perhaps dominating starburst component. Thus, the simple purelyorientation-based unification model is not applicable to all Seyfertgalaxies.

The Multitude of Unresolved Continuum Sources at 1.6 Microns in Hubble Space Telescope Images of Seyfert Galaxies
We examine 112 Seyfert galaxies observed by the Hubble Space Telescopeat 1.6 μm. We find that ~50% of the Seyfert 2.0 galaxies which arepart of the Revised Shapely-Ames (RSA) Catalog or the CfA redshiftsample contain unresolved continuum sources at 1.6 μm. All but acouple of the Seyfert 1.0-1.9 galaxies display unresolved continuumsources. The unresolved sources have fluxes of order 1 mJy,near-infrared luminosities of order 1041 ergs s-1,and absolute magnitudes MH~-16. Comparison non-Seyfertgalaxies from the RSA Catalog display significantly fewer (~20%),somewhat lower luminosity nuclear sources, which could be due to compactstar clusters. We find that the luminosities of the unresolved Seyfert1.0-1.9 sources at 1.6 μm are correlated with [O III] λ5007and hard X-ray luminosities, implying that these sources are nonstellar.Assuming a spectral energy distribution similar to that of a Seyfert 2galaxy, we estimate that a few percent of local spiral galaxies containblack holes emitting as Seyferts at a moderate fraction,~10-1-10-4, of their Eddington luminosities. Wefind no strong correlation between 1.6 μm fluxes and hard X-ray or [OIII] λ5007 fluxes for the pure Seyfert 2.0 galaxies. Thesegalaxies also tend to have lower 1.6 μm luminosities compared to theSeyfert 1.0-1.9 galaxies of similar [O III] luminosity. Either largeextinctions (AV~20-40) are present toward theircontinuum-emitting regions or some fraction of the unresolved sources at1.6 μm are compact star clusters. With increasing Seyfert type thefraction of unresolved sources detected at 1.6 μm and the ratio of1.6 μm to [O III] fluxes tend to decrease. These trends areconsistent with the unification model for Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies.

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Right ascension:10h44m51.80s
Aparent dimensions:1.259′ × 1′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 3362

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