WIKISKY.ORG
 Home Getting Started To Survive in the Universe News@Sky Astro Photo The Collection Forum Blog New! FAQ Press Login

NGC 3860

Contents

Images

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

 Environmental Effects on Late-Type Galaxies in Nearby ClustersThe transformations that take place in late-type galaxies in theenvironment of rich clusters of galaxies at z=0 are reviewed. From thehandful of late-type galaxies that inhabit local clusters, whether theywere formed in situ and survived as such, avoiding transformation oreven destruction, or if they are newcomers that have recently fallen infrom outside, we can learn an important lesson on the latest stages ofgalaxy evolution. We start by reviewing the observational scenario,covering the broadest possible stretch of the electromagnetic spectrum,from the gas tracers (radio and optical) to the star formation tracers(UV and optical), the old star tracers (near-IR), and the dust (far-IR).Strong emphasis is given to the three nearby, well-studied clustersVirgo, A1367, and Coma, which are representative of differentevolutionary stages, from unrelaxed and spiral-rich (Virgo) to relaxedand spiral-poor (Coma). We continue by providing a review of models ofgalaxy interactions that are relevant to clusters of galaxies.Prototypes of various mechanisms and processes are discussed, and theirtypical timescales are given in an appendix. Observations indicate thepresence of healthy late-type galaxies falling into nearby clustersindividually or as part of massive groups. More rare are infallinggalaxies belonging to compact groups, where significant preprocessingmight take place. Once they have entered the cluster, they lose theirgas and quench their star formation activity, becoming anemic.Observations and theory agree in indicating that the interaction withthe intergalactic medium is responsible for the gas depletion. However,this process cannot be the origin of the cluster lenticular galaxypopulation. Physical and statistical properties of S0 galaxies in nearbyclusters and at higher redshift indicate that they originate from spiralgalaxies that have been transformed by gravitational interactions. Neighbourhoods of isolated star forming dwarf galaxiesWe report the discovery of small groups of uncatalogued, compact, starforming (SF) dwarf galaxies (DGs) by Hα mapping of theneighbourhoods of apparently isolated, catalogued, SF DGs. Our sampleconsists of dwarf (M>=-18mag) galaxies at least 2Mpc away from anyother catalogued galaxy. The galaxies were selected to exhibit Hαemission of any intensity, i.e. not selecting only strong starbursts, asan indicator of recent or on-going star formation with the goal ofunderstanding why are they presently forming stars. We identifiedpossible neighbours by imaging the galaxies and their surroundingsthrough Hα filters centred at or near the redshift of the galaxy,and searching for localized Hα emission with the characteristicsof the line emission from the sample galaxies.We identified 20 possible SF neighbour galaxies, 17 of them notpreviously catalogued, in three of the five search fields where we hadgood quality data, and present here their positions and, images andmorphology, as well as some indications of binarity. The relativelylarge number of possible neighbour candidates, combined with theirrelative faintness, argue that it would be virtually impossible toidentify truly isolated galaxies. It seems that the objects we selectedas extremely isolated are probably the brightest members of sparsegroups of galaxies, where the other members are also DGs that arepresently forming stars. In order to enhance the confidence of thisstatement regular redshifts are required for our candidate neighbours. Witnessing galaxy preprocessing in the local Universe: the case of a star-bursting group falling into Abell 1367We present a multiwavelength analysis of a compact group of galaxiesinfalling at high speed into the dynamically young cluster Abell 1367.Peculiar morphologies and unusually high Hα emission areassociated with two giant galaxies and at least ten dwarfs/extragalacticHII regions, making this group the region with the highest density ofstar formation activity ever observed in the local clusters. MoreoverHα imaging observations reveal extraordinary complex trails ofionized gas behind the galaxies, with projected lengths exceeding 150kpc. These unique cometary trails mark the gaseous trajectory ofgalaxies, witnessing their dive into the hot cluster intergalacticmedium. Under the combined action of tidal forces among group membersand the ram-pressure by the cluster ambient medium, the group galaxieswere fragmented and the ionized gas was blown out. The properties ofthis group suggest that environmental effects within infalling groupsmay have represented a preprocessing step of the galaxy evolution duringthe high redshift cluster assembly phase. H I observations of galaxies. II. The Coma SuperclusterHigh sensitivity 21-cm H i line observations with an rms noise level of~0.5 mJy were made of 35 spiral galaxies in the Coma Supercluster, usingthe refurbished Arecibo telescope, leading to detection of 25 objects.These data, combined with the measurements available in the literature,provide the set of H i data for 94% of all late-type galaxies in theComa Supercluster with an apparent photographic magnitude mp≤ 15.7 mag. We confirm that the typical scale of H i deficiencyaround the Coma cluster is 2 Mpc, i.e. one virial radius. Comparing theH i mass function (HIMF) of cluster with non-cluster members of the ComaSupercluster we detected a shortage of high H i mass galaxies amongcluster members that can be attributed to the pattern of H i deficiencyfound in rich clusters. Radio and Far-Infrared Emission as Tracers of Star Formation and Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Cluster GalaxiesWe have studied the radio and far-infrared (FIR) emission from 114galaxies in the seven nearest clusters (<100 Mpc) with prominentX-ray emission to investigate the impact of the cluster environment onthe star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in themember galaxies. The X-ray selection criterion is adopted to focus onthe most massive and dynamically relaxed clusters. A large majority ofcluster galaxies show an excess in radio emission over that predictedfrom the radio-FIR correlation, the fraction of sources with radioexcess increases toward cluster cores, and the radial gradient in theFIR/radio flux ratio is a result of radio enhancement. Of theradio-excess sources, 70% are early-type galaxies, and the same fractionhost an AGN. The galaxy density drops by a factor of 10 from thecomposite cluster center out to 1.5 Mpc, yet galaxies show no change inFIR properties over this region and show no indication of masssegregation. We have examined in detail the physical mechanisms thatmight impact the FIR and radio emission of cluster galaxies. Whilecollisional heating of dust may be important for galaxies in clustercenters, it appears to have a negligible effect on the observed FIRemission for our sample galaxies. The correlations between radio and FIRluminosity and radius could be explained by magnetic compression fromthermal intracluster medium pressure. We also find that simple delayedharassment cannot fully account for the observed radio, FIR, and mid-IRproperties of cluster galaxies. M/L, Hα Rotation Curves, and H I Measurements for 329 Nearby Cluster and Field Spirals. I. DataA survey of 329 nearby galaxies (redshift z<0.045) has been conductedto study the distribution of mass and light within spiral galaxies overa range of environments. The 18 observed clusters and groups span arange of richness, density, and X-ray temperature and are supplementedby a set of 30 isolated field galaxies. Optical spectroscopy taken withthe 200 inch (5 m) Hale Telescope provides separately resolved Hαand [N II] major-axis rotation curves for the complete set of galaxies,which are analyzed to yield velocity widths and profile shapes, extents,and gradients. H I line profiles provide an independent velocity widthmeasurement and a measure of H I gas mass and distribution. I-bandimages are used to deconvolve profiles into disk and bulge components,to determine global luminosities and ellipticities, and to checkmorphological classification. These data are combined to form a unifieddata set ideal for the study of the effects of environment upon galaxyevolution. Tracing the star formation history of cluster galaxies using the Hα/UV flux ratioSince the Hα and UV fluxes from galaxies are sensitive to stellarpopulations of ages <107 and ≈ 108 yrrespectively, their ratio f(Hα)/f(UV) provides us with a tool tostudy the recent t ≤ 108 yr star formation history ofgalaxies, an exercise that we present here applied to 98 galaxies in 4nearby clusters (Virgo, Coma, Abell 1367 and Cancer). The observedf(Hα)/f(UV) ratio is  a factor of two smaller than theexpected one as determined from population synthesis models assuming arealistic delayed, exponentially declining star formation history. Wediscuss various mechanisms that may have affected the observedf(Hα)/f(UV) ratio and we propose that the above discrepancy arisesfrom either the absorption of Lyman continuum photons by dust within thestar formation regions or from the occurrence of star formationepisodes. After splitting our sample into different subsamples accordingto evolutionary criteria we find that our reference sample of galaxiesunaffected by the cluster environment show an average value off(Hα)/f(UV) two times lower than the expected one. We argue thatthis difference must be mostly due to absorption of ≈45% of the Lymancontinuum photons within star forming regions. Galaxies with clear signsof an ongoing interaction show average values of f(Hα)/f(UV)slightly higher than the reference value, as expected if those objectshad SFR increased by a factor of ≃4. The accuracy of the currentUV and Hα photometry is not yet sufficient to clearly disentanglethe effect of interactions on the f(Hα)/f(UV) ratio, butsignificant observational improvements are shortly expected to resultfrom the GALEX mission.Tables 1-3 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org UV and FIR selected samples of galaxies in the local Universe. Dust extinction and star formation ratesWe have built two samples of galaxies selected at 0.2 μm (hereafterUV) and 60 μm (hereafter FIR) covering a sky area of 35.36deg2. The UV selected sample contains 25 galaxies brighterthan AB0.2=17. All of them, but one elliptical, are detectedat 60 μm with a flux density larger or equal to 0.2 Jy. The UV countsare significantly lower than the Euclidean extrapolation towardsbrighter fluxes of previous determinations. The FIR selected samplecontains 42 galaxies brighter than f60=0.6 Jy. Except fourgalaxies, all of them have a UV counterpart at the limiting magnitudeAB0.2=20.3 mag. The mean extinction derived from the analysisof the FIR to UV flux ratio is 1 mag for the UV selected sample and2 mag for the FIR selected one. For each sample we compare severalindicators of the recent star formation rate (SFR) based on the FIRand/or the UV emissions. We find linear relationships with slopes closeto unity between the different SFR indicator, which means that, over thewhole converting offset. Various absolute calibrations for both samplesare discussed in this paper. A positive correlation between extinctionand SFR is found when both samples are considered together although witha considerable scatter. A similar result is obtained when using the SFRnormalized to the optical surface of the galaxies.Tables 3, 4 and Fig. 1 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Spectrophotometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. The dataDrift-scan mode (3600-6800 Å) spectra with 500 Capturing a Star Formation Burst in Galaxies Infalling onto the Cluster A1367The discovery of a striking astrophysical laboratory in the cluster ofgalaxies A1367 by Sakai and coworkers is confirmed with independentimaging and spectroscopic observations and further investigated in thepresent analysis. Two giant and 10 dwarf/H II galaxies, members of agroup, are simultaneously undergoing a burst of star formation. Redshiftmeasurements suggest that the group galaxies are in the process offalling into the cluster at very high speed. We explore two possiblemechanisms that could have triggered the short-lived stellar burst thatwe are witnessing: the first, internal to the group itself, via tidalinteractions among its members, the hypothesis favored by Sakai et al.;the second associated with the high-velocity infall of the groupgalaxies into the cluster intergalactic medium. We present evidence infavor of and against the two hypotheses. The Hamburg/RASS Catalogue of optical identifications. Northern high-galactic latitude ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue X-ray sourcesWe present the Hamburg/RASS Catalogue (HRC) of optical identificationsof X-ray sources at high-galactic latitude. The HRC includes all X-raysources from the ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) with galacticlatitude |b| >=30degr and declination delta >=0degr . In thispart of the sky covering ~ 10 000 deg2 the RASS-BSC contains5341 X-ray sources. For the optical identification we used blue Schmidtprism and direct plates taken for the northern hemisphere Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) which are now available in digitized form. The limitingmagnitudes are 18.5 and 20, respectively. For 82% of the selectedRASS-BSC an identification could be given. For the rest either nocounterpart was visible in the error circle or a plausibleidentification was not possible. With ~ 42% AGN represent the largestgroup of X-ray emitters, ~ 31% have a stellar counterpart, whereasgalaxies and cluster of galaxies comprise only ~ 4% and ~ 5%,respectively. In ~ 3% of the RASS-BSC sources no object was visible onour blue direct plates within 40\arcsec around the X-ray sourceposition. The catalogue is used as a source for the selection of(nearly) complete samples of the various classes of X-ray emitters. A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxiesWe have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of normality''. Thedefinition of a normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5 Discovery of a Group of Star-forming Dwarf Galaxies in A1367We describe the properties of a remarkable group of activelystar-forming dwarf galaxies and H II galaxies in the A1367 cluster,which were discovered in a large-scale Hα imaging survey of thecluster. Approximately 30 Hα-emitting knots were identified in aregion approximately 150 kpc across, in the vicinity of the spiralgalaxies NGC 3860, CGCG 97-125, and CGCG 97-114. Follow-up imaging andspectroscopy reveal that some of the knots are associated withpreviously uncataloged dwarf galaxies (MB=-15.8 to -16.5),while others appear to be isolated H II galaxies or intergalactic H IIregions. Radial velocities obtained for several of the knots show thatthey are physically associated with a small group or subcluster,including CGCG 97-114 and CGCG 97-125. No comparable concentration ofemission-line objects has been found elsewhere in any of the eightnorthern Abell clusters surveyed to date. The strong Hα emissionin the objects and their high spatial density argue against this being agroup of normal, unperturbed dwarf galaxies. Emission-line spectra ofseveral of the knots also show some to be anomalously metal-richrelative to their luminosities. The results suggest that many of theseobjects were formed or triggered by tidal interactions or mergersinvolving CGCG 97-125 and other members of the group. A WesterborkSynthesis Radio Telescope H I map of the region shows direct evidencefor tidal interactions in the group. These objects may be related to thetidal dwarf galaxies found in some interacting galaxy pairs, mergerremnants, and compact groups. They could also represent evolutionaryprecursors to the class of isolated ultracompact dwarf galaxies thathave been identified in the Fornax Cluster. Chandra View of the Dynamically Young Cluster of Galaxies A1367. II. Point SourcesA 40 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of the dynamically young clusterA1367 yields new insights on X-ray emission from cluster membergalaxies. We detect 59 pointlike sources in the ACIS field, of whicheight are identified with known cluster member galaxies. Thus, in total10 member galaxies are detected in X-rays when three galaxies discussedin Paper I (NGC 3860 is discussed in both papers) are included. Thesuperior spatial resolution and good spectroscopy capability of Chandraallow us to constrain the emission nature of these galaxies. Centralnuclei, thermal halos, and stellar components are revealed in theirspectra. Two new low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) arefound, including an absorbed one (NGC 3861). Besides these two for sure,two new LLAGN candidates are also found. This discovery makes theLLAGN/AGN content in this part of A1367 very high (>~12%). Thermalhalos with temperatures around 0.5-0.8 keV are revealed in the spectraof NGC 3842 and NGC 3837, which suggests that galactic coronae cansurvive in clusters and that heat conduction must be suppressed. TheX-ray spectrum of NGC 3862 (3C 264) resembles a BL Lac object with aphoton index of ~2.5. We also present an analysis of other point sourcesin the field and discuss the apparent source excess (~2.5 σ) inthe central field. Chandra View of the Dynamically Young Cluster of Galaxies A1367. I. Small-Scale StructuresThe 40 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of A1367 provides new insights intosmall-scale structures and point sources in this dynamically youngcluster. Here we concentrate on small-scale extended structures. Aridgelike structure around the center (the ridge'') is significant inthe Chandra image. The ridge, with a projected length of ~8' (or 300h-10.5 kpc), is elongated from northwest tosoutheast, as is the X-ray surface brightness distribution on muchlarger scales (~2 h-10.5 Mpc). The ridge is coolerthan its western and southern surroundings, while the differences fromits eastern and northern surroundings are small. We also searched forsmall-scale structures with sizes of about an arcminute. Nine extendedfeatures, with sizes from ~0.5′ to 1.5′, were detected atsignificance levels above 4 σ. Five of the nine features arelocated in the ridge and form local crests. The nine extended featurescan be divided into two types. Those associated with galaxies (NGC3860B, NGC 3860, and UGC 6697) are significantly cooler than theirsurroundings (0.3-0.9 keV vs. 3-4.5 keV). The masses of their hostgalaxies are sufficient to bind the extended gas. These extendedfeatures are probably related to thermal halos or galactic superwinds oftheir host galaxies. The existence of these relatively cold halosimplies that galaxy coronae can survive in a cluster environment (e.g.,Vikhlinin and coworkers in 2001). Features of the second type are notapparently associated with galaxies. Their temperatures may not besignificantly different from those of their surroundings. This class ofextended features may be related to the ridge. We consider severalpossibilities for the ridge and the second type of extended features.The merging scenario is preferred. Evolution of Star-forming and Active Galaxies in Nearby ClustersWe have used optical spectroscopy to investigate the active galaxypopulations in a sample of 20 nearby Abell clusters. The targets wereidentified on the basis of 1.4 GHz radio emission, which identifies themas either active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or galaxies forming stars atrates comparable to or greater than that of the Milky Way. The spectrawere used to characterize the galaxies via their emission and absorptionfeatures. The spectroscopy results reveal a significant population ofstar-forming galaxies with large amounts of nuclear dust extinction.This extinction eliminates bluer emission lines such as [O II] from thespectra of these galaxies, meaning their star formation could easily beoverlooked in studies that focus on such features. Around 20% of thecluster star-forming galaxies have spectra of this type. The radialdistributions of active galaxies in clusters show a strong segregationbetween star-forming galaxies and AGNs, with star-forming galaxiesbroadly distributed and AGNs preferentially in the cluster cores. Theradial distribution of the dusty star-forming galaxies is more centrallyconcentrated than the star-forming galaxies in general, which arguesthat they are a consequence of some cluster environmental effect.Furthermore, we note that such galaxies may be identified using their4000 Å break strengths. We find that discrepancies in reportedradio luminosity functions for AGNs are likely the result ofclassification differences. There exists a large population of clustergalaxies whose radio fluxes, far-infrared fluxes, and optical magnitudessuggest their radio emission may be powered by stars yet whose spectralack emission lines. Understanding the nature of these galaxies iscritical to assessing the importance of AGNs in the radio luminosityfunction at low luminosities. We also find that regardless of thispopulation, the crossover point where the radio luminosity function iscomposed equally of star-forming galaxies and AGNs occurs at lowerluminosities in clusters than in the field. This is likely a simpleconsequence of the reduction in star formation in cluster galaxies andthe morphological mix in clusters compared with the field.Based in part on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory(APO) 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the AstrophysicalResearch Consortium. The UZC-SSRS2 Group CatalogWe apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers. Hα surface photometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. IV. The current star formation in nearby clusters of galaxiesHα +[NII] imaging observations of 369 late-type (spiral) galaxiesin the Virgo cluster and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster are analyzed,covering 3 rich nearby clusters (A1367, Coma and Virgo) and nearlyisolated galaxies in the Great-Wall. They constitute an opticallyselected sample (mp<16.0) observed with ~ 60 %completeness. These observations provide us with the current(T<107 yrs) star formation properties of galaxies that westudy as a function of the clustercentric projected distances (Theta ).The expected decrease of the star formation rate (SFR), as traced by theHα EW, with decreasing Theta is found only when galaxies brighterthan Mp ~ -19.5 are considered. Fainter objects show no orreverse trends. We also include in our analysis Near Infrared data,providing information on the old (T>109 yrs) stars. Puttogether, the young and the old stellar indicators give the ratio ofcurrently formed stars over the stars formed in the past, orbirthrate'' parameter b. For the considered galaxies we also determinethe global gas content'' combining HI with CO observations. We definethe gas deficiency'' parameter as the logarithmic difference betweenthe gas content of isolated galaxies of a given Hubble type and themeasured gas content. For the isolated objects we find that b decreaseswith increasing NIR luminosity. In other words less massive galaxies arecurrently forming stars at a higher rate than their giant counterpartswhich experienced most of their star formation activity at earliercosmological epochs. The gas-deficient objects, primarily members of theVirgo cluster, have a birthrate significantly lower than the isolatedobjects with normal gas content and of similar NIR luminosity. Thisindicates that the current star formation is regulated by the gaseouscontent of spirals. Whatever mechanism (most plausibly ram-pressurestripping) is responsible for the pattern of gas deficiency observed inspiral galaxies members of rich clusters, it also produces the observedquenching of the current star formation. A significant fraction of gashealthy'' (i.e. with a gas deficiency parameter less than 0.4) andcurrently star forming galaxies is unexpectedly found projected near thecenter of the Virgo cluster. Their average Tully-Fisher distance isfound approximately one magnitude further away (muo = 31.77)than the distance of their gas-deficient counterparts (muo =30.85), suggesting that the gas healthy objects belong to a cloudprojected onto the cluster center, but in fact lying a few Mpc behindVirgo, thus unaffected by the dense IGM of the cluster. Based onobservations taken at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional(Mexico), the OHP (France), Calar Alto and NOT (Spain) observatories.Table \ref{tab4} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org The Radio Galaxy Populations of Nearby Northern Abell ClustersWe report on the use of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) to identify radiogalaxies in 18 nearby Abell clusters. The listings extend from the coresof the clusters out to radii of 3 h-175 Mpc, whichcorresponds to 1.5 Abell radii and approximately 4 orders of magnitudein galaxy density. To create a truly useful catalog, we have collectedoptical spectra for nearly all of the galaxies lacking public velocitymeasurements. Consequently, we are able to discriminate between thoseradio galaxies seen in projection on the cluster and those that are inactuality cluster members. The resulting catalog consists of 329 clusterradio galaxies plus 138 galaxies deemed foreground or backgroundobjects, and new velocity measurements are reported for 273 of theseradio galaxies. The motivation for the catalog is the study of galaxyevolution in the cluster environment. The radio luminosity function is apowerful tool in the identification of active galaxies, as it isdominated by star-forming galaxies at intermediate luminosities andactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) at higher luminosities. The flux limit ofthe NVSS allows us to identify AGNs and star-forming galaxies down tostar formation rates less than 1 Msolar yr-1. Thissensitivity, coupled with the all-sky nature of the NVSS, allows us toproduce a catalog of considerable depth and breadth. In addition tothese data, we report detected infrared fluxes and upper limits obtainedfrom IRAS data. It is hoped that this database will prove useful in anumber of potential studies of the effect of environment on galaxyevolution. Based in part on observations obtained with the Apache PointObservatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by theAstrophysical Research Consortium (ARC). An Hα survey of eight Abell clusters: the dependence of tidally induced star formation on cluster densityWe have undertaken a survey of Hα emission in a substantiallycomplete sample of CGCG galaxies of types Sa and later within 1.5 Abellradii of the centres of eight low-redshift Abell clusters (Abell 262,347, 400, 426, 569, 779, 1367 and 1656). Some 320 galaxies weresurveyed, of which 116 were detected in emission (39 per cent ofspirals, 75 per cent of peculiars). Here we present previouslyunpublished data for 243 galaxies in seven clusters. Detected emissionis classified as compact' or diffuse'. From an analysis of the fullsurvey sample, we confirm our previous identification of compact anddiffuse emission with circumnuclear starburst and disc emissionrespectively. The circumnuclear emission is associated either with thepresence of a bar, or with a disturbed galaxy morphology indicative ofongoing tidal interactions (whether galaxy-galaxy, galaxy-group, orgalaxy-cluster). The frequency of such tidally induced (circumnuclear)starburst emission in spirals increases from regions of lower to higherlocal galaxy surface density, and from clusters with lower to highercentral galaxy space density. The percentages of spirals classed asdisturbed and of galaxies classified as peculiar show a similar trend.These results suggest that tidal interactions for spirals are morefrequent in regions of higher local density and for clusters with highercentral galaxy density. The prevalence of such tidal interactions inclusters is expected from recent theoretical modelling of clusters witha non-static potential undergoing collapse and infall. Furthermore, inaccord with this picture, we suggest that peculiar galaxies arepredominantly ongoing mergers. We conclude that tidal interactions arelikely to be the main mechanism for the transformation of spirals to S0sin clusters. This mechanism operates more efficiently in higher densityenvironments, as is required by the morphological type-local surfacedensity (T-Σ) relation for galaxies in clusters. For regions ofcomparable local density, the frequency of tidally induced starburstemission is greater in clusters with higher central galaxy density. Thisimplies that, for a given local density, morphological transformation ofdisc galaxies proceeds more rapidly in clusters of higher central galaxydensity. This effect is considered to be the result of subclustermerging, and could account for the previously considered anomalousabsence of a significant T-Σ relation for irregular clusters atintermediate redshift. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of galaxy clusters: Abell 262 at z=0.0157, J1836.3CR at z=0.414, and PKS 0743-006 at z=0.994We report on high angular resolution near-infrared (NIR) observations ofthree galaxy clusters at different redshifts using adaptive optics (AO).In the case of the barred spiral UGC 1347 in Abell262 we presented the first AO results obtained using a laser guide star.The observations have been carried out with the MPE/MPIA adaptive opticslaser guide star system ALFA and the ESO AO system ADONIS combined withthe SHARP II+ camera built at MPE. The three clusters are well suitedfor high resolution investigations since bright field stars for tip-tiltor wavefront sensing are located close to the line of sight to clustergalaxies. In summary our high angular resolution NIR data combined withother information clearly indicates star formation activity orinteraction between cluster members at all three redshifts. The resultsand implications for future high angular resolution adaptive opticsobservations are discussed in the framework of current galaxy andcluster evolution models. For two barred galaxies in the Abell 262cluster, UGC 1344 and UGC 1347, we interpret our NIRimaging results in combination with published radio, far-infrared, andHα data in the framework of a star formation model. In addition tothe star-forming resolved NIR nucleus in UGC 1347 we found a bright andcompact region of recent and enhanced star formation at one tip of thebar. The L_K/L_Lyc ratio as well as the V - K color of that region implya starburst that happened about 107 years ago. For UGC 1344we find that the overall star formation activity is low and that thesystem is deficient in fuel for star formation. The importance of starformation in galaxy clusters is also supported by a comparison of seeingcorrected nuclear bulge sizes of a sample of spiral galaxies within andoutside the central HI deficient zone of the Abell 262 andAbell 1367 clusters. We find that the galaxies insidethe Abell radii of both clusters show a tendency for more compact bulgesthan those outside. This phenomenon could be due to increased starformation activity triggered by interactions of cluster members insidethe Abell radius. The star formation activity in the two higher redshiftclusters J1836.3CR and PKS 0743-006 is investigated via comparison toGISSEL stellar population models in JHK two-color-diagrams. WhileJ1836.3CR is consistent with an evolved cluster, the objects in thefield of PKS 0743-006 show indications of more recent star formationactivity. The central object in J1836.3CR shows a radial intensityprofile that is indicative for cD galaxies in a rich clusterenvironment. Extended wings in its light distribution may be consistentwith recent or ongoing galaxy-galaxy interaction in this cluster. 1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxiesWe present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) surface brightness profiledecomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies:Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma andA1367 in the Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg≤16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD,except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning fromisolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surfacebrightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), withan exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D).From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surfacebrightness (μe) and radius (re) of each component, theasymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration indexC31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Ellipticalgalaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is bestrepresented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pureexponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong functionof the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubbleclassification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositionsdecreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases withluminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 L\odot and become dominantabove 1011 L\odot . Based on observations taken atTIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Arcsecond Positions of UGC GalaxiesWe present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only. The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: 21 Centimeter H I Line DataA compilation of 21 cm line spectral parameters specifically designedfor application of the Tully-Fisher (TF) distance method is presentedfor 1201 spiral galaxies, primarily field Sc galaxies, for which opticalI-band photometric imaging is also available. New H I line spectra havebeen obtained for 881 galaxies. For an additional 320 galaxies, spectraavailable in a digital archive have been reexamined to allow applicationof a single algorithm for the derivation of the TF velocity widthparameter. A velocity width algorithm is used that provides a robustmeasurement of rotational velocity and permits an estimate of the erroron that width taking into account the effects of instrumental broadeningand signal-to-noise. The digital data are used to establish regressionrelations between measurements of velocity widths using other commonprescriptions so that comparable widths can be derived throughconversion of values published in the literature. The uniform H I linewidths presented here provide the rotational velocity measurement to beused in deriving peculiar velocities via the TF method. The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging DataProperties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field. Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxiesUsing images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC). On the local radio luminosity function of galaxies. II. Environmental dependences among late-type galaxiesUsing new extensive radio continuum surveys at 1.4 GHz (FIRST and NVSS),we derive the distribution of the radio/optical and radio/NIR luminosity(RLF) of late-type (Sa-Irr) galaxies (m_p<15.7) in 5 nearby clustersof galaxies: A262, Cancer, A1367, Coma and Virgo. With the aim ofdiscussing possible environmental dependences of the radio properties,we compare these results with those obtained for relatively isolatedobjects in the Coma supercluster. We find that the RLF of Cancer, A262and Virgo are consistent with that of isolated galaxies. Conversely weconfirm earlier claims that galaxies in A1367 and Coma have their radioemissivity enhanced by a factor ~ 5 with respect to isolated objects. Wediscuss this result in the framework of the dynamical pressure sufferedby galaxies in motion through the intra-cluster gas (ram-pressure). Wefind that the radio excess is statistically larger for galaxies in fasttransit motion. This is coherent with the idea that enhanced radiocontinuum activity is associated with magnetic field compression. TheX-ray luminosities and temperatures of Coma and A1367 imply that thesetwo clusters have significantly larger intracluster gas density than theremaining three studied ones, providing a clue for explaining the higherradio continuum luminosities of their galaxies. Multiple systems in theComa supercluster bridge (with projected separations smaller than 300kpc) have radio luminosities significantly larger than isolatedgalaxies. Table~1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html} Tidally induced star formation in Abell 1367Our principal aim is to compare global star formation rates betweencluster galaxies and field galaxies in order to clarify environmentalinfluence on star formation. We use an objective prism technique tosurvey over 200 Zwicky catalogue (CGCG) galaxies within ~2 deg.5 ofAbell 1367 for Hα emission. After a brief discussion of the surveycharacteristics, we consider first the dependence of Hα detection onHubble type, galaxy disturbance and the presence of a bar. As expected,we rarely detect early-type galaxies and consequently restrict furtherdiscussion to spirals (type S0/a and later), of which we detect ~35percent in Hα. We find that an extremely valuable distinction to makeis between galaxies with diffuse Hα and galaxies with compactHα. There is a very significant tendency for galaxies with compactHα emission to be disturbed, and there may be a weak tendency forthem to be barred. Neither of these tendencies is found for galaxieswith diffuse Hα emission. We infer that compact emission resultsfrom tidally induced star formation, while diffuse emission results frommore normal disc star formation. After considering field contamination,we adopt as a predominantly cluster' sample the spiral populationinside 0.5 r_A; a predominantly field' sample outside 0.5 r_A; and apure field' sample outside 1.5 r_A. We consistently find a much largerfraction of spirals detected with compact Hα in the cluster samplecompared to the field samples (e.g. 38 versus 0per cent detected incluster and pure field' samples, chi^2 significance 3.6sigma). Thisincreased fraction detected in the cluster is found for early-, mid- andlate-type spirals separately. No such cluster/field differences arefound for galaxies with diffuse Hα emission. We conclude that tidalperturbations are more common in the cluster than in the field, leadingto a higher incidence of compact tidally triggered star formation. Bycombining information on galaxy disturbance, galaxy companions, and thelocation of galaxies within the cluster, we have tried to identify theorigin of the tidal perturbations. We find strong evidence thatnear-neighbour interaction plays a significant role in triggering starformation. However, we also find candidate objects near the cluster corewhich may be perturbed by the overall cluster tidal field, and candidateobjects which may be influenced by a higher speed `harassment'interaction between galaxies. Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.Not Available
Submit a new article