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|Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. On the Possible Disk Nature of Bright Early-Type Dwarfs|
We present a systematic search for disk features in 476 Virgo Clusterearly-type dwarf (dE) galaxies. This is the first such study of analmost-complete, statistically significant dE sample, which includes allcertain or possible cluster members with mB<=18 that arecovered by the optical imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DataRelease 4. Disk features (spiral arms, edge-on disks, or bars) wereidentified by applying unsharp masks to a combined image from threebands (g, r, and i), as well as by subtracting the axisymmetric lightdistribution of each galaxy from that image. Fourteen objects areunambiguous identifications of disks, 10 objects show ``probable disk''features, and 17 objects show ``possible disk'' features. The numberfraction of these galaxies, for which we introduce the term ``dEdi,''reaches more than 50% at the bright end of the dE population anddecreases to less than 5% for magnitudes mB>16. Althoughpart of this observed decline might be due to the lower signal-to-noiseratio at fainter magnitudes, we show that it cannot be caused solely bythe limitations of our detection method. The luminosity function of ourfull dE sample can be explained by a superposition of dEdis and ordinarydEs, strongly suggesting that dEdis are a distinct type of galaxy. Thisis supported by the projected spatial distribution: dEdis show basicallyno clustering and roughly follow the spatial distribution of spirals andirregulars, whereas ordinary dEs are distributed similarly to thestrongly clustered E/S0 galaxies. While the flattening distribution ofordinary dEs is typical for spheroidal objects, the distribution ofdEdis is significantly different and agrees with their being flat oblateobjects. We therefore conclude that the dEdis are not spheroidalgalaxies that just have an embedded disk component but are instead apopulation of genuine disk galaxies. Several dEdis display well-definedspiral arms with grand-design features that clearly differ from theflocculent, open arms typical for late-type spirals that have frequentlybeen proposed as progenitors of dEs. This raises the question of whatprocess is able to create such spiral arms-with pitch angles like thoseof Sab/Sb galaxies-in bulgeless dwarf galaxies.
|A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters|
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp 22.214.171.124. Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.
|Extragalactic Globular Clusters. IV. The Data|
We have explored the use of absorption line strength indices, measuredfrom integrated globular cluster spectra, to predict mean metallicity inlate-type stellar systems. In previous papers we identified the bestindices for such metallicity calibrations out of ~13 measured in a largesample of galactic and M31 cluster spectra. In this paper we present theindividual measurements of 13 indices and averages of multiplemeasurements, where appropriate. Data are given for 151 M31 globularclusters, 88 galaxies, 22 M33 cluster candidates, 10 M87 clusters, eightM81 globular clusters, three Fornax dwarf galaxy clusters, "standard"stars from the lists of Faber et al., stars in the open cluster NGC 188and, for completeness, other stars observed as candidate globularclusters.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Extragalactic globular clusters. III - Metallicity comparisons and anomalies|
A method based on the strengths of six absorption line indices measuredin integrated spectra is used to derive metallicities for 22 globularclusters associated with the Sc galaxy, M33, 10 globular clusters withthe giant elliptical galaxy, M87, eight globular clusters associatedwith the Sb(r)I-II galaxy, M81, and three globular clusters associatedwith the Fornax dwarf elliptical galaxy. Mean metallicities are derivedfor 38 bright galaxies, mostly ellipticals, 29 dwarf elliptical galaxiesin the Virgo cluster, 10 dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Fornaxcluster, and four local group dwarf galaxies. These results are comparedwith previously derived metallicities for 149 clusters in M31 and withthe Milky Way cluster metallicities to show that the mean metallicity ofa cluster system is linearly related to the luminosity of the parentgalaxy. A similar relationship is suggested between galaxy metallicityand luminosity for the bright and dwarf galaxies.
|HI-observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster of galaxies. I - The data|
New H I-data for a large number of bright galaxies inside the 10 degradius area of the Virgo cluster of galaxies have been obtained with the100 m radiotelescope at Effelsberg. A total of 234 galaxies was observedfor the first time. Among them, 53 have been detected providing newaccurate radial velocities. Data from the literature have been compiled.Together with the new data, they form a (nearly homogeneous) set of H Iobservations for more than 450 galaxies.
|Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.|
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.
|Studies of the Virgo cluster. III - A classification system and an illustrated atlas of Virgo cluster dwarf galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89..919S&db_key=AST
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