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The K-band properties of Seyfert 2 galaxies
Aims. It is well known that the [O iii]λ5007 emission line andhard X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosities are good indicators of AGN activitiesand that the near and mid-infrared emission of AGN originates fromre-radiation of dusty clouds heated by the UV/optical radiation from theaccretion disk. In this paper we present a study of the near-infraredK-band (2.2 μm) properties for a sample of 65 Seyfert 2 galaxies. Methods: .By using the AGN/Bulge/Disk decomposition technique, weanalyzed the 2MASS K_S-band images for Seyfert 2 galaxies in order toderive the K_S-band magnitudes for the central engine, bulge, and diskcomponents. Results: .We find that the K_S-band magnitudes of thecentral AGN component in Seyfert 2 galaxies are tightly correlated withthe [O iii]λ5007 and the hard X-ray luminosities, which suggeststhat the AGN K-band emission is also an excellent indicator of thenuclear activities at least for Seyfert 2 galaxies. We also confirm thegood relation between the central black hole masses and bulge's K-bandmagnitudes for Seyfert 2s.

The Link between Star Formation and Accretion in LINERs: A Comparison with Other Active Galactic Nucleus Subclasses
We present archival high-resolution X-ray imaging observations of 25nearby LINERs observed by ACIS on board Chandra. This sample builds onour previously published proprietary and archival X-ray observations andincludes the complete set of LINERs with published black hole masses andFIR luminosities that have been observed by Chandra. Of the 82 LINERsobserved by Chandra, 41 (50%) display hard nuclear cores consistent withan AGN. The nuclear 2-10 keV luminosities of these AGN-LINERs range from~2×1038 to ~1×1044 ergss-1. Reinforcing our previous work, we find a significantcorrelation between the Eddington ratio,Lbol/LEdd, and the FIR luminosity,LFIR, as well as the IR brightness ratio,LFIR/LB, in the host galaxy of AGN-LINERs thatextends over 7 orders of magnitude in Lbol/LEdd.Combining our AGN-LINER sample with galaxies from other AGN subclasses,we find that this correlation is reinforced in a sample of 129 AGNs,extending over almost 9 orders of magnitude inLbol/LEdd. Using archival and previously publishedobservations of the 6.2 μm PAH feature from ISO, we find that it isunlikely that dust heating by the AGN dominates the FIR luminosity inour sample of AGNs. Our results may therefore imply a fundamental linkbetween the mass accretion rate (M˙), as measured by the Eddingtonratio, and the star formation rate (SFR), as measured by the FIRluminosity. Apart from the overall correlation, we find that thedifferent AGN subclasses occupy distinct regions in the LFIRand Lbol/LEdd plane. Assuming a constant radiativeefficiency for accretion, our results may imply a variation in theSFR/M˙ ratio as a function of AGN activity level, a result that mayhave significant consequences for our understanding of galaxy formationand black hole growth.

X-ray obscuration and obscured AGN in the local universe
We discuss the X-ray properties of 49 local (z<0.035) Seyfert 2galaxies with HST/WFC2 high-resolution optical coverage. It includes theresults of 26 still unpublished Chandra and XMM-Newton observations,which yield 25 (22) new X-ray detections in the 0.5-2 keV (2-10 keV)energy band. Our sample covers a range in the 2-10 keV observed flux,F2-10, from 3 × 10-11 to 6 ×10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The percentage ofobjects that are likely obscured by Compton-thick matter (columndensity, NH ≥ σt-1 ≃1.6 × 1024 cm-2) is ≃50%, and reaches≃80% for log (F2-10) < 12.3. Hence, Kαfluorescent iron lines with large Equivalent Width ({EW} > 0.6 keV)are common in our sample (6 new detections at a confidence level≥2σ). They are explained as due to reflection off theilluminated side of optically thick material. We confirm a correlationbetween the presence of a 100-pc scale nuclear dust in the WFC2 imagesand Compton-thin obscuration. We interpret this correlation as due tothe large covering fraction of gas associated with the dust lanes. TheX-ray spectra of highly obscured AGN invariably present a prominent softexcess emission above the extrapolation of the hard X-ray component.This soft component can account for a very large fraction of the overallX-ray energy budget. As this component is generally unobscured - andtherefore likely produced in extended gas structures - it may lead to asevere underestimation of the nuclear obscuration in z ˜ 1 absorbedAGN, if standard X-ray colors are used to classify them. As a by-productof our study, we report the discovery of a soft X-ray, luminous(≃7 × 1040 erg s-1) halo embedding theinteracting galaxy pair Mkn 266.

The star formation history of Seyfert 2 nuclei
We present a study of the stellar populations in the central ~200 pc ofa large and homogeneous sample comprising 79 nearby galaxies, most ofwhich are Seyfert 2s. The star formation history of these nuclei isreconstructed by means of state-of-the-art population synthesismodelling of their spectra in the 3500-5200 Åinterval. Aquasar-like featureless continuum (FC) is added to the models to accountfor possible scattered light from a hidden active galactic nucleus(AGN).We find the following. (1) The star formation history of Seyfert 2nuclei is remarkably heterogeneous: young starbursts, intermediate-ageand old stellar populations all appear in significant and widely varyingproportions. (2) A significant fraction of the nuclei show a strong FCcomponent, but this FC is not always an indication of a hidden AGN: itcan also betray the presence of a young, dusty starburst. (3) We detectweak broad Hβ emission in several Seyfert 2s after cleaning theobserved spectrum by subtracting the synthesis model. These are mostlikely the weak scattered lines from the hidden broad-line regionenvisaged in the unified model, given that in most of these casesindependent spectropolarimetry data find a hidden Seyfert 1. (4) The FCstrengths obtained by the spectral decomposition are substantiallylarger for the Seyfert 2s which present evidence of broad lines,implying that the scattered non-stellar continuum is also detected. (5)There is no correlation between the star formation in the nucleus andeither the central or overall morphology of the parent galaxies.

A Possible Signature of Connection between Blazars and Seyfert Galaxies
The accretion rates (dot{M}) and their correlation with cosmologicalredshifts for a sample of blazars and Seyfert galaxies are presented.The sample includes 77 blazars (28 FSRQs, 26 LBLs, and 23 HBLs) and 60Seyfert galaxies, of which the extended spectral energy distributioninformation and redshifts are available. Within the framework ofaccreting black holes, the accretion rates for these sources wereestimated based on their bolometric luminosities. The result shows thatthe accretion rates are significantly different for each subclass of theblazars and Seyfert galaxies. Their averages are, respectively, 50.2,17.0, 1.0, 0.1Modot yr-1 for the FSRQs, LBLs, HBLs, and theSeyfert galaxies, exhibiting a well descending sequence ofFSRQs-LBLs-HBLs-Seyfert galaxies. They are strongly correlated with theredshifts for both blazars and Seyfert galaxies. The linear correlationcoefficients are 0.81 and 0.68 with a chance probab ility of p <0.0001, respectively. A plot of dot{M} - z shows that the blazars andthe Seyfert galaxies distribute in a distinguishable regions with aconnection at z ˜ 0.7 and almost all the sources lie in a narrowregion of z1.40 ≤ dot{M} ≤ 250 z1.40,illustrating a strong correlation between the two quantities for thewhole sample. The regression line is dot{M} = (14.5 ± 1.2)z1.40±0.06 Modot yr-1 with a linearcoefficient of 0.93 and a chance probability of p < 0.0001,suggesting a connection between blazars and Seyfert galaxies. Thisconnection might imply that the two classes are on the same evolutionarysequence. Although the correlations of the data are formally solid, theconclusion may be affected by one source of considerable uncertainty atthe data level, which is also discussed.

Active Galactic Nucleus Black Hole Masses and Bolometric Luminosities
Black hole mass, along with mass accretion rate, is a fundamentalproperty of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Black hole mass sets anapproximate upper limit to AGN energetics via the Eddington limit. Wecollect and compare all AGN black hole mass estimates from theliterature; these 177 masses are mostly based on the virial assumptionfor the broad emission lines, with the broad-line region size determinedfrom either reverberation mapping or optical luminosity. We introduce200 additional black hole mass estimates based on properties of the hostgalaxy bulges, using either the observed stellar velocity dispersion orthe fundamental plane relation to infer σ these methods assumethat AGN hosts are normal galaxies. We compare 36 cases for which blackhole mass has been generated by different methods and find, forindividual objects, a scatter as high as a couple of orders ofmagnitude. The less direct the method, the larger the discrepancy withother estimates, probably due to the large scatter in the underlyingcorrelations assumed. Using published fluxes, we calculate bolometricluminosities for 234 AGNs and investigate the relation between blackhole mass and luminosity. In contrast to other studies, we find nosignificant correlation of black hole mass with luminosity, other thanthose induced by circular reasoning in the estimation of black holemass. The Eddington limit defines an approximate upper envelope to thedistribution of luminosities, but the lower envelope depends entirely onthe sample of AGNs included. For any given black hole mass, there is arange in Eddington ratio of up to 3 orders of magnitude.

Seyfert Galaxies with Circumnuclear/Nuclear Starbursts
In this paper, we present our preliminary results on Seyfert galaxieswith circumnuclear/nuclear starburst (SB) activity. We have searched therecent available literature and found 76 active galaxies with clearevidence of nuclear SB activity, among which 16 are Seyfert 1s, 51Seyfert 2s, and 9 LINERs. After studying the 51 Seyfert 2s, we find thatthose Seyfert 2s with hidden Seyfert 1 nuclei, have similarInfrared-Radio properties as Seyfert 1 galaxies, and are different from``real'' Seyfert 2s without a hidden Seyfert 1 nucleus. The later aresimilar to starburst galaxies.

Testing the Unified Model with an Infrared-selected Sample of Seyfert Galaxies
We present a series of statistical tests done to a sample of 29 Seyfert1 and 59 Seyfert 2 galaxies selected from mostly isotropic properties,their far-infrared fluxes and warm infrared colors. Such selectioncriteria provide a profound advantage over the criteria used by mostinvestigators in the past, such as ultraviolet excess. These tests weredone using ground-based high-resolution Very Large Array A-configuration3.6 cm radio and optical B and I imaging data. From the relative numberof Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's, we calculate that the torus half-openingangle is 48°. We show that, as seen in previous papers, there is alack of edge-on Seyfert 1 galaxies, suggesting that dust and gas alongthe host galaxy disk probably play an important role in hiding somenuclei from direct view. We find that there is no statisticallysignificant difference in the distribution of host galaxy morphologicaltypes and radio luminosities of Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's, suggestingthat previous results showing the opposite may have been due toselection effects. The average extension of the radio emission ofSeyfert 1's is smaller than that of Seyfert 2's by a factor of ~2-3, aspredicted by the unified model. A search for galaxies around ourSeyferts allows us to put a lower and an upper limit on the possiblenumber of companions around these galaxies of 19% and 28%, respectively,with no significant difference in the number of companion galaxiesbetween Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's. We also show that there is nopreference for the radio jets to be aligned closer to the host galaxydisk axis in late-type Seyferts, unlike results claimed by previouspapers. These results, taken together, provide strong support for aunified model in which type 2 Seyferts contain a torus seen more edge-onthan the torus in type 1 Seyferts.

Stellar populations in Seyfert 2 galaxies. I. Atlas of near-UV spectra
We have carried out a uniform spectroscopic survey of Seyfert 2 galaxiesto study the stellar populations of the host galaxies. New spectra havebeen obtained for 79 Southern galaxies classified as Seyfert 2 galaxies,7 normal galaxies, and 73 stars at a resolution of 2.2 Å over thewavelength region 3500-5300 Å. Cross-correlation between thestellar spectra is performed to group the individual observations into44 synthesis standard spectra. The standard groups include a solarabundance sequence of spectral types from O5 to M3 for dwarfs, giants,and supergiants. Metal-rich and metal-weak F-K giants and dwarfs arealso included. A comparison of the stellar data with previouslypublished spectra is performed both with the individual spectra and thestandard groups. For each galaxy, two distinct spatial regions areconsidered: the nucleus and the external bulge. Spectroscopic variationsfrom one galaxy to another and from the central to the external regionare briefly discussed. It is found that the central region of a Seyfert2 galaxy, after subtracting the bulge stellar population, always shows anear-UV spectrum similar to one of three representative categories: a)many strong emission lines and only two visible absorption lines (Ca IiK and G band) (Sey2e); b) few emission lines, many absorption lines, anda redder continuum than the previous category (Sey2a); c) an almost flatcontinuum and high-order Balmer lines seen in absorption (Sey2b). Theproportion of Seyfert 2 galaxies belonging to each class is found to be22%, 28%, and 50% respectively. We find no significative differencesbetween morphology distributions of Seyfert 2 galaxies with Balmer linesdetected in absorption and the rest of the sample. This quick lookthrough the atlas indicates that half of Seyfert 2 galaxies harbour ayoung stellar population (about or less than 100 Myr) in their centralregion, clearly unveiled by the high order Balmer series seen inabsorption. Based on observations collected at the European SouthernObservatory, Chile (ESO 65.P-0014(A)). Tables 1-3 and 8 and Fig. A.1(Appendix A) are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Jet Directions in Seyfert Galaxies: B and I Imaging Data
We present the results of broadband B and I imaging observations for asample of 88 Seyfert galaxies (29 Seyfert 1s and 59 Seyfert 2s),selected from a mostly isotropic property, the flux at 60 μm. We alsopresent the B and I imaging results for an additional sample of 20Seyfert galaxies (7 Seyfert 1s and 13 Seyfert 2s), selected from theliterature and known to have extended radio emission. The I-band imagesare fitted with ellipses to determine the position angle and ellipticityof the host galaxy major axis. This information will be used in a futurepaper, combined with information from radio observations, to study theorientation of radio jets relative to the planes of their host galaxies.Here we present surface brightness profiles and magnitudes in the B andI bands, as well as mean ellipticities and major axis position angles.

Jet Directions in Seyfert Galaxies
Here we present the study of the relative angle between the accretiondisk (or radio jet) and the galaxy disk for a sample of Seyfert galaxiesselected from a mostly isotropic property, the 60 μm flux, and warminfrared colors. We used VLA A-array 3.6 cm continuum data andground-based optical imaging, homogeneously observed and reduced tominimize selection effects. For parts of the analysis we enlarged thesample by including galaxies serendipitously selected from theliterature. For each galaxy we have a pair of points (i, δ), whichare the inclination of the galaxy relative to the line of sight and theangle between the jet projected into the plane of the sky and the hostgalaxy major axis, respectively. For some galaxies we also hadinformation about which side of the minor axis is closer to Earth. Thisdata is combined with a statistical technique, developed by us, todetermine the distribution of β angles in three dimensions, theangle between the jet and the host galaxy plane axis. We found from aninitial analysis of the data of the 60 μm sample, where Seyfert 1 and2 galaxies were not differentiated, that the observed distribution of iand δ values can be well represented either by a homogeneoussinβ distribution in the range0deg<=β<=90deg or in0deg<=β<=65deg, but not by anequatorial ring. A more general model, which tested β-distributionsin the range β1<=β<=β2, fordifferent ranges of β1 and β2 values,required β2 to be larger than 65° and gavepreference for β1 smaller than 40°-50°. Animportant result from our analysis was obtained when we determinedwhether the jet was projected against the near or the far side of thegalaxy and differentiated between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies,which showed that the model could not represent Seyfert 1 galaxiesadequately. We found that the inclusion of viewing angle restrictionsfor Seyfert 1 galaxies, namely, that a galaxy can be recognized as aSeyfert 1 only if the angle between the jet and the line of sight(|φ|) is smaller than a given angle φc and that thegalaxy inclination i is smaller than an angle ic, gave riseto statistically acceptable models. This indication that there is adifference in viewing angle to the central engine between Seyfert 1galaxies and Seyfert 2 galaxies is a direct and independent confirmationof the underlying concepts of the unified model. We discuss possibleexplanations for the misalignment between the accretion disk and thehost galaxy disk: warping of the accretion disk by self-irradiationinstability, by the Bardeen-Petterson effect, or by a misalignedgravitational potential of a nuclear star cluster surrounding the blackhole, as well as feeding of the accretion disk by a misaligned inflow ofgas from minor mergers, capture of individual stars or gas from thenuclear star cluster, and the capture of individual molecular cloudsfrom the host galaxy.

A Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Survey of Nearby Active Galactic Nuclei
We have obtained WFPC2 images of 256 of the nearest (z <= 0.035)Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, and starburst galaxies. Our 500 s broadband(F606W) exposures reveal much fine-scale structure in the centers ofthese galaxies, including dust lanes and patches, bars, rings, wisps,and filaments, and tidal features such as warps and tails. Most of thisfine structure cannot be detected in ground-based images. We haveassigned qualitative classifications for these morphological featuresand a Hubble type for the inner region of each galaxy, and we have alsomeasured quantitative information such as 0."18 and 0."92 aperturemagnitudes, position angles, and ellipticities, where possible. There islittle direct evidence for unusually high rates of interaction in theSeyfert galaxies. Slightly less than 10% of all the galaxies show tidalfeatures or multiple nuclei. The incidence of inner starburst rings isabout 10% in both classes of Seyfert galaxies. In contrast, galaxieswith H II region emission-line spectra appear substantially moreirregular and clumpy because of their much higher rates of current starformation per unit of galactic mass. The presence of an unresolvedcentral continuum source in our Hubble Space Telescope images is avirtually perfect indicator of a Seyfert 1 nucleus as seen byground-based spectroscopy. Fifty-two percent of these Seyfert 1 pointsources are saturated in our images; we use their wings to estimatemagnitudes ranging from 15.8 to 18.5. The converse is not universallytrue, however, as over one-third of Seyferts with direct spectroscopicevidence for broad Balmer wings show no nuclear point source. These 34resolved Seyfert 1's have fainter nonstellar nuclei, which appear to bemore extinguished by dust absorption. Like the Seyfert 2's, they havecentral surface brightnesses consistent with those expected for thebulges of normal galaxies. The rates for the occurrences of bars inSeyfert 1's and 2's and non-Seyferts are the same. We found onesignificant morphological difference between the host galaxies ofSeyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 nuclei. The Seyfert 2 galaxies are significantlymore likely to show nuclear dust absorption, especially in lanes andpatches that are irregular or reach close to the nucleus. A few simpletests show that the difference cannot be explained by different averageredshifts or selection techniques. It is confirmed by our galaxymorphology classifications, which show that Seyfert 1 nuclei reside inearlier type galaxies than Seyfert 2 nuclei. If, as we believe, this isan intrinsic difference in host galaxy properties, it undermines one ofthe postulates of the strong unification hypothesis for Seyfertgalaxies, that they merely appear different because of the orientationof their central engine. The excess galactic dust we see in Seyfert 2'smay cause substantial absorption that obscures their hypothesized broademission line regions and central nonstellar continua. This galacticdust could produce much of the absorption in Seyfert 2 nuclei that hadinstead been attributed to a thick dusty accretion torus forming theouter part of the central engine.

Radio-luminous Southern Seyfert Galaxies. I. Radio Images and Selected Optical/Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
This is the first of two papers in which a study is made of a sample of12 southern radio-luminous Seyfert galaxies. Our aim is to investigatepossible correlations between radio morphology and nuclear/circumnuclearemission-line properties. In this paper we present radio images atlambda = 13, 6, and 3 cm taken with the Australia Telescope CompactArray, global far-infrared (FIR) properties for the whole sample, andoptical and near-infrared spectroscopy of an interesting subset. We finda mixture of radio morphologies, including linear, diffuse, and compactsources. When the FIR colors of the galaxies are considered, there is anindication that the compact radio sources have warmer FIR colors thanthe diffuse sources, whereas the linear sources span a wide range of FIRcolors. There is a wide variation in radio spectral indices, suggestingthat free-free absorption is significant in some systems, particularlyIRAS 11249-2859, NGC 4507, and NGC 7213. Detailed emission-line studiesare presented of four galaxies: IC 3639, NGC 5135, NGC 3393, and IRAS11249-2859. In IC 3639 we present evidence of vigorous, compact starformation enclosed by very extended [O I] lambda 6300 emission,suggestive of the boundary between a diffuse outflow and the surroundinginterstellar medium. In another galaxy, IC 5063, we see evidence for thepossible interaction of a highly collimated outflow and the surroundingrotating inner disk. Of the five galaxies that show compact radioemission, four have radio/FIR flux ratios consistent with anenergetically dominant active galactic nucleus, whereas IC 4995 exhibitsevidence for a very compact starburst.

A Survey for H 2O Megamasers in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Comparison of Detected and Undetected Galaxies
A survey for H2O megamaser emission from 354 active galaxies hasresulted in the detection of 10 new sources, making 16 known altogether.The galaxies surveyed include a distance-limited sample (coveringSeyferts and LINERs with recession velocities less than 7000 km s-1) anda magnitude-limited sample (covering Seyferts and LINERs with mB <=14.5). In order to determine whether the H2O-detected galaxies are"typical" active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or have special properties thatfacilitate the production of powerful masers, we have accumulated adatabase of physical, morphological, and spectroscopic properties of theobserved galaxies. The most significant finding is that H2O megamasersare detected only in Seyfert 2 and LINER galaxies, not Seyfert 1's. Thislack of detection in Seyfert 1's indicates either that they do not havemolecular gas in their nuclei with physical conditions appropriate toproduce 1.3 cm H2O masers or that the masers are beamed away from Earth,presumably in the plane of the putative molecular torus that hides theSeyfert 1 nucleus in Seyfert 2's. LINERs are detected at a similar rateto Seyfert 2's, which constitutes a strong argument that at least somenuclear LINERs are AGNs rather than starbursts, since starbursts havenot been detected as H2O megamasers. We preferentially detect H2Oemission from the nearer galaxies and from those that are apparentlybrighter at mid- and far-infrared and centimeter radio wavelengths.There is also a possible trend for the H2O-detected galaxies to be moreintrinsically luminous in nuclear 6 cm radio emission than theundetected ones, though these data are incomplete. We find evidence thatSeyfert 2's with very high (NH > 1024 cm-2) X-ray--absorbing columnsof gas are more often detected as H2O maser emitters than Seyfert 2'swith lower columns. It may be that the probability of detecting H2Omaser emission in Seyfert galaxies increases with increasing column ofcool gas to the nucleus, from Seyfert 1's through narrow-line X-raygalaxies to Seyfert 2's.

Optical and Far-Infrared Emission of IRAS Seyfert Galaxies
This paper presents an analysis of moderately large samples of type 1and 2 Seyfert galaxies through optical observations and far-infraredIRAS data, also taking into account theoretical color indices derivedfrom dust emission models. The galaxies in the samples cover a ratherlarge interval in far-infrared luminosity, i.e., 7.6 <= log(LIR/Lȯ) <= 12.6. We show that both types of Seyferts haveapproximately the same distribution of number of objects with a givenLIR. Galaxies with similar far-infrared color indices alpha (100, 60)are grouped together, and the corresponding average color indices areinterpreted in terms of a simple model in which the observed colorsresult from the combination of dust directly heated by the activegalactic nucleus with a component from the host galaxy represented bythe emission of cool dust. On the basis of the average IRAS colors ofthe derived groups, we show that type 1 and 2 Seyfert galaxies areundistinguishable from each other. From the luminosity ratios LIR/LHalpha and LIR/L[O III], we show that basically the same model can beapplied to both types of Seyfert, only allowing for the variation ofmodel conditions: type 2 Seyferts would be like type 1 Seyferts but withthe Seyfert nucleus and broad line region more effectively "hidden" bydust.

Spectra of Four IRAS-Selected AGN Candidates
Observations of four southern warm IRAS objects are presented. Fromtheir optical spectral characteristics they are classified according totheir principal excitation mechanisms: one as a Seyfert 2 type, twoothers as H II region-like galaxies (one of them is a starburst galaxy);the proposed optical identification for the remaining IRAS object is astar of early K type. Their heliocentric radial velocities are given.Additional observations of other eight IRAS galaxies are also reported,basically confirming previous results with slight variations inredshifts and classifications. (SECTION: Quasars and Active GalacticNuclei)

A Multiwavelength Catalog of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Observed in the 2--10 keV Energy Band
This paper is a catalog of Seyfert 2 galaxies observed in the 2-10 keVband (339 flux entries). In total, it contains data on 150 objects; for76 objects, a positive detection is reported, while for the remainingsources, 2 σ upper limits to the X-ray emission are given. Most ofthe data have been collected from the literature over a period startingfrom 1974 up to the middle of 1995. Accurate searches of literature anddatabases were performed for all objects, and frequently spectral fitswere reevaluated in order to make the data in the catalog uniform andcomplete. Some unpublished data are also included. For six objects,EXOSAT/ME date have been extracted from the satellite database andanalyzed; the 13 fluxes obtained have been added to the present catalog.The compilation of hard X-ray data has been complemented with data inthe soft (0.1-3 keV) X-ray band, as well as in ultraviolet (1450 A),optical (5500 A), infrared (3.5, 12, 25, 60, 100 micron), and radio (6cm) bands. Fluxes of the [O II] λ5007 and Hβ emission linesas well as the Balmer decrement Hα/Hβ, and axial ratio a/bare also given. The present database is meant to be a useful tool forthe study of the Seyfert 2 phenomenon in its various aspects.

A Survey for H 2O Megamasers in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Observations
We report an extensive search for 22 GHz H_2_O maser emission fromnearby active galaxies. Our sample includes all Seyfert and LINERgalaxies listed in the Huchra catalog or the Veron-Cetty & Veroncatalog with recessional velocities less than 7000 km s^-1^, and allSeyfert galaxies and LINERs in Huchra's catalog with m_b_ <= 14. Inaddition to these distance- and magnitude-limited samples, we have alsoobserved a number of active galaxies, including radio galaxies, athigher redshift; In all, some 354 galaxies have been surveyed. Ten newH_2_O megamaser sources have been detected, resulting in 16 galaxiesthat are currently known to contain H_2_O masers with isotropicluminosities greater than 20 L_sun_. Of the observed active galaxieswith cz < 7000 km s^-1^, 5.4% have detectable H_2_O megamaseremission. This fraction increases to 11% for those sources with cz <2000 km s^-1^. The newly discovered megamaser sources were monitored onsubsequent observing runs. The strength of the maser features varies forthese sources, as they do for Galactic masers. Three of the galaxieshave sufficient data to test for velocity changes of narrow masercomponents comparable in magnitude to those of the well-studied systemicfeatures in NGC 4258. The maser line in one of these galaxies-NGC2639-is found to have a systematic redward velocity drift of 6.6 +/- 0.4km s^-1^ yr^-1^. No systematic velocity drifts are found for the othertwo sources. We also report large apparent velocity changes in theunusual broad H_2_O emission feature in NGC 1052.

An Emission-Line Imaging Survey of Early-Type Seyfert Galaxies. I. The Observations
Flux-calibrated images in the lines of [O III] λ5007 and Hα+ [N II] λλ6548, 6583 and the nearby continuum arepresented for 57 Seyfert galaxies of early morphological type. Thissample includes all known Seyfert galaxies with apparent magnitude m_v_<= 14.5 and recessional velocity cz < 7000 km s^-1^ in Hubbletypes E, S0, and S0/a. Images are also presented for an additional 26galaxies with m_v_ > 14.5, cz > 7000 km s^-1^, and/or an uncertainclassification as a Seyfert galaxy. The ratio of the [O III]λ5007 to the Hα + [N II] image has been obtained for eachgalaxy with extended emission to study the spatial variation of thegaseous excitation. Maps of the V - R color distributions over thegalaxies are also presented.

Stellar and Gaseous Kinematics of Seyfert Galaxies. I. Spectroscopic Data
In order to study the relationship between the gravitational potentialand the properties of active galaxies, we have measured nuclear stellarand gaseous kinematics for a large sample of Seyfert galaxies. In thispaper we present moderate-resolution data (80-230 km s^-1^ FWHM) fromtwo spectral regions, one in the near-infrared containing the Ca IItriplet absorption features at ~8550 A and the [S III] 9069 A emissionline, and the other in the visual including the Mg b absorption lines at~5175 A and the [O III] 5007 A emission line. Nuclear stellarvelocities, V_*_,and velocity dispersions, σ_*_, were measuredusing the cross- correlation method. Complications for the kinematicanalysis associated with the featureless continua and strong emissionlines in Seyfert galaxies are briefly discussed. Emission-linevelocities and widths were also measured from our spectra. The finalsample contains 85 objects (22 type 1 Seyfert galaxies, 51 type 2Seyferts, nine LINERs, and three normal galaxies). We provide asupplement to the database of narrow-line region and host galaxyproperties compiled by Whittle (1992a) for 20 Seyfert galaxies notoriginally included. We plan to use our measurements in conjunction withthis database to investigate the relationship between the nucleargravitational potential and other properties of Seyfert galaxies.

Active galaxies observed during the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer all-sky survey
We present observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) obtained withthe Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) during the all-sky survey. Atotal of 13 sources were detected at a significance of 2.5 sigma orbetter: seven Seyfert galaxies, five BL Lac objects, and one quasar. Thefraction of BL Lac objects is higher in our sample than in hard X-raysurveys but is consistent with the soft X-ray Einstein Slew Survey,indicating that the main reason for the large number of BL Lac objectsin the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray bands is their steeperX-ray spectra. We show that the number of AGNs observed in both the EUVEand ROSAT Wide Field Camera surveys can readily be explained bymodelling the EUV spectra with a simple power law in the case of BL Lacobjects and with an additional EUV excess in the case of Seyferts andquasars. Allowing for cold matter absorption in Seyfert galaxy hostsdrive up the inferred average continuum slope to 2.0 +/- 0.5 (at 90%confidence), compared to a slope of 1.0 usually found from soft X-raydata. If Seyfert galaxies without EUV excesses form a significantfraction of the population, then the average spectrum of those withbumps should be even steeper. We place a conservative limit on neutralgas in BL Lac objects: NH less than 1020/sq cm.

The relation between dynamical perturbations, morphology, and nuclear activity in spiral galaxies
The whole population of active galaxies with known morphology has beeninvestigated. It is found, in agreement with earlier findings, that thevast majority of active nuclei appears in early-type spirals. Thepercentage of active nuclei in barred galaxies is similar to thepercentage of barred galaxies in the general population of spirals. Evenif active galaxies in general do not seem to prefer barred galaxies, itappears that all of them without exception either have a close companionor present a distorted morphology, usually with bars and/or rings. Thisresult strongly suggests that the presence of nonaxisymmetric componentsof the potential is a necessary condition for the onset of nuclearactivity. Arguments are also given to understand the connection betweenmorphology and nuclear activity and on the sufficient conditions toproduce it. The variety of situations leading to the presence ofnonaxisymmetric perturbations strongly points out that the presence ofnuclear activity is not the cause but one of the effects accompanyingthose perturbations.

Compact radio cores in Seyfert galaxies
We have observed a sample of 157 Seyfert galaxies with a 275 km baselineradio interferometer to search for compact, high brightness temperatureradio emission from the active nucleus. We obtain the surprising resultthat compact radio cores are much more common in Seyfert 2 than inSeyfert 1 galaxies, which at first seems to be inconsistent withorientation unification schemes. We propose a model, involving opticaldepth effects in the narrow-line region, which can reconcile our resultwith the standard unified scheme.

Virial and jet-induced velocities in Seyfert galaxies. I - A compilation of narrow line region and host galaxy properties
Data for a sample of 140 Seyfert galaxies have been compiled with theaim of studying the dependence of nuclear gas velocities on propertiesof the host galaxy and properties of the nuclear activity. Parameterswhich characterize these three basic qualities include (1) forbidden OIII 5007 emission line widths measured at various levels in the profile,(2) galaxy luminosity, morphology, inclination, disturbance, androtation amplitude, and (3) H-beta luminosity, forbidden III 5007luminosity, radio luminosity, radio morphology, and Seyfert type.Because compilations of this type draw on a wide range of data quality,each value has been assigned a simple yet well-defined quality rating(a, b, c, r = reject). These indicate the relative data reliability andmake it possible to monitor the influence of poor data on correlationanalyses. Simple descriptions of the parameter distributions are given.

Warm IRAS sources. II - Optical spectroscopy of objects from the point source catalog
Optical spectra are presented for a sample of 563 high latitude IRASsources exhibiting relatively warm 25-60 micron colors, with a view tothe efficient identification of Seyfert galaxies. Spectroscopic data areobtained on 358 extragalactic objects. The present census is consistentwith an obscuration scheme for producing both types of Seyfert objectfrom a single parent population, although the origin of excess cool IRradiation from many Seyferts remains unclear.

Far infrared Seyfert galaxies and their confusing point sources.
Not Available

An optical catalog of extragalactic emission-line objects similar to quasi-stellar objects
A catalog of 935 galaxies which have optical properties similar to thoseof QSOs is given. A subsidiary table of cross-identifications enablesthe reader to relate the name of a given object to its coordinate name.Most of the objects appear to be nonstellar. The majority, more than700, have redshifts z = 0.2 or less, and have mostly been classified asSeyfert galaxies, N systems, or radio galaxies. The Hubble diagram forall of the objects with z = 0.2 or less is shown. The redshiftdistribution peaks at z = 0.025, but there are about 200 powerful radiogalaxies in the extended tail of the distribution which have z greaterthan 0.2. There is a separate and distinct peak in the redshiftdistribution at z = 0.06.

The plane W(Na I) X W(Mg I) - Effects of interstellar Na I in a sample of southern galaxies
Galaxy spectra from a subsample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey databank were used to study the equivalent width plane for the lines Na Ilambda 5893 A vs Mg I lambda 5175 A. An estimate of how important thecontribution of the interstellar gas for the sodium line is compared tothat of the stellar population. The sample is made up of galaxies withmorphological types from E to Sc and are distributed up to radialvelocities of 25,000 km/s, most of them smaller than 15,000 km/s. Mostearly type galaxies with dust lanes, particularly nearly edge-on So's,present an enhancement of the Na I line. Inclined spiral galaxies tendto present enhanced Na I with respect to face-on spirals. This tendency,previously found in a smaller sample of galaxies limited to V equal toor less than 6000 km/s, is now confirmed for more distant ones. In thelarge velocity sample it shows the global bulge rather than the verynucleus; the persistence of the effect suggests that the scale height ofthe gas layer in the central disk can reach a considerable fraction ofthe bulge radius.

UBVRI aperture photometry of southern Seyfert galaxies and related objects.
Not Available

X-ray and infrared selected active galactic nuclei. I - The missing edge-on galaxies
Morphological classification and axial ratio measurements for a sampleof 288 Seyfert Galaxies (SGs) are presented. Seyferts are predominantlyspirals, and a deficiency of edge-on objects is found of both classesSeyfert 1 and 2 in comparison with a sample of 1600 normal spirals. Thedata suggest that obscuration extends beyond line region, and that thedistribution of dust is flattened and coplanar with the disk of theparent galaxy. A way to find the missing edge-on SGs on the basis oftheir infrared and X-ray emission is proposed. A sample of 144 IRASgalaxies lying inside or close to unidentified hard X-ray HEAO-1 sourcesis selected. Most of the target galaxies are in fact seen edge-on, andit is estimated that at least about 34 of them are obscured activegalactic nuclei (AGN) associated with the X-ray sources.

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Right ascension:20h19m58.90s
Aparent dimensions:1.175′ × 0.794′

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ICIC 4995

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