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 Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Galaxies from ROSAT High Resolution Imager Observations I. Data AnalysisX-ray observations have revealed in other galaxies a class ofextranuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities of1039-1041 ergs s-1, exceeding theEddington luminosity for stellar mass X-ray binaries. Theseultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be powered by intermediate-massblack holes of a few thousand Msolar or stellar mass blackholes with special radiation processes. In this paper, we present asurvey of ULXs in 313 nearby galaxies withD25>1' within 40 Mpc with 467 ROSAT HighResolution Imager (HRI) archival observations. The HRI observations arereduced with uniform procedures, refined by simulations that help definethe point source detection algorithm employed in this survey. A sampleof 562 extragalactic X-ray point sources withLX=1038-1043 ergs s-1 isextracted from 173 survey galaxies, including 106 ULX candidates withinthe D25 isophotes of 63 galaxies and 110 ULX candidatesbetween 1D25 and 2D25 of 64 galaxies, from which aclean sample of 109 ULXs is constructed to minimize the contaminationfrom foreground or background objects. The strong connection betweenULXs and star formation is confirmed based on the striking preference ofULXs to occur in late-type galaxies, especially in star-forming regionssuch as spiral arms. ULXs are variable on timescales over days to yearsand exhibit a variety of long term variability patterns. Theidentifications of ULXs in the clean sample show some ULXs identified assupernovae (remnants), H II regions/nebulae, or young massive stars instar-forming regions, and a few other ULXs identified as old globularclusters. In a subsequent paper, the statistic properties of the surveywill be studied to calculate the occurrence frequencies and luminosityfunctions for ULXs in different types of galaxies to shed light on thenature of these enigmatic sources. Completing H I observations of galaxies in the Virgo clusterHigh sensitivity (rms noise  0.5 mJy) 21-cm H I line observationswere made of 33 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, using the refurbishedArecibo telescope, which resulted in the detection of 12 objects. Thesedata, combined with the measurements available from the literature,provide the first set of H I data that is complete for all 355 late-type(Sa-Im-BCD) galaxies in the Virgo cluster with mp ≤ 18.0mag. The Virgo cluster H I mass function (HIMF) that was derived forthis optically selected galaxy sample is in agreement with the HIMFderived for the Virgo cluster from the blind HIJASS H I survey and isinconsistent with the Field HIMF. This indicates that both in this richcluster and in the general field, neutral hydrogen is primarilyassociated with late-type galaxies, with marginal contributions fromearly-type galaxies and isolated H I clouds. The inconsistency betweenthe cluster and the field HIMF derives primarily from the difference inthe optical luminosity function of late-type galaxies in the twoenvironments, combined with the HI deficiency that is known to occur ingalaxies in rich clusters.Tables \ref{t1, \ref{sample_dat} and Appendix A are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Are interactions the primary triggers of star formation in dwarf galaxies?We investigate the assumption that the trigger of star formation indwarf galaxies is interactions with other galaxies, in the context of asearch for a primary' trigger of a first generation of stars. This iscosmologically relevant because the galaxy formation process consistsnot only of the accumulation of gas in a gravitational potential wellbut also of the triggering of star formation in this gas mass, and alsobecause some high-z potentially primeval galaxy blocks look like nearbystar-forming dwarf galaxies. We review theoretical ideas proposed toaccount for the tidal interaction triggering mechanism and present aseries of observational tests of this assumption using published data.We also show results of a search in the vicinity of a composite sampleof 96 dwarf late-type galaxies for interaction candidates showing starformation. The small number of possible perturbing galaxies identifiedin the neighbourhood of our sample galaxies, along with similar findingsfrom other studies, supports the view that tidal interactions may not berelevant as primary triggers of star formation. We conclude thatinteractions between galaxies may explain some forms of star formationtriggering, perhaps in central regions of large galaxies, but they donot seem to be significant for dwarf galaxies and, by inference, forfirst-time galaxies forming at high redshifts. Intuitive reasoning,based on an analogy with stellar dynamics, shows that conditions forprimary star formation triggering may occur in gas masses oscillating ina dark-matter gravitational potential. We propose this mechanism as aplausible primary trigger scenario, which would be worth investigatingtheoretically. The luminosity function of the Virgo Cluster from MB=-22 to -11We measure the galaxy luminosity function (LF) for the Virgo Clusterbetween blue magnitudes MB=-22 and -11 from wide-fieldcharge-coupled device (CCD) imaging data. The LF is only graduallyrising for -22 Hα surface photometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. IV. The current star formation in nearby clusters of galaxiesHα +[NII] imaging observations of 369 late-type (spiral) galaxiesin the Virgo cluster and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster are analyzed,covering 3 rich nearby clusters (A1367, Coma and Virgo) and nearlyisolated galaxies in the Great-Wall. They constitute an opticallyselected sample (mp<16.0) observed with ~ 60 %completeness. These observations provide us with the current(T<107 yrs) star formation properties of galaxies that westudy as a function of the clustercentric projected distances (Theta ).The expected decrease of the star formation rate (SFR), as traced by theHα EW, with decreasing Theta is found only when galaxies brighterthan Mp ~ -19.5 are considered. Fainter objects show no orreverse trends. We also include in our analysis Near Infrared data,providing information on the old (T>109 yrs) stars. Puttogether, the young and the old stellar indicators give the ratio ofcurrently formed stars over the stars formed in the past, orbirthrate'' parameter b. For the considered galaxies we also determinethe global gas content'' combining HI with CO observations. We definethe gas deficiency'' parameter as the logarithmic difference betweenthe gas content of isolated galaxies of a given Hubble type and themeasured gas content. For the isolated objects we find that b decreaseswith increasing NIR luminosity. In other words less massive galaxies arecurrently forming stars at a higher rate than their giant counterpartswhich experienced most of their star formation activity at earliercosmological epochs. The gas-deficient objects, primarily members of theVirgo cluster, have a birthrate significantly lower than the isolatedobjects with normal gas content and of similar NIR luminosity. Thisindicates that the current star formation is regulated by the gaseouscontent of spirals. Whatever mechanism (most plausibly ram-pressurestripping) is responsible for the pattern of gas deficiency observed inspiral galaxies members of rich clusters, it also produces the observedquenching of the current star formation. A significant fraction of gas`healthy'' (i.e. with a gas deficiency parameter less than 0.4) andcurrently star forming galaxies is unexpectedly found projected near thecenter of the Virgo cluster. Their average Tully-Fisher distance isfound approximately one magnitude further away (muo = 31.77)than the distance of their gas-deficient counterparts (muo =30.85), suggesting that the gas healthy objects belong to a cloudprojected onto the cluster center, but in fact lying a few Mpc behindVirgo, thus unaffected by the dense IGM of the cluster. Based onobservations taken at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional(Mexico), the OHP (France), Calar Alto and NOT (Spain) observatories.Table \ref{tab4} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Broad-band colours of Virgo cluster low surface brightness dwarf irregular galaxiesWe present UBVRI images and surface photometry of a complete sample of29 low-luminosity dwarf irregular galaxies in the Virgo cluster, forwhich we derive central surface brightnesses, scalelengths, integratedmagnitudes and median colours. The colour distributions are discussed interms of radial surface brightness profiles, and colour gradients areinterpreted and compared with corresponding ones for lowsurface-brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. By combining broad-band andnarrow-band filter observations, the past and current influences of thecluster environment on the evolution of LSB dwarf irregular galaxies isevaluated. Lopsidedness in dwarf irregular galaxiesWe quantify the amplitude of the lopsidedness, the azimuthal angularasymmetry index and the concentration of star-forming regions, asrepresented by the distribution of the Hα emission, in a sample of78 late-type irregular galaxies. We bin the observed galaxies into twogroups representing blue compact galaxies (BCDs) andlow-surface-brightness dwarf galaxies (LSBs). The light distribution isanalysed with a novel algorithm, which allows detection of details inthe light distribution pattern. We find that while the asymmetry of theunderlying continuum light, representing the older stellar generations,is relatively small, the Hα emission is very asymmetric and iscorrelated in position angle with the continuum light. We show that theconcentration of continuum light is correlated with the Hαconcentration; this implies that the young star formation has the samespatial properties as the older stellar populations, but that theseproperties are more strongly expressed by the young stars. We test amodel of random star formation over the extent of a galaxy by simulatingHii regions in artificial dwarf galaxies. A galaxy is traced by assumingred star clusters distributed on an underlying exponential disc ofradius twice the scalelength. The disc is allowed to change in apparentmagnitude, scaleradius, position angle and ellipticity. We compare theasymmetry-concentration distribution predicted by the simulations withthe real observed distribution; we find that only LSBs match thedistribution predicted by the model. The reason is that, independentlyof the number of Hii regions, LSBs show no particular location of Hiiregions, whereas BCDs show current star formation activity restrictedvery much to the central parts of the galaxies. A consideration of theproperties of the continuum light leads to the conclusion that most ofLSBs can be approximated by exponential discs of radius twice theirscalelength; BCDs call, however, for much more concentrated underlyingsystems, with smaller scalelengths than assumed in the simulations. Theimplication is that random star formation over the full extent of agalaxy may be generated in LSB dwarf irregular galaxies but not in BCDgalaxies. Late-type dwarf irregular galaxies in the Virgo cluster - I. H alpha and red continuum dataWe present H alpha and red continuum observations for a sample oflate-type low surface brightness (LSB) dwarf irregular galaxies,consisting of all the ImIV and V galaxies with m_B<= 17.2 in theVirgo cluster, and compare them with similar data for a representativesample of high surface brightness (HSB) dwarf irregular galaxies, alsoin the Virgo cluster. Line fluxes and equivalent widths are listed forindividual HII regions, and total H alpha emission is measured for theentire galaxy. Although significant line emission originates in the HIIregions that we have identified, it does not make up the entire H alphaoutput of all galaxies. For those objects in the LSB sample withHα emission, we find typical star formation rates (SFRs) from6.9x10^-3 to as high as 4.3x10^-2 M_solar yr^-1. This is, on average,one order of magnitude weaker than for HSB objects, although the SFRsoverlap. On average, ~2 HII regions are detected per LSB galaxy, for atotal of 38 HII regions among 17 galaxies with Hα emission. TheHII regions are smaller and fainter than in HSB galaxies in the sameVirgo cluster environment, have Hα line equivalent widths about 50per cent of those in HSBs, and cover similar fractions of the galaxies.When more than one HII region is present in a galaxy, we observe astrong intensity difference between the brightest and the secondbrightest HII regions. The line-emitting regions of LSB galaxies arepreferentially located at the periphery of the galaxy, while in HSBsthey tend to be central. The Hα line strength of an HII region iscorrelated with the red continuum light underneath the region; thisholds for both LSBs and HSBs. We do not identify fundamental differencesin the star formation properties of the LSB and HSB dwarf galaxies thatwe have studied, and we infer that these galaxies must be similar, withthe difference being the intensity of the present star formation burst. Morphology of star formation regions in irregular galaxiesThe location of HII regions, which indicates the locus of present starformation in galaxies, is analysed for a large collection of 110irregular galaxies (Irr) imaged in Hα and nearby continuum. Theanalysis is primarily by visual inspection, although a two-dimensionalquantitative measure is also employed. The two different analyses yieldessentially identical results. HII regions appear preferentially at theedges of the light distribution, predominantly on one side of thegalaxy, contrary to what is expected from stochastic self-propagatingstar formation scenarios. This peculiar distribution of star-formingregions cannot be explained by a scenario of star formation triggered byan interaction with extragalactic gas, or by a strong one-armed spiralpattern. Discovery of O VI Emission from the Galactic Corona with the Hopkins Ultraviolet TelescopeWe have searched for far-UV emission from coronal gas in the Galactichalo along lines of sight with Galactic latitudes between 42^deg^ and88^deg^ in spectra obtained by the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope duringthe Astro-2 space shuttle mission in 1995 March. Of four spectra takenthrough a 19" x 197" aperture, two show O VI λλ1032, 1038emission at a significance of 4 σ. Two out of six spectra takenthrough a 10" x 56" aperture also show O VI emission, though at only 2σ levels of significance. Three of the detections lie near regionsof enhanced soft X-ray emission associated with Radio Loop I. Thefourth, at l = 218^deg^, b = 56^deg^, may represent a more typicalregion of the halo. In its spectrum, we find I(O VI) = (3.59 +/- 0.96) x10^-7^ ergs cm^-2^ s^-1^. This is the first detection of O VI emissionfrom the Galactic halo. None of the spectra exhibit significant emissionfrom C IV λλ1548, 1551, though our upper limits aregreater than the intensities reported for other lines of sight. We set alimit on I(O VI)/I(C IV) >= 3.4, consistent with the predictions ofself-photoionizing Galactic fountain models, but higher than those ofmodels based on turbulent mixing layers. Combining our measured O VIintensity with estimates of N(O VI) through the halo, we find that, for5.3 <= log T <= 5.8, the data are consistent with n_e_ ~ 0.06cm^-3^ and 22,000 <= P/k <= 67,000 cm^-3^ K, values substantiallygreater than those derived from C IV observations, suggesting that the CIV and O VI emission arise from physically distinct clouds and/or that asubstantial portion of the C IV absorption arises from cooler gas thatdoes not contribute to the C IV emission. This result is consistent withGalactic halo models incorporating self-photoionization of the coolinggas. An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect. General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groupsWe present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog. The kinematics of the Virgo cluster revisitedThe paper updates the velocity data of Virgo cluster galaxies andreconsiders the kinematic structure of the Virgo cluster. New velocitiesare given for 144 galaxies listed in the Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC).Improved velocities are given for another 131 VCC galaxies. The Virgocluster is disentangled from its surrounding clouds of galaxies, and thelikely members of each of these clouds are listed. The velocitydistribution of dwarf elliptical cluster members is found to be highlyasymmetric. This phenomenon is interpreted as evidence for the imminentmerging of two subclusters in the core region, which points to thedynamical youth of the Virgo cluster. The mean heliocentric velocity ofthe Virgo cluster is estimated at 1050 +/- 35 km/s. The Virgo cluster as a test for quantization of extragalactic redshiftsTifft's (1972, 1977) hypothesis that redshifts are partially quantizedwith a periodicity in the range 70-75 km/s is tested for samples ofbright spiral and dwarf irregular galaxies with accurate H I redshiftsin the region of the Virgo cluster. The heliocentric redshifts arecorrected for solar motion, first by adopting an estimate of the sun'smotion with respect to the centroid of the Local Group, and then byallowing the solar velocity vector to vary in direction over the wholesky. Power spectrum analyses of the corrected redshifts are used tosearch for a significant periodicity in the prescribed range 70-75 km/s.No such periodicity is found for the dwarf irregulars, but there is apossible periodicity of about 71.1 km/s for the bright spirals. In afurther exploratory study, the sample of 112 spirals is divided upaccording to environment. The spirals in high-density regions of thecluster show no quantization, whereas those in low-density regionsappear to be partially quantized in intervals of about 71.0 km/s. 21 centimeter line width distances of cluster galaxies and the value of H0Locally calibrated blue and infrared Tully-Fisher (TF) relations areapplied to an 82 percent complete sample of 81 Sab-Sm galaxies which arebona fide members of the Virgo Cluster. A nearly unbiased Virgo modulusof 31.60 + or - 0.15 can be derived in perfect agreement withindependent recent determinations. It is shown that the blue TF andinfrared TF relations give almost identical distance moduli from anyselected Virgo subsample. The intrinsic scatter about the two TFrelations is 0.7 mag, considerably larger than the observed scatter inthe UMa Cluster and in 10 more distant clusters. Distance determinationof these clusters therefore can be achieved only by fitting the upperenvelopes of their TF relations onto the blue and infrared upperenvelopes of the Virgo Cluster. The resulting distances define a linearexpansion law with a small scatter. The present cluster data require H0= 56.6 + or - 0.9 km/s/Mpc. H I detection survey of a complete magnitude-limited sample of dwarf irregular galaxies in the Virgo Cluster areaNew single-beam Arecibo H I observations of 298 late-type galaxies inthe Virgo Cluster drawn mostly from the new catalog of Binggeli,Sandage, and Tammann (1985) are presented. Two hundred seventeen ofthese constitute a magnitude-limited 'complete sample' of such galaxies,types Sdm through Im and BCD. Sixty-one percent of this 'completesample' was detected, greatly enhancing the store of redshifts and H Imasses for such galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. For detected galaxies,heliocentric velocities, 50 percent profile widths, and single-beamfluxes are presented. For those that escaped detection, upper limits arecomputed to the flux appropriate to the redshift range (-600 to +3000km/s). Comparative photometric parameters of dwarf irregular and elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster - Two different classes of dwarf galaxies?The possible evolutionary relationships of dwarf irregular (dI) anddwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies is explored with a data base thatconsists of 21 cm data, infrared photometry, and CCD multicolor surfacephotometry of both dIs and dEs in the Virgo cluster. In general, dIs areat or slightly below the same surface-brightness level as dEs, yet theyare significantly bluer. To have the same optical and IR colordistribution as the dEs requires that dIs fade by 1.5 mag in the blue.This will in turn produce a population of dwarf galaxies that will haveaverage surface brightness below the detection threshold of conventionalphotographic plates. It is concluded that the progenitors of thebrighter dE galaxies in the Virgo cluster are not to be found among thecurrent generation of dIs with the exception that some of the largerblue compact dwarf galaxies are probably gas-rich analogs to dEs.Furthermore, it is probable that dIs form a parallel sequence of dwarfgalaxies with surface mass densities significantly lower than the dEs. Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones. A catalog of dwarf galaxies in VirgoA catalog listing the location, apparent angular diameter, type,estimated central light concentration, and estimated brightness of 846dwarf galaxies in a 200-deg-sq region in Virgo is presented. Thegalaxies comprise 634 ellipticals, 137 IC-3475-type galaxies, 73 dwarfspirals and irregulars, and two objects which are jets of normalgalaxies, and were found on nine long-exposure IIIa-J-emulsion platesmade with the 1.2-m-Schmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory from 1971to 1976. Concordances to other catalogs, tables of additionalparameters, maps, graphs, and photographs are provided. The projecteddistributions of normal and dwarf galaxies and the dependence ofapparent luminosity on central light concentration are discussed. It isfound that dwarf ellipticals and IC-3475-type galaxies are probablemembers of the Virgo cluster, while dwarf spirals and possibly dwarfirregulars are not. Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1956AJ.....61...69R&db_key=AST
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