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|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. VI. HI observations and the K-band Tully-Fisher relation|
This paper reports a study of the effect of a bar on the neutralhydrogen (HI) content of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. We also makecomparisons with a sample of ``normal'' galaxies and investigate howwell starburst and Seyfert galaxies follow the fundamental scalingTully-Fisher (TF) relation defined for normal galaxies. 111 Markarian(Mrk) IRAS galaxies were observed with the Nançay radiotelescope,and HI data were obtained for 80 galaxies, of which 64 are newdetections. We determined the (20 and 50%) linewidths, the maximumvelocity of rotation and total HI flux for each galaxy. Thesemeasurements are complemented by data from the literature to form asample of Mrk IRAS (74% starburst, 23% Seyfert and 3% unknown) galaxiescontaining 105 unbarred and 113 barred ones. Barred galaxies have lowertotal and bias-corrected HI masses than unbarred galaxies, and this istrue for both Mrk IRAS and normal galaxies. This robust result suggeststhat bars funnel the HI gas toward the center of the galaxy where itbecomes molecular before forming new stars. The Mrk IRAS galaxies havehigher bias-corrected HI masses than normal galaxies. They also showsignificant departures from the TF relation, both in the B and K bands.The most deviant points from the TF relation tend to have a strongfar-infrared luminosity and a low oxygen abundance. These resultssuggest that a fraction of our Mrk IRAS galaxies are still in theprocess of formation, and that their neutral HI gas, partly of externalorigin, has not yet reached a stationary state.Based on observations obtained at the large radiotelescope ofObservatoire de Nançay, operated by Observatoire de Paris.Tables 5 and 6 are only (and Table 4 also) available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/515
|The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe|
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.
|The Hα and Infrared Star Formation Rates for the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey|
We investigate the Hα and infrared star formation rate (SFR)diagnostics for galaxies in the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey (NFGS). Forthe 81 galaxies in our sample, we derive Hα fluxes (included here)from integrated spectra. There is a strong correlation between the ratioof far-infrared to optical luminosities L(FIR)/L(Hα) and theextinction E(B-V) measured with the Balmer decrement. Before reddeningcorrection, the SFR(IR) and SFR(Hα) are related to each other by apower law: SFR(IR)=(2.7+/-0.3)SFR(Hα)1.30+/-0.06.Correction of the SFR(Hα) for extinction using the Balmerdecrement and a classical reddening curve both reduces the scatter inthe SFR(IR)-SFR(Hα) correlation and results in a much closeragreement between the two SFR indicators;SFR(IR)=(0.91+/-0.04)SFR(Hαcorr)1.07+/-0.03.SFR(IR) and SFR(Hα) agree to ~10%. This SFR relationship spans 4orders of magnitude and holds for all Hubble types with IRAS detectionsin the NFGS. A constant ratio between the SFR(IR) and SFR(Hα) forall Hubble types, including early types (S0-Sab), suggests that the IRemission in all these objects results from a young stellar population.
|Spectrophotometry of Nearby Field Galaxies: The Data|
We have obtained integrated and nuclear spectra as well as U, B, Rsurface photometry for a representative sample of 196 nearby galaxies.These galaxies span the entire Hubble sequence in morphological type, aswell as a wide range of luminosities (MB=-14 to -22). Here wepresent the spectrophotometry for these galaxies. The selection of thesample and the U, B, R surface photometry is described in a companionpaper. Our goals for the project include measuring the current starformation rates and metallicities of these galaxies, and elucidatingtheir star formation histories, as a function of luminosity andmorphology. We thereby extend the work of Kennicutt to lower luminositysystems. We anticipate that our study will be useful as a benchmark forstudies of galaxies at high redshift. We describe the observing, datareduction, and calibration techniques and demonstrate that ourspectrophotometry agrees well with that of Kennicutt. The spectra spanthe range 3550-7250 Å at a resolution (FWHM) of ~6 Å andhave an overall relative spectrophotometric accuracy of ~+/-6%. Wepresent a spectrophotometric atlas of integrated and nuclear rest-framespectra as well as tables of equivalent widths and synthetic colors. Theatlas and tables of measurements will be made available electronically.We study the correlations of galaxy properties determined from thespectra and images. Our findings include: (1) galaxies of a givenmorphological class display a wide range of continuum shapes andemission-line strengths if a broad range of luminosities are considered,(2) emission-line strengths tend to increase and continua tend to getbluer as the luminosity decreases, and (3) the scatter on the generalcorrelation between nuclear and integrated Hα emission-linestrengths is large.
|Surface Photometry of Nearby Field Galaxies: The Data|
We have obtained integrated spectra and multifilter photometry for arepresentative sample of ~200 nearby galaxies. These galaxies span theentire Hubble sequence in morphological type, as well as a wide range ofluminosities (MB=-14 to -22) and colors (B-R=0.4-1.8). Herewe describe the sample selection criteria and the U, B, R surfacephotometry for these galaxies. The spectrophotometric results will bepresented in a companion paper. Our goals for the project includemeasuring the current star formation rates and metallicity of thesegalaxies, and elucidating their star formation histories, as a functionof luminosity and morphology. We thereby extend the work of Kennicutt tolower luminosity systems. We anticipate that our study will be useful asa benchmark for studies of galaxies at high redshift. We discuss theobserving, data reduction, and calibration techniques and show that ourphotometry agrees well with previous work in those cases in whichearlier data are available. We present an atlas of images, radialsurface brightness profiles, and color profiles as well as tables ofderived parameters. The atlas and tables of measurements will be madeavailable electronically. We study the correlations of galaxy propertiesdetermined from the galaxy images. Our findings include the following:(1) colors determined within the effective radius correlate better withmorphological type than with MB and (2) 50% of thelow-luminosity galaxies are bluest in their centers.
|A CCD Study of the Environment of Seyfert Galaxies. III. Host Galaxies and the Nearby Environments|
A technique is described that permits the robust decomposition of thebulge and disk components of a sample of Seyfert galaxies, as well as a(control) sample of nonactive galaxies matched to the Seyferts in thedistributions of redshift, luminosity, and morphological classification.The structural parameters of the host galaxies in both samples aremeasured. No statistically significant differences at greater than the95% level are found in these parameters according to aKolmogorov-Smirnov test. ``Companion galaxies''-defined as any galaxywithin a projected separation of 200 h-1 kpc from the centerof the host-are identified and their basic properties measured. Acomparison between the active and control samples in the distributionsof apparent R magnitude, absolute R magnitude (assuming the companionsare at the distance of the host), projected separation from the host,position angle relative to the host, magnitude difference between thecompanion and host, and strength of the tidal parameter shows nostatistically significant differences. Similarly, no statisticallysignificant differences are found between the control and active samplehost galaxies in terms of light asymmetries-bars, rings, isophotaltwisting, etc. The implications for a model in which interactions andmergers are responsible for inciting activity in galactic nuclei arediscussed briefly.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. V. Morphological analysis of bars|
We have measured the bar lengths and widths of 125 barred galaxiesobserved with CCDs. The dependence of bar strength (identified with baraxis ratio) on morphological type, nuclear activity, central and mid-barsurface brightness is investigated. The properties of the bars are bestexplained if the sample is divided into early- (< SBbc) and late-typegalaxies, and into active (starburst, Seyfert or LINER) and normalgalaxies. We find that galaxies with very long bars are mostly activeand that normal late-type galaxies have a distinct behavior from thethree other groups of galaxies. We confirm earlier findings that activelate-type galaxies tend to have both stronger and longer bars thannormal ones. An important result of this paper is that early-typegalaxies do not share this behavior: they all tend to have strong bars,whether they are active or not. We also find correlations between barstrength and relative surface brightness in the middle and at the edgeof the bar, which are not followed by normal late-type galaxies. Theseresults are interpreted in the light of recent numerical simulations andparadigms about galaxy evolution. They suggest that normal late-typegalaxies represent the first stage of galaxy evolution, and that bars inearly- and late-type galaxies do not have the same properties becausethey have a different origin. Based on observations obtained at the 2meter telescope of Observatoire du Pic du Midi, operated by INSU (CNRS)
|A CCD Study of the Environment of Seyfert Galaxies. I. The Survey|
Large-format, R-band CCD data are presented for a spectroscopicallycomplete sample of 34 Seyfert galaxies and a control sample of 45nonactive galaxies that are well matched to the Seyfert sample inredshift, luminosity, and morphological type. Gray-scale images of thelocal environment are included for all of the host galaxies, as well asfigures showing the surface brightness, ellipticity, and position angleof the major axis as a function of radius. These data will be used tostudy the environments of these galaxies and hence to test the"interaction hypothesis" that, over the past two decades, has beenimplicated as the triggering mechanism for nuclear activity. While thereare no dramatic differences in most parameters between the active andnonactive samples, the distributions of ellipticities and major-axisposition-angle excursions of the Seyfert host galaxies and the controlgalaxies are marginally different. A higher proportion of Seyfertgalaxies appear to be involved in late-stage mergers. A similar fractionof the control sample, however, displays significant light asymmetriesthat could be evidence for recent interactions. Moreover, a small butsubstantial number of the Seyfert galaxies show no evidence for recentinteractions as judged by the absence of light asymmetries.
|Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. III. Definition of a homogeneous sample of starburst nucleus galaxies|
This paper presents optical long-slit spectroscopic observations of 105barred Markarian IRAS galaxies. These observations are used to determinethe spectral type (starburst or Seyfert) of emission-line regions in thenucleus and along the bar of the galaxies, in order to define ahomogeneous sample of Starburst Nucleus Galaxies (SBNGs). Our selectioncriteria (ultraviolet excess, far infrared emission and barredmorphology) have been very efficient for selecting star-forminggalaxies, since our sample of 221 emission-line regions includes 82%nuclear or extranuclear starbursts. The contamination by Seyferts is low(9%). The remaining galaxies (9%) are objects with ambiguousclassification (Hii or LINER). The dust content and Hα luminosityincrease towards the nuclei of the galaxies. No significant variation ofthe electron density is found between nuclear and bar Hii regions.However, the mean Hα luminosity and electron density in the barare higher than in typical disk Hii regions. We investigate differentmechanisms for explaining the excess of nitrogen emission observed inour starburst nuclei. There is no evidence for the presence of a weakhidden active galactic nucleus in our starburst galaxies. The cause ofthis excess is probably a selective enrichment of nitrogen in the nucleiof the galaxies, following a succession of short and intense bursts ofstar formation. Our sample of SBNGs, located at a mean redshift of ~0.015, has moderate Hα ( ~ 10(41) erg s(-1) ) and far infrared ( ~10(10) Lsun) luminosities. The types are distributed equallyamong early- and late-type giant spirals with a slight preference forSbc/Sc types because of their barred morphology. The majority (62%) ofSBNGs are isolated with no sign of gravitational interaction. In termsof distance, luminosity and level of interaction, SBNGs are intermediatebetween Hii galaxies and luminous infrared galaxies. Based onobservations obtained at the 1.93 meter telescope of Observatoire deHaute-Provence operated by INSU (CNRS). Tables 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies|
Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey ofMarkarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared datafrom the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKsobserved at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% ofthose objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHzmeasurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from theNational Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported.Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from theIRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, withreasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPACExtragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infraredcharacteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, thatis well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratioamong Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey thewell-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightestcorrelation seen for starburst MRKs.
|Galaxy structures in the Hercules region|
216 redshifts have been obtained in a region of 981 sq deg south of theHercules supercluster. 172 of these redshifts are of galaxies withmpg less than or equal to 15.1, 110 of which had no previousvelocity measurement. 44 new redshifts are of galaxies fainter thanmpg = 15.1. With these new data we have been able to define asample in a vast region (approximately 1700 sq deg) around Herculeslimited to mpg less than or equal to 15.1 with a velocitycompleteness of 81.5%. 189 galaxies have been morphologically classifiedso that all galaxies in the sample with known velocity now also haveknown morphology. The magnitude limited sample, including 556 galaxies,is then used to identify and describe galaxy structures in the region.We find that the overdense volume is small, that its overall appearanceis that of a coral branch floating in a sea of nothing and that earlyand late type galaxies defined different structures.
|Pairing properties of Markarian starburst Galaxies|
The environmental parameters of 516 non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies werestudied in a redshift-bounded sample, supplemented by new spectra andredshift measures for possible companions, in order to evaluate theiroccurrence in galaxy pairs, defined through quantitative criteria. Itwas found that one-third of these galaxies occur in pairs (while only 6to 10 percent of optically-selected galaxies are known to be paired). Acomparison of various optical and IR properties of paired and nonpairedMarkarian galaxies showed no differences in the shape of the optical,far-IR, or H-alpha luminosity functions. It was found, however, that theMarkarian component is brighter than the other galaxy in each pair by0.66 magnitude in the mean at B.
|The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog|
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.
|A model for far-IR emission of non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies|
The paper presents simple models for the FIR emission from extended H IIregions and from cooler dust heated by the general interstellarradiation field. The models account for a realistic grain-sizedistribution including PAH molecules. In addition, the model explainsthe observed correlation between the FIR to optical luminosity ratio andthe 60-10 micron colors.
|Optical and far-IR luminosity functions of Markarian galaxies|
A new optical luminosity function of Markarian galaxies is presentedwhich improves on earlier determinations. The importance of clusteringof Markarian galaxies is checked by applying an alternative methodproposed by Turner (1979) which allows the shape of the luminosityfunction to be derived for an arbitrary space distribution provided thatthe shape is the same in clusters and in the field. A fractionalbivariate function is constructed using IRAS data, and survival analysistechniques are used to exploit the information content of IR upperlimits. The resulting far-IR luminosity function is presented andcompared with previous estimates.
|A catalog of Markarian galaxies|
A catalog of Markarian galaxies is presented which tabulates redshifts,spectral and morphological classifications, magnitudes, infrared andradio flux densities, and over 600 references to available datapublished before January 1, 1986. Redshifts are now available for 1228objects with strong ultraviolet continua, and follow-up spectroscopicand photometric observations of Markarian galaxies have providedclassifications of 115 Seyfert 1, 43 Seyfert 2, and 137 starburst and HII-type galaxies. After a description of the Markarian survey and thecurrent catalog, a summary of the general results obtained from the datais presented. A preliminary study of the infrared properties ofMarkarian galaxies as measured by IRAS reveals a number of interestingresults, including the existence of a sample of elliptical andlenticular galaxies with appreciable infrared emission.
|A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data|
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.
|Accurate Optical Positions for Markarian Galaxies 798-1095|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1981AJ.....86..811K&db_key=AST
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