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 Completing H I observations of galaxies in the Virgo clusterHigh sensitivity (rms noise  0.5 mJy) 21-cm H I line observationswere made of 33 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, using the refurbishedArecibo telescope, which resulted in the detection of 12 objects. Thesedata, combined with the measurements available from the literature,provide the first set of H I data that is complete for all 355 late-type(Sa-Im-BCD) galaxies in the Virgo cluster with mp ≤ 18.0mag. The Virgo cluster H I mass function (HIMF) that was derived forthis optically selected galaxy sample is in agreement with the HIMFderived for the Virgo cluster from the blind HIJASS H I survey and isinconsistent with the Field HIMF. This indicates that both in this richcluster and in the general field, neutral hydrogen is primarilyassociated with late-type galaxies, with marginal contributions fromearly-type galaxies and isolated H I clouds. The inconsistency betweenthe cluster and the field HIMF derives primarily from the difference inthe optical luminosity function of late-type galaxies in the twoenvironments, combined with the HI deficiency that is known to occur ingalaxies in rich clusters.Tables \ref{t1, \ref{sample_dat} and Appendix A are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Spectrophotometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. The dataDrift-scan mode (3600-6800 Å) spectra with 500 Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames GalaxiesCompanion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters. UV to radio centimetric spectral energy distributions of optically-selected late-type galaxies in the Virgo clusterWe present a multifrequency dataset for an optically-selected,volume-limited, complete sample of 118 late-type galaxies (>=S0a) inthe Virgo cluster. The database includes UV, visible, near-IR, mid-IR,far-IR, radio continuum photometric data as well as spectroscopic dataof Hα , CO and HI lines, homogeneously reduced, obtained from ourown observations or compiled from the literature. Assuming the energybalance between the absorbed stellar light and that radiated in the IRby dust, we calibarte an empirical attenuation law suitable forcorrecting photometric and spectroscopic data of normal galaxies. Thedata, corrected for internal extinction, are used to construct thespectral energy distribution (SED) of each individual galaxy, andcombined to trace the median SED of galaxies in various classes ofmorphological type and luminosity. Low-luminosity, dwarf galaxies haveon average bluer stellar continua and higher far-IR luminosities perunit galaxy mass than giant, early-type spirals. If compared to nearbystarburst galaxies such as M 82 and Arp 220, normal spirals haverelatively similar observed stellar spectra but 10-100 times lower IRluminosities. The temperature of the cold dust component increases withthe far-IR luminosity, from giant spirals to dwarf irregulars. The SEDare used to separate the stellar emission from the dust emission in themid-IR regime. We show that the contribution of the stellar emission at6.75 mu m to the total emission of galaxies is generally important, from~ 80% in Sa to ~ 20% in Sc.Tables 2-5, 7, 8, and Fig. 2 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.orgTables 10-12 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/402/37 The faint end of the galaxy luminosity functionWe present and discuss optical measurements of the faint end of thegalaxy luminosity function down to MR=-10 in five differentlocal environments of varying galaxy density and morphological content.The environments we studied, in order of decreasing galaxy density, arethe Virgo Cluster, the NGC 1407 Group, the Coma I Group, the Leo Groupand the NGC 1023 Group. Our results come from a deep wide-angle surveywith the National Astronomical Observatories of Japan Subaru 8-mTelescope on Mauna Kea and are sensitive down to very faintsurface-brightness levels. Galaxies were identified as group or clustermembers on the basis of their surface brightness and morphology. Thefaintest galaxies in our sample have R~ 22.5. There were thousands offainter galaxies but we cannot distinguish cluster members frombackground galaxies at these faint limits so do not attempt to determinea luminosity function fainter than MR=-1010. In all cases,there are far fewer dwarfs than the numbers of low-mass haloesanticipated by cold dark matter theory. The mean logarithmic slope ofthe luminosity function between MR=-1018 andMR=-1010 is α~=-1.2, far shallower than the cold darkmatter mass function slope of α~=-1.8. We would therefore need tobe missing about 90 per cent of the dwarfs at the faint end of oursample in all the environments we study to achieve consistency with CDMtheory. It is unlikely that such large numbers of dwarfs are missedbecause (i) the data are deep enough that we are sensitive to very lowsurface brightness galaxies, and (ii) the seeing is good enough that wecan have some confidence in our ability to distinguish high surfacebrightness dwarfs from background galaxies brighter than R= 22.5. Onecaveat is that we miss compact members taken to be background galaxies,but such objects (like M32) are thought to be rare. The UZC-SSRS2 Group CatalogWe apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers. Total Magnitudes of Virgo Galaxies. I. Construction of a Self-Consistent Reference Dataset Spanning 8th to 18th MagnitudeThe main objectives of this series of papers are: (1) to demonstrate theexistence of serious mutual disagreements between established total (andother integrated) magnitude scales for Virgo galaxies; (2) to attempt toquantify both the systematic and random errors present within thesemagnitude scales; (3) to investigate the origins of any large erroruncovered; and thereby (4) to encourage the general adoption of rigoroustotal-magnitude measurement procedures by the astronomical community.The ramifications of the findings presented in this series of paperswill be discussed in detail at a later date. In this paper, the first inthe series, a self-consistent dataset of trustworthy total-magnitudemeasurements is compiled for a sample of Virgo galaxies spanning a rangeof 10 000 in apparent brightness, based on only the most reliablemeasurements and photometry currently available. This reference dataset,which includes luminosity profile shape information, will be used insubsequent papers as one of the bases for assessing existing magnitudescales for Virgo galaxies. As most published magnitudes are based onB-band observations, this series of papers will also focus primarily onB-band measurements. Distances to 24 Galaxies in the Direction of the Virgo Cluster and a Determination of the Hubble ConstantTo study the spatial distribution of galaxies lying between the Virgocluster and the Local Group, a search was made for probable nearbygalaxies. Using the method of brightest stars and of blue and redsupergiants made it possible to determine the distances to 24 galaxies,among which six relatively nearby galaxies were identified. The resultsof the distance determinations showed that the maximum in the numberdistribution of galaxies lies at 17.0 Mpc, which we take as the distanceto the Virgo cluster. Using the difference between the distance moduliof two clusters of galaxies, in Virgo and Coma Berenices, fromliterature sources and the velocity of the latter cluster, we determinedthe Hubble constant to be H 0 = 77 ± 7km·sec-1·Mpc-1. Dust Streamers in the Virgo Galaxy M86 from Ram Pressure Stripping of Its Companion VCC 882The giant elliptical galaxy M86 in Virgo has a ~28 kpc long dust trailinside its optical halo that points toward the nucleated dwarfelliptical galaxy VCC 882. The trail seems to be stripped material fromthe dwarf. Extinction measurements suggest that the ratio of the totalgas mass in the trail to the blue luminosity of the dwarf is aboutunity, which is comparable to such ratios in dwarf irregular galaxies.The ram pressure experienced by the dwarf galaxy in the hot gaseous haloof M86 was comparable to the internal gravitational binding energydensity of the presumed former gas disk in VCC 882. Published numericalmodels of this case are consistent with the overall trail-likemorphology observed here. Three concentrations in the trail may beevidence for the predicted periodicity of the mass loss. The evaporationtime of the trail is comparable to its age obtained from the relativespeed of the galaxies and the trail length. Thus the trail could becontinuously formed from stripped replenished gas if the VCC 882 orbitis bound. However, the high gas mass and the low expected replenishmentrate suggest that this is only the first stripping event. Implicationsfor the origin of nucleated dwarf ellipticals are briefly discussed. HI observations of nearby galaxies . I. The first list of the Karachentsev catalogWe present HI observations of the galaxies in the first list of theKarachentsev catalog of previously unknown nearby dwarf galaxies(Karachentseva & Karachentsev 1998). This survey covers all knownnearby galaxy groups within the Local Volume (i.e. within 10 Mpc) andtheir environment, that is about 25% of the total sky. A total of 257galaxies have been observed with a detection rate of 60%. We searched afrequency band corresponding to heliocentric radial velocities from -470km s-1 to ~ +4000 km s-1. Non-detections areeither due to limited coverage in radial velocity, confusion with LocalHI (mainly in the velocity range -140 km s-1 to +20 kms-1), or lack of sensitivity for very weak emission. 25% ofthe detected galaxies are located within the Local Volume. Thosegalaxies are dwarf galaxies judged by their optical linear diameter (1.4+/- 0.2 kpc on the average), their mean total HI mass (4.6107 Msun), and their observed linewidths (39 kms-1). 1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxiesWe present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) surface brightness profiledecomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies:Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma andA1367 in the Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg≤16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD,except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning fromisolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surfacebrightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), withan exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D).From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surfacebrightness (μe) and radius (re) of each component, theasymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration indexC31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Ellipticalgalaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is bestrepresented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pureexponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong functionof the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubbleclassification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositionsdecreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases withluminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 L\odot and become dominantabove 1011 L\odot . Based on observations taken atTIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Arcsecond Positions of UGC GalaxiesWe present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only. The Intrinsic Shapes of Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Irregular Galaxies and Comparison to Other Types of Dwarf GalaxiesIn this paper, we measure the ellipticities of 30 low surface brightness(LSB) dwarf irregular (dI) galaxies and compare the ellipticitydistribution with that of 80 dwarf elliptical (dEs) and 62 blue-compactdwarfs (BCDs). We find that the ellipticity distribution of LSB dIs isvery similar to that of BCDs, and marginally different from that of dEs.We then determine the distribution of intrinsic shapes of dI galaxiesand compare this to the distributions of other types of dwarf galaxiesunder various assumptions. First, we assume that LSB dIs are either alloblate or all prolate, and use a nonparametric analysis to find thebest-fitting distribution of intrinsic shapes. With this assumption, wefind that the scarcity of nearly circular LSB dIs implies, at the 99%confidence level, that they cannot be a population of randomly orientedoblate or prolate objects, implying that LSB dIs are highly unlikely tobe disk-shaped systems. Next, we assume that dIs are triaxial, and use aparametric analysis to find permissible distributions of intrinsicshapes. We find that if the intrinsic axis ratios beta and gamma aredistributed according to a Gaussian with means beta_0 and gamma_0 and acommon standard deviation of sigma, the best-fitting set of parametersfor LSB dIs is (beta_0, gamma_0, sigma) = (0.66, 0.50, 0.15), and thebest fit for BCDs is (beta_0, gamma_0, sigma) = (0.66, 0.55, 0.16),while the best fit for dEs is (beta_0, gamma_0, sigma) = (0.78, 0.69,0.24). The dIs and BCDs thus have very similar shape distributions,given this triaxial hypothesis, while the dEs peak at a somewhat morespherical shape. Therefore, our results provide strong observationalevidence to support the evolutionary scenario in which the three typesof dwarf galaxy have a close relation with each other. One Arc Degree Core Substructure of the Virgo ClusterNot Available Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxiesWe present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory. A list of new nearby dwarf galaxy candidatesTo increase completeness of the distance limited sample of nearbygalaxies from the \cite[Kraan-Korteweg & Tammann (1979)]{Kra79}catalogue we undertook a search for small companions of larger knowngalaxies which have corrected radial velocities within 500 km/s. Basedprimarily on the POSS-II and ESO/SERC films we found 260 nearby dwarfgalaxy candidates with angular diameters aga0 .5 arcmin. More than 50%of the objects were revealed for the first time. As we suppose, asignificant part of them (about 30%) may really belong to the LocalVolume sample. Tables 1 and 2 also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via\breakftp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Virgo photometry catalogue''; a catalogue of 1180 galaxies in the direction of the Virgo Cluster's coreWe present a new catalogue of galaxies in the direction of the VirgoCluster's core: the Virgo Photometry Catalogue (VPC)*. This cataloguecontains 1180 galaxies (including background objects) within a 23square-degree area of the sky centred on R.A._{1950.0} = 12h 26m anddec._{1950.0} = 13(deg) 08'. The VPC galaxy sample comprises ofnon-stellar objects brighter than B_J25 = 19.0; thecompleteness limits being B_J25 ~18.5 for the northern halfof the survey area and B_J25 ~18.0 for the southern half.Independently-calibrated photographic surface photometry is presentedfor over 1000 galaxies in the U, B_J and R_C bands. Parameters listedfor catalogued galaxies include: equatorial coordinates, morphologicaltypes, surface-brightness profile parameters (which preserve themajority of the original surface photometry information), U, B_J &R_C isophotal magnitudes, B_J and [transformed] B total magnitudes,(U-B_J) and (B_J-R_C) equal-area and total colours, apparent angularradii, ellipticities, position angles, heliocentric radial velocitiesand alternative designations. All total magnitudes and total colours areextrapolated according to a new system denoted t in order to distinguishit from the T system already in use. The VPC is based primarily on four(one U, two B_J and one R_C) UK-Schmidt plates, all of which weredigitised using the Royal Observatory Edinburgh's (ROE) COSMOS measuringmachine. All magnitudes, colours and surface-brightness parameters arederived from numerical integrations of segmented plate-scan data, exceptfor (in 109 cases) saturated or (in 51 cases) inextricably-mergedimages; our segmentation software being able to cope with the vastmajority of image mergers. * Appendices B, C and E, which contain thesurface photometry, the main catalogue and the summary cataloguerespectively, are only available in electronic form. They can beobtained from La Centre des Donees astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: BibliographyWe present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Study of the Virgo Cluster Using the B-Band Tully-Fisher RelationThe distances to spiral galaxies of the Virgo cluster are estimatedusing the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relation, and the three-dimensionalstructure of the cluster is studied. The analysis is made for a completespiral sample taken from the Virgo Cluster catalog of Binggeli, Sandage,& Tammann. The sample contains virtually all spiral galaxies down toM_{BT}=-15 mag at 40 Mpc. A careful examination is made ofthe selection effect and errors of the data. We estimate distance to 181galaxies, among which distances to 89 galaxies are reasonably accurate.We compare these distances to those obtained by other authors on agalaxy-by-galaxy basis. We find reasonable consistency of theTully-Fisher distance among various authors. In particular, it is foundthat the discrepancy in the distance among the different analyses withdifferent data is about 15%, when good H I and photometric data areavailable. We clarify that the different results on the Virgo distanceamong authors arise from the choice of the sample and interpretation ofthe data. We confirm that the Tully-Fisher relation for the Virgocluster shows an unusually large scatter sigma = 0.67 mag, compared tothat for other clusters. We conclude that this scatter is not due to theintrinsic dispersion of the Tully-Fisher relation, but due to a largedepth effect of the Virgo cluster, which we estimate to be extended from12 Mpc to 30 Mpc. The distribution of H I--deficient galaxies isconcentrated at around 14--20 Mpc, indicating the presence of a core atthis distance, and this agrees with the distance estimated for M87 andother elliptical galaxies with other methods. We show also that thespatial number density of spiral galaxies takes a peak at this distance,while a simple average of all spiral galaxy distances gives 20 Mpc. Thefact that the velocity dispersion of galaxies takes a maximum at 14--18Mpc lends an additional support for the distance to the core. Thesefeatures cannot be understood if the large scatter of the TF relation ismerely due to the intrinsic dispersion. The structure of the VirgoCluster we infer from the Tully-Fisher analysis looks like a filamentwhich is familiar to us in a late phase of structure formation in thepancake collapse in hierarchical clustering simulations. This Virgofilament lies almost along the line of sight, and this is the originthat has led a number of authors to much confusion in the Virgo distancedeterminations. We show that the M87 subcluster is located around 15--18Mpc, and it consists mainly of early-type type spiral galaxies inaddition to elliptical and S0 galaxies. There are very few late-typespiral galaxies in this subcluster. The spiral rich M49 subclusterconsists of a mixture of all types of spiral galaxies and is located atabout 22 Mpc. The two other known clouds, W and M, are located at about30--40 Mpc and undergo infall toward the core. The M cloud contains fewearly type spirals. We cannot discriminate, however, whether thesesubclusters or clouds are isolated aggregates or merely parts offilamentary structure. Finally, we infer the Hubble constant to be 82+/- 10 km s-1 Mpc-1. Near infrared surface photometry of late-type Virgo cluster galaxiesNear Infrared (K' band) surface photometry has been obtained for 102 (88late-type) Virgo cluster galaxies. A subset of 20 galaxies was alsoimaged in the H band. Magnitudes and diameters within the 21.5 and 22.0mag arcsec$^{-2}$ isophote, concentration indices and total H and K'magnitudes are derived. Basic statistical properties of a completesample of spiral galaxies spanning the range 6.3 < K'_T < 13.5 aregiven. Tables 3, 5 and 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html} Based on observations taken atthe Calar Alto Observatory, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut furAstronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with the Spanish National Commission forAstronomy. Surface Photometry of Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Irregular GalaxiesWe present CCD B and I surface brightness and color profiles for asample of 51 dwarf and low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Thegalaxies were drawn mainly from the sample of UGC dwarf and LSB galaxiesdetected in H I by Schneider et al. We focus our attention on extremedwarf irregulars (dIs) where turbulent motions are as important as ormore important than rotational motions, so that the majority of thedwarfs were chosen to have narrow H I line widths ({DELTA}V_20_ < 100km s^-1^), in addition to being nearby (v_0_ < 1500 km s^-1^).Foreach dI galaxy, we derive structural parameters for the underlying lowsurface brightness disk component on which are superimposed thestar-forming regions. We found that the central surface brightness ofthe underlying exponential component of dIs is similar to that of dwarfellipticals (dEs) but ~1.5 mag fainter than that of blue compact dwarfs(BCDs). As for the scale lengths, the dIs divide into two groups; onewhere, for a given B luminosity, the scale length of the underlyingexponential component is comparable to that of dEs and a factor of ~2larger than that of BCDs, and one group where the scale length of thedIs is comparable to that of BCDs but a factor of 2 smaller than that ofdEs. These differences in structural parameters put strong constraintson evolutionary scenarios among the three types of dwarfs. We use theCCD images to set up a tentative morphological classification scheme forLSB dIs based of the shape of the underlying low surface brightnesscomponent and the morphology and location of the star-forming regions ontop of it. The division of the dIs into two groups appears to becorrelated with morphology. There are a few dwarf spirals in our sample,which show fragments of low surface brightness spiral arms. We foundthat Nilson and Zwicky magnitudes are systematically too faint fordwarfs and LSB galaxies by 1-2 mag. The underlying disks in dIs have B-Icolors ~1.5, corresponding to a stellar population of G and Kmain-sequence or giant stars and are redder than those of BCDs. Thecolor profiles of the galaxies in the sample are generally flat, with nostrong gradient. On the Size and Formation Mechanism of Star Complexes in Sm, Im, and BCD GalaxiesThe diameters D_c_ of the largest star-forming complexes in 67Magellanic spiral and irregular galaxies and 16 blue compact dwarf (BCD)galaxies are found to scale approximately with the square root of thegalaxy luminosity for each type, i.e., smaller galaxies haveproportionately smaller star-forming regions. This is the same relationas for the largest complexes in bright spiral galaxies found previously,although Sm/Im galaxies have complexes that, on average, are a factor of2 larger than the extrapolation for spiral galaxies at the same absolutemagnitude, and the BCD galaxies have complexes that are ~2 times largerthan those typical of the Sm/Im galaxies at the same absolute magnitude.These results are consistent with the interpretation that the largestcomplexes form at the gravitational length scale in a marginally stableinterstellar medium with a nearly constant velocity dispersion c ~ 5-10km s^-1^. The luminosity scaling is then the result of higher averagetotal densities in smaller galaxies compared with the outer regions ofgiant spirals. This total density correlation is shown using published HI line widths and optical galaxy sizes. The implication of these resultsis that star formation begins when the ratio of the gas density ρ tothe total density (gas + stars + dark matter) exceeds several tenths. Ifstar formation lasts for a time scaling with (Grho_)^-1/2^ ~D_c_/c, then the main morphological differences between star formationin galaxies of various sizes can be explained: large galaxies have largestar complexes that form groups of OB associations slowly for up to 50Myr; small galaxies have small complexes (in terms of absolute size)that form dense associations quickly, in bursts spanning less than 5Myr. New aperture photometry for 217 galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters.We present photo electric multi-aperture photometry in UBVRI of 171 and46 galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters, respectively. Many of thegalaxies have not been observed in at least one of these passbandsbefore. We discuss the reduction and transformation into the Cousinsphotometric system as well as the extinction coefficients obtainedbetween 1990 and 1993. An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect. Surface photometry of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster regionPhotographic surface photometry is carried out for 246 spiral galaxiesin the Virgo cluster region north of declination + 5 deg. The samplecontains all spiral galaxies of 'certain' and 'possible' Virgo membersin the Virgo Cluster Catalogue of Binggeli, Sandage, & Tammann. Thesample also includes those galaxies which were used in the Tully-Fisheranalyses of the Virgo cluster given in the literature. A catalog ispresented for positions, B-band total magnitudes and inclinations forthese galaxies, and they are compared with the data given in previousstudies. The UV properties of normal galaxies. III. Standard luminosity profiles and total magnitudes.In the previous papers of this series we collected and reduced to thesame system all the available photometric data obtained in theultraviolet (UV) range for normal (i.e. non active) galaxies. Here weuse these data to derive standard UV luminosity profiles for threemorphological bins (E/S0; Sa/Sb; Sc/Sd) and extrapolated totalmagnitudes for almost 400 galaxies. We find that: 1) the UV growthcurves are well matched by the B-band revised standard luminosityprofiles, once a proper shift in the effective radius is applied, and 2)the UV light in early-type galaxies is more centrally concentrated thanthe visible light. The UV properties of normal galaxies. II. The non-IUE'' data.In the last decade several satellite and balloon borne experiments havecollected a large number of ultraviolet fluxes of normal galaxiesmeasured through apertures of various sizes and shapes. We havehomogenized this data set by deriving scale corrections with respect toIUE. In a forthcoming paper these data will be used to derive standardluminosity profiles and total magnitudes. A very large array survey of neutral hydrogen in Virgo Cluster spirals. 3: Surface density profiles of the gasIn this paper we analyze the radial profiles of the neutral hydrogensurface density distribution of 17 bright spirals in the Virgo Cluster.The profiles were derived from images, which were obtained with the VeryLarge Array (VLA) and which have been presented in a previous paper(Cayatte et al., (1990)). Although the sample is still small, we can forthe first time show, that different galaxies are affected differently bythe cluster environment. We make a quantitative estimate of theimportance of the different gas removal mechanisms for selectedindividual galaxies and compare these estimates with the observed H Imorphology. In some galaxies ram-pressure stripping has done seriousdamage to the H I disks, while in other galaxies turbulent viscousstripping and thermal conductivity have caused a mild, but global H Ideficiency across the entire disk. For our analysis we divide thegalaxies into three groups according to the ration of H I to opticaldiameter, a fourth group contains the anemic galaxies. As it turns out aclassification according to relative H I diameter helps to elucidatewhich gas removal processes play a role. Galaxies in different groupshave many other properties in common, most importantly the projecteddistance from the cluster center. A comparison of the radial H I surfacedensity profiles with those of field spirals of the same morphologicaltype shows, that spirals in different groups are affected verydifferently by the environment. Galaxies with the smallest H I sizeshave normal central surface densities and we suggest that these are thegalaxies that are currently undergoing ram-pressure sweeping. Thegalaxies with only slightly smaller than usual H I diameters have adepressed H I surface density across the entire face of the galaxy. Thisis quite likely due to viscous stripping. One group is only very mildlyaffected, this could be caused by gravitational effects due to distantencounters. Global properties of dwarf galaxies. I. Galaxy sample and IRAS infrared flux-densitiesWe have selected a sample of 278 dwarf galaxies for which at least Bmagnitudes and preferably also optical colour information are available.For those galaxies that have no previously published IRAS fluxes, wehave used the IRAS database to extract fluxes or upper limits tosensitivity levels significantly better than those of the IRAS PointSource Catalog. New IRAS data include 79 galaxies detected in at leastone band, and 66 galaxies with good upper limits. In total, about 60% ofall dwarf galaxies in the sample now have been detected at 60/100μm.
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