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 Is HCN a True Tracer of Dense Molecular Gas in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies?We present the results of the first HCO+ survey probing thedense molecular gas content of a sample of 16 luminous and ultraluminousinfrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs). Previous work, based on HCN (1-0)observations, had shown that LIRGs and ULIRGs possess a significantlyhigher fraction of dense molecular gas compared to normal galaxies.While the picture issued from HCO+ partly confirms thisresult, we have discovered an intriguing correlation between the HCN(1-0)/HCO+ (1-0) luminosity ratio and the IR luminosity ofthe galaxy (LIR). This trend casts doubts on the use of HCNas an unbiased quantitative tracer of the dense molecular gas content inLIRGs and ULIRGs. A plausible scenario explaining the observed trendimplies that X-rays coming from an embedded active galactic nucleus mayplay a dominant role in the chemistry of molecular gas atLIR>=1012 Lsolar. We discuss theimplications of this result for the understanding of LIRGs, ULIRGs, andhigh-redshift gas-rich galaxies. The relation between mergers and AGN activity. Results from radio galaxy and luminous infrared galaxy studiesThere is morphological evidence that the activity in powerful radiogalaxies could be triggered by mergers and galaxy interactions. However,nothing is known about the timescales, order of events, and the type ofinteraction involved. It is not yet known whether there exists anevolutionary link between radio galaxies and other merger systems suchas very luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (VLIRGs andULIRGs). Here, we report preliminary results obtained from the analysisof near-ultraviolet and optical spectroscopic observations of samples ofRadio Galaxies and VLIRGs-ULIRGs to investigate, through age-dating oftheir young stellar population, whether an evolutionary link existsbetween VLIRGs/ULIRGs-Radio Galaxies-normal elliptical galaxies. Theseresults will help to understand the genesis events that lead to theformation of radio jet and quasar activity, and they will allow us toplace radio galaxies in the context of hierarchical evolution models forthe population of giant elliptical galaxies. Examining the Seyfert-Starburst Connection with Arcsecond-Resolution Radio Continuum ObservationsWe compare the arcsecond-scale circumnuclear radio continuum propertiesof five Seyfert and five starburst galaxies, concentrating on the searchfor any structures that could imply a spatial or causal connectionbetween the nuclear activity and a circumnuclear starburst ring. Noevidence is found in the radio emission for a link between thetriggering or feeding of nuclear activity and the properties ofcircumnuclear star formation. Conversely, there is no clear evidence ofnuclear outflows or jets triggering activity in the circumnuclear ringsof star formation. Interestingly, the difference in the angle betweenthe apparent orientation of the most elongated radio emission and theorientation of the major axis of the galaxy is on average larger inSeyfert galaxies than in starburst galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies appearto have a larger physical size scale of the circumnuclear radiocontinuum emission. The concentration, asymmetry, and clumpinessparameters of radio continuum emission in Seyfert galaxies andstarbursts are comparable, as are the radial profiles of radio continuumand near-infrared line emission. The circumnuclear star formation andsupernova rates do not depend on the level of nuclear activity. Theradio emission usually traces the near-infrared Brγ andH2 1-0 S(1) line emission on large spatial scales, butlocally their distributions are different, most likely because of theeffects of varying local magnetic fields and dust absorption andscattering. Classifications of the Host Galaxies of Supernovae, Set IIIA homogeneous sample comprising host galaxies of 604 recent supernovae,including 212 objects discovered primarily in 2003 and 2004, has beenclassified on the David Dunlap Observatory system. Most SN 1991bg-likeSNe Ia occur in E and E/Sa galaxies, whereas the majority of SN1991T-like SNe Ia occur in intermediate-type galaxies. This differenceis significant at the 99.9% level. As expected, all types of SNe II arerare in early-type galaxies, whereas normal SNe Ia occur in all Hubbletypes. This difference is significant at the 99.99% level. A smallnumber of SNe II in E galaxies might be due to galaxy classificationerrors or to a small young-population component in these mainly oldobjects. No significant difference is found between the distributionsover the Hubble type of SNe Ibc and SNe II. This confirms that both ofthese types of objects have similar (massive) progenitors. The presentdata show that in order to understand the dependence of supernova typeon host-galaxy population, it is more important to obtain accuratemorphological classifications than it is to increase the size of thedata sample. The evolution of actively star-forming galaxies in the mid-infraredIn this paper we analyze the evolution of actively star-forming galaxiesin the mid-infrared (MIR). This spectral region, characterized bycontinuum emission by hot dust and by the presence of strong emissionfeatures generally ascribed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)molecules, is the most strongly affected by the heating processesassociated with star formation and/or active galactic nuclei (AGNs).Following the detailed observational characterization of galaxies in theMIR by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have updated themodelling of this spectral region in our spectrophotometric modelGRASIL. In the diffuse component we have updated the treatment of PAHsaccording to the model by Li & Draine. As for the dense phase of theinterstellar medium associated with the star-forming regions, themolecular clouds, we strongly decrease the abundance of PAHs as comparedto that in the cirrus, based on the observational evidence of the lackor weakness of PAH bands close to the newly formed stars, possibly dueto the destruction of the molecules in strong ultraviolet fields. Therobustness of the model is checked by fitting near-infrared to radiobroad-band spectra and the corresponding detailed MIR spectra of a largesample of galaxies, at once. With this model, we have analyzed thelarger sample of actively star-forming galaxies by Dale et al. We showthat the observed trends of galaxies in the ISO-IRAS-radio colour-colourplots can be interpreted in terms of the different evolutionary phasesof star formation activity, and the consequent different dominance inthe spectral energy distribution of the diffuse or dense phase of theISM. We find that the observed colours indicate a surprising homogeneityof the starburst phenomenon, allowing only a limited variation of themost important physical parameters, such as the optical depth of themolecular clouds, the time-scale of the escape of young stars from theirfor mation sites, and the gas consumption time-scale. In this paper wedo not attempt to reproduce the far-infrared coolest region in thecolour-colour plots, as we concentrate on models meant to reproduceactive star-forming galaxies, but we discuss possible requirements of amore complex modelling for the coldest objects. XMM-Newton observations of the interacting galaxy pairs NGC 7771/0 and NGC 2342/1We present XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the interacting galaxy pairsNGC 7771/7770 and NGC 2342/2341. In NGC 7771, for the first time we areable to resolve the X-ray emission into a bright central source plus twobright (LX > 1040 erg s-1)ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) located either end of the bar. In thebright central source (LX~ 1041 ergs-1), the soft emission is well-modelled by a two-temperaturethermal plasma with kT= 0.4/0.7 keV. The hard emission is modelled witha flat absorbed power-law (Γ~ 1.7, NH~ 1022cm-2), and this together with a low-significance (1.7σ)~ 300 eV equivalent width emission line at ~6 keV are the firstindications that NGC 7771 may host a low-luminosity AGN. For the barULXs, a power-law fit to X-1 is improved at the 2.5σ level withthe addition of a thermal plasma component (kT~ 0.3 keV), while X-2 isimproved only at the 1.3σ level with the addition of a discblackbody component with Tin~ 0.2 keV. Both sources arevariable on short time-scales implying that their emission is dominatedby single accreting X-ray binaries (XRBs). The three remaining galaxies,NGC 7770, NGC 2342 and NGC 2341, have observed X-ray luminosities of0.2, 1.8 and 0.9 × 1041 erg s-1,respectively (0.3-10 keV). Their integrated spectra are alsowell-modelled by multi-temperature thermal plasma components with kT=0.2-0.7 keV, plus power-law continua with slopes of Γ= 1.8-2.3that are likely to represent the integrated emission of populations ofXRBs as observed in other nearby merger systems. A comparison with otherisolated, interacting and merging systems shows that all four galaxiesfollow the established correlations for starburst galaxies betweenX-ray, far-infrared and radio luminosities, demonstrating that theirX-ray outputs are dominated by their starburst components. Warm, Dense Molecular Gas in the ISM of Starbursts, LIRGs, and ULIRGsThe role of star formation in luminous and ultraluminous infraredgalaxies (LIRGs, LIR>=1011 LsolarULIRGs, LIR>=1012 Lsolar) is a hotlydebated issue: while it is clear that starbursts play a large role inpowering the IR luminosity in these galaxies, the relative importance ofpossible enshrouded AGNs is unknown. It is therefore important to betterunderstand the role of star-forming gas in contributing to the infraredluminosity in IR-bright galaxies. The J=3 level of 12CO lies33 K above ground and has a critical density of~1.5×104 cm-3. The 12CO J=3-2line serves as an effective tracer for warm, dense molecular gas heatedby active star formation. Here we report on 12CO J=3-2observations of 17 starburst spiral galaxies, LIRGs, and ULIRGs, whichwe obtained with the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope on MountGraham, Arizona. Our main results are as follows. (1) We find a nearlylinear relation between the infrared luminosity and warm, densemolecular gas such that the infrared luminosity increases as the warm,dense molecular gas to the power 0.92; we interpret this to be roughlyconsistent with the recent results of Gao & Solomon. (2) We findLIR/MH2warm,dense ratios ranging from~38 to ~482 Lsolar/Msolar using a modifiedCO-H2 conversion factor of 8.3×1019cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 derived in thispaper. EGRET Upper Limits and Stacking Searches of Gamma-Ray Observations of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared GalaxiesWe present a stacking analysis of EGRET γ-ray observations at thepositions of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The latterwere selected from the recently presented HCN survey, which is thoughtto contain the most active star-forming regions of the universe.Different sorting criteria are used, and since there is no positivecollective detection of γ-ray emission from these objects, wedetermined both collective and individual upper limits. The uppermostexcess we find appears in the case of ULIRGs ordered by redshift, at avalue of 1.8 σ. Ultraviolet Emission from Stellar Populations within Tidal Tails: Catching the Youngest Galaxies in Formation?New Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observations have detectedsignificant far-UV (FUV; 1530 Å) and near-UV (NUV; 2310 Å)emission from stellar substructures within the tidal tails of fourongoing galaxy mergers. The UV-bright regions are optically faint andare coincident with H I density enhancements. FUV emission is detectedat any location where the H I surface density exceeds ~2Msolar pc-2, and it is often detected in theabsence of visible wavelength emission. UV luminosities of the brighterregions of the tidal tails imply masses of 106 to~109 Msolar in young stars in the tails, and H Iluminosities imply similar H I masses. UV-optical colors of the tidaltails indicate stellar populations as young as a few megayears, and inall cases ages under 400 Myr. Most of the young stars in the tailsformed in single bursts, rather than resulting from continuous starformation, and they formed in situ as the tails evolved. Star formationappears to be older near the parent galaxies and younger at increasingdistances from the parent galaxy. This could be because the starformation occurs progressively along the tails, or because the starformation has been inhibited near the galaxy/tail interface. Theyoungest stellar concentrations, usually near the ends of long tidaltails, have masses comparable to confirmed tidal dwarf galaxies and maybe newly forming galaxies undergoing their first burst of starformation. Warm and Cold Molecular Gas in GalaxiesNew and archival interferometric 12CO (1-->0) data setsfrom six nearby galaxies are combined with H2 2.122 μm andHα maps to explore in detail the interstellar medium in differentstar-forming galaxies. We investigate the relation between warm(H2 at T~2000 K) and cold (CO at T~50 K) molecular gas from100 pc to 2 kpc scales. On these scales, the ratio of warm-to-coldmolecular hydrogen correlates with thefν(60μm)/fν(100μm) ratio, which tracksthe star formation activity level. This result also holds for the globalproperties of galaxies from a much larger sample drawn from theliterature. The trend persists for over 3 orders of magnitude in themass ratio, regardless of source nuclear activity. The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies. III. HI observations of early-type disk galaxiesWe present Hi observations of 68 early-type disk galaxies from the WHISPsurvey. They have morphological types between S0 and Sab and absoluteB-band magnitudes between -14 and -22. These galaxies form the massive,high surface-brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population, few ofwhich have been imaged in Hi before. The Hi properties of the galaxiesin our sample span a large range; the average values of MHI/LB and DH I/D25 are comparableto the ones found in later-type spirals, but the dispersions around themean are larger. No significant differences are found between the S0/S0aand the Sa/Sab galaxies. Our early-type disk galaxies follow the same Himass-diameter relation as later-type spiral galaxies, but theireffective Hi surface densities are slightly lower than those found inlater-type systems. In some galaxies, distinct rings of Hi emissioncoincide with regions of enhanced star formation, even though theaverage gas densities are far below the threshold of star formationderived by Kennicutt (1989, ApJ, 344, 685). Apparently, additionalmechanisms, as yet unknown, regulate star formation at low surfacedensities. Many of the galaxies in our sample have lopsided gasmorphologies; in most cases this can be linked to recent or ongoinginteractions or merger events. Asymmetries are rare in quiescentgalaxies. Kinematic lopsidedness is rare, both in interacting andisolated systems. In the appendix, we present an atlas of the Hiobservations: for all galaxies we show Hi surface density maps, globalprofiles, velocity fields and radial surface density profiles. Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S DatabaseWe have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Star Formation Rate and Dense Molecular Gas in GalaxiesHCN luminosity is a tracer of dense molecular gas,n(H2)>~3×104cm-3, associatedwith star-forming giant molecular cloud (GMC) cores. We present theresults and analysis of our survey of HCN emission from 65 infraredgalaxies, including nine ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs,LIR>~1012Lsolar), 22 luminousinfrared galaxies (LIGs,1011Lsolar0.06 are LIGs or ULIGs. Normal spiralsall have similar and low dense gas fractionsLHCN/LCO=0.02-0.05. The global star formationefficiency depends on the fraction of the molecular gas in a densephase. Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectroscopy of Star-forming GalaxiesThe Palomar Integral Field Spectrograph was used to probe a variety ofenvironments in nine nearby galaxies that span a range of morphologicaltypes, luminosities, metallicities, and infrared-to-blue ratios. For thefirst time, near-infrared spectroscopy was obtained for nuclear orbright H II regions in star-forming galaxies over two spatial dimensions(5.7"×10.0") in the [Fe II] (1.257 μm), [Fe II] (1.644 μm),Paβ (1.282 μm), H2 (2.122 μm), and Brγ(2.166 μm) transition lines. These data yield constraints on variouscharacteristics of the star-forming episodes in these regions, includingtheir strength, maturity, spatial variability, and extinction. The H IIregions stand out from the nuclei. Unlike observations of nuclearregions, H II region near-infrared observations do not show a spatialcoincidence of the line and continuum emission; the continuum and linemaps of H II regions usually show distinct and sometimes spatiallyseparated morphologies. Gauging from Paβ and Brγ equivalentwidths and luminosities, the H II regions have younger episodes of starformation than the nuclei and more intense radiation fields.Near-infrared line ratio diagnostics suggest that H II regions havepurer'' starbursting properties. The correlation between ionizingphoton density and mid-infrared color is consistent with the starformation activity level being higher for H II regions than for nuclei.And though the interpretation is complicated, on a purely empiricalbasis the H II regions show lower Fe1+ abundances than nucleiby an order of magnitude. An IRAS High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) Atlas of All Interacting Galaxies in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy SampleThe importance of far-infrared observations for our understanding ofextreme activity in interacting and merging galaxies has beenillustrated by many studies. Even though two decades have passed sinceits launch, the most complete all-sky survey to date from which far-IRselected galaxy samples can be chosen is still that of the InfraredAstronomical Satellite (IRAS). However, the spatial resolution of theIRAS all-sky survey is insufficient to resolve the emission fromindividual galaxies in most interacting galaxy pairs, and hence previousstudies of their far-IR properties have had to concentrate either onglobal system properties or on the properties of very widely separatedand weakly interacting pairs. Using the HIRES image reconstructiontechnique, it is possible to achieve a spatial resolution ranging from30" to 1.5m (depending on wavelength and detector coverage), whichis a fourfold improvement over the normal resolution of IRAS. This issufficient to resolve the far-IR emission from the individual galaxiesin many interacting systems detected by IRAS, which is very importantfor meaningful comparisons with single, isolated galaxies. We presenthigh-resolution 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm images of 106 interactinggalaxy systems contained in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS,Sanders et al.), a complete sample of all galaxies having a 60 μmflux density greater than 5.24 Jy. These systems were selected to haveat least two distinguishable galaxies separated by less than threeaverage galactic diameters, and thus we have excluded very widelyseparated systems and very advanced mergers. Additionally, some systemshave been included that are more than three galactic diameters apart,yet have separations less than 4' and are thus likely to suffer fromconfusion in the RBGS. The new complete survey has the same propertiesas the prototype survey of Surace et al. We find no increased tendencyfor infrared-bright galaxies to be associated with other infrared-brightgalaxies among the widely separated pairs studied here. We find smallenhancements in far-IR activity in multiple galaxy systems relative toRBGS noninteracting galaxies with the same blue luminosity distribution.We also find no differences in infrared activity (as measured byinfrared color and luminosity) between late- and early-type spiralgalaxies. A Study of the Distribution of Star-forming Regions in Luminous Infrared Galaxies by Means of Hα Imaging ObservationsWe performed Hα imaging observations of 22 luminous infraredgalaxies to investigate how the distribution of star-forming regions inthese galaxies is related to galaxy interactions. Based on correlationdiagrams between Hα flux and continuum emission for individualgalaxies, a sequence for the distribution of star-forming regions wasfound: very compact (~100 pc) nuclear starbursts with almost nostar-forming activity in the outer regions (type 1), dominant nuclearstarbursts <~1 kpc in size with a negligible contribution from theouter regions (type 2), nuclear starbursts >~1 kpc in size with asignificant contribution from the outer regions (type 3), and extendedstarbursts with relatively faint nuclei (type 4). These classes ofstar-forming regions were found to be strongly related to globalstar-forming properties, such as star formation efficiency, far-infraredcolor, and dust extinction. There was a clear tendency for the objectswith more compact distributions of star-forming regions to show a higherstar formation efficiency and hotter far-infrared color. An appreciablefraction of the sample objects were dominated by extended starbursts(type 4), which is unexpected in the standard scenario ofinteraction-induced starburst galaxies. We also found that thedistribution of star-forming regions was weakly but clearly related togalaxy morphology: severely disturbed objects had a more concentrateddistribution of star-forming regions. This suggests that the propertiesof galaxy interactions, such as dynamical phase and orbital parameters,play a more important role than the internal properties of progenitorgalaxies, such as dynamical structure or gas mass fraction. We alsodiscuss the evolution of the distribution of star-forming regions ininteracting galaxies. Kinematics of tidal tails in interacting galaxies: Tidal dwarf galaxies and projection effectsThe kinematics of tidal tails in colliding galaxies has been studied viaFabry-Pérot observations of the Hα emission. With theirlarge field of view and high spatial resolution, the Fabry-Pérotdata allow us to probe simultaneously, in 2D, two kinematical featuresof the tidal ionized gas: large-scale velocity gradients due tostreaming motions along the tails, and small-scale motions related tothe internal dynamics of giant HII regions within the tails. In severalinteracting systems, massive (109 Mȯ)condensations of HI, CO and stars are observed in the outer regions oftails. Whether they are genuine accumulations of matter or not is stilldebated. Indeed a part of the tidal tail may be aligned with theline-of-sight, and the associated projection effect may result inapparent accumulations of matter that does not exist in the 3D space.Using numerical simulations, we show that studying the large-scalekinematics of tails, it is possible to know whether these accumulationsof matter are the result of projection effects or not. We conclude thatseveral ones (Arp 105-South, Arp 242, NGC 7252, and NGC 5291-North) aregenuine accumulations of matter. We also study the small-scale motionsinside these regions: several small-scale velocity gradients areidentified with projected values as large as 50-100 km s-1accross the observed HII regions. In the case of NGC 5291-North, thespatial resolution of our observations is sufficient to detail thevelocity field; we show that this system is rotating andself-gravitating, and discuss its dark matter content. TheFabry-Pérot observations have thus enabled us to prove that some109 Mȯ condensations of matter are realstructures, and are kinematically decoupled from the rest of the tail.Such massive and self-gravitating objects are the progenitors of theso-called Tidal Dwarf Galaxies''.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Observatory, Hawaii, USA.Appendix is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org The ISOPHOT 170 μm Serendipity Survey II. The catalog of optically identified galaxies%The ISOPHOT Serendipity Sky Survey strip-scanning measurements covering≈15% of the far-infrared (FIR) sky at 170 μm were searched forcompact sources associated with optically identified galaxies. CompactSerendipity Survey sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in at leasttwo ISOPHOT C200 detector pixels were selected that have a positionalassociation with a galaxy identification in the NED and/or Simbaddatabases and a galaxy counterpart visible on the Digitized Sky Surveyplates. A catalog with 170 μm fluxes for more than 1900 galaxies hasbeen established, 200 of which were measured several times. The faintest170 μm fluxes reach values just below 0.5 Jy, while the brightest,already somewhat extended galaxies have fluxes up to ≈600 Jy. For thevast majority of listed galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes were measured forthe first time. While most of the galaxies are spirals, about 70 of thesources are classified as ellipticals or lenticulars. This is the onlycurrently available large-scale galaxy catalog containing a sufficientnumber of sources with 170 μm fluxes to allow further statisticalstudies of various FIR properties.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (CISS) areMPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca, AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena,Imperial College London.Full Table 4 and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/39 Properties of isolated disk galaxiesWe present a new sample of northern isolated galaxies, which are definedby the physical criterion that they were not affected by other galaxiesin their evolution during the last few Gyr. To find them we used thelogarithmic ratio, f, between inner and tidal forces acting upon thecandidate galaxy by a possible perturber. The analysis of thedistribution of the f-values for the galaxies in the Coma cluster leadus to adopt the criterion f ≤ -4.5 for isolated galaxies. Thecandidates were chosen from the CfA catalog of galaxies within thevolume defined by cz ≤5000 km s-1, galactic latitudehigher than 40o and declination ≥-2.5o. Theselection of the sample, based on redshift values (when available),magnitudes and sizes of the candidate galaxies and possible perturberspresent in the same field is discussed. The final list of selectedisolated galaxies includes 203 objects from the initial 1706. The listcontains only truly isolated galaxies in the sense defined, but it is byno means complete, since all the galaxies with possible companions underthe f-criterion but with unknown redshift were discarded. We alsoselected a sample of perturbed galaxies comprised of all the diskgalaxies from the initial list with companions (with known redshift)satisfying f ≥ -2 and \Delta(cz) ≤500 km s-1; a totalof 130 objects. The statistical comparison of both samples showssignificant differences in morphology, sizes, masses, luminosities andcolor indices. Confirming previous results, we found that late spiral,Sc-type galaxies are, in particular, more frequent among isolatedgalaxies, whereas Lenticular galaxies are more abundant among perturbedgalaxies. Isolated systems appear to be smaller, less luminous and bluerthan interacting objects. We also found that bars are twice as frequentamong perturbed galaxies compared to isolated galaxies, in particularfor early Spirals and Lenticulars. The perturbed galaxies have higherLFIR/LB and Mmol/LB ratios,but the atomic gas content is similar for the two samples. The analysisof the luminosity-size and mass-luminosity relations shows similartrends for both families, the main difference being the almost totalabsence of big, bright and massive galaxies among the family of isolatedsystems, together with the almost total absence of small, faint and lowmass galaxies among the perturbed systems. All these aspects indicatethat the evolution induced by interactions with neighbors would proceedfrom late, small, faint and low mass Spirals to earlier, bigger, moreluminous and more massive spiral and lenticular galaxies, producing atthe same time a larger fraction of barred galaxies but preserving thesame relations between global parameters. The properties we found forour sample of isolated galaxies appear similar to those of high redshiftgalaxies, suggesting that the present-day isolated galaxies could bequietly evolved, unused building blocks surviving in low densityenvironments.Tables \ref{t1} and \ref{t2} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Warm dust and aromatic bands as quantitative probes of star-formation activityWe combine samples of spiral galaxies and starburst systems observedwith ISOCAM on board ISO to investigate the reliability of mid-infrareddust emission as a quantitative tracer of star formation activity. Thetotal sample covers very diverse galactic environments and probes a muchwider dynamic range in star formation rate density than previous similarstudies. We find that both the monochromatic 15 μm continuum and the5-8.5 μm emission constitute excellent indicators of the starformation rate as quantified by the Lyman continuum luminosityLLyc, within specified validity limits which are differentfor the two tracers. Normalized to projected surface area, the 15 μmcontinuum luminosity Σ15 μm,ct is directlyproportional to ΣLyc over several orders of magnitude.Two regimes are distinguished from the relative offsets in the observedrelationship: the proportionality factor increases by a factor of ≈5between quiescent disks in spiral galaxies, and moderate to extremestar-forming environments in circumnuclear regions of spirals and instarburst systems. The transition occurs near ΣLyc 102 Lȯ pc-2 and isinterpreted as due to very small dust grains starting to dominate theemission at 15 μm over aromatic species above this threshold. The5-8.5 μm luminosity per unit projected area is also directlyproportional to the Lyman continuum luminosity, with a single conversionfactor from the most quiescent objects included in the sample up toΣLyc  104 Lȯpc-2, where the relationship then flattens. The turnover isattributed to depletion of aromatic band carriers in the harsherconditions prevailing in extreme starburst environments. The observedrelationships provide empirical calibrations useful for estimating starformation rates from mid-infrared observations, much less affected byextinction than optical and near-infrared tracers in deeply embedded HII regions and obscured starbursts, as well as for theoreticalpredictions from evolutionary synthesis models.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands, and the UK), and with participation of ISAS and NASA. Dust masses and star formation in bright IRAS galaxies. Application of a physical model for the interpretation of FIR observationsWe address the problem of modeling the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum andderiving the star-formation rate (SFR) and the dust mass of spiralgalaxies. We use the realistic physical model of Popescu et al.(\cite{popescu}) to describe the overall ultra-violet (UV), optical andFIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of a spiral galaxy. The modeltakes into account the 3-dimensional old and young stellar distributionsin the bulge and the disk of a galaxy, together with the dust geometry.The geometrical characteristics of the galaxy and the intrinsic opticaland near-infrared spectra are determined by the galaxy's observed K-bandphotometry. The UV part of the spectrum is assumed to be proportional tothe SFR through the use of population synthesis models. By solving theradiative transfer equation, we are able to determine the absorbedenergy, the dust temperature and the resulting FIR spectrum. The modelhas only three free parameters: SFR, dust mass, and the fraction of theUV radiation which is absorbed locally by dense dust in the HII regions.Using this model, we are able to fit well the FIR spectra of 62 brightIRAS galaxies from the SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey" of Dunne etal. (\cite{dunne1}). As a result, we are able to determine, amongothers, their SFR and dust mass. We find that, on average, the SFR (inabsolute units), the star-formation efficiency, the SFR surface densityand the ratio of FIR luminosity over the total intrinsic luminosity, arelarger than the respective values of typical spiral galaxies of the samemorphological type. We also find that the mean gas-to-dust mass ratio isclose to the Galactic value, while the average central face-on opticaldepth of these galaxies in the V band is 2.3. Finally, we find a strongcorrelation between SFR or dust mass and observed FIR quantities liketotal FIR luminosity or FIR luminosity at 100 and 850 μm. Thesecorrelations yield well-defined relations, which can be used todetermine a spiral galaxy's SFR and dust-mass content from FIRobservations. Breaking the redshift deadlock'- II. The redshift distribution for the submillimetre population of galaxiesGround-based submillimetre and millimetre wavelength blank-field surveyshave identified more than 100 sources, the majority of which arebelieved to be dusty optically obscured starburst galaxies. Coloursderived from various combinations of far-infrared, submillimetre,millimetre and radio fluxes provide the only currently available meansto determine the redshift distribution of this new galaxy population.In this paper we apply our Monte Carlo photometric redshift technique,introduced recently by Hughes et al. in Paper I, to the multiwavelengthdata available for 77 galaxies selected at 850 μm and 1.25 mm. Wecalculate a probability distribution for the redshift of each galaxy,which includes a detailed treatment of the observational errors anduncertainties in the evolutionary model. The cumulative redshiftdistribution of the submillimetre galaxy population that we present inthis paper, based on 50 galaxies found in wide-area SCUBA surveys, isasymmetric, and broader than those published elsewhere, with asignificant high-z tail for some of the evolutionary models considered.Approximately 40 to 90 per cent of the submillimetre population isexpected to have redshifts in the interval 2 <=z<= 4. Whilst thisresult is completely consistent with earlier estimates for thesubmillimetre galaxy population, we also show that the colours of many(<~50 per cent) individual submillimetre sources, detected only at850 μm with non-detections at other wavelengths, are consistent withthose of starburst galaxies that lie at extreme redshifts, z > 4.Spectroscopic confirmation of the redshifts, through the detection ofrest-frame far-infrared-millimetre wavelength molecular transitionlines, will ultimately calibrate the accuracy of this technique. We usethe redshift probability distribution of HDF850.1 to illustrate theability of the method to guide the choice of possible frequency tuningson the broad-band spectroscopic receivers that equip the large-aperturesingle-dish millimetre and centimetre wavelength telescopes. Supernova 2003hg in NGC 7771IAUC 8187 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Supernovae 2003hg, 2003hh, 2003hi, 2003hj, 2003hk, 2003hlIAUC 8184 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Infrared Emission of Normal Galaxies from 2.5 to 12 Micron: Infrared Space Observatory Spectra, Near-Infrared Continuum, and Mid-Infrared Emission FeaturesWe present ISOPHOT spectra of the regions 2.5-4.9 μm and 5.8-11.6μm for a sample of 45 disk galaxies from the US Infrared SpaceObservatory Key Project on Normal Galaxies. The galaxies were selectedto span the range in global properties of normal, star-forming diskgalaxies in the local universe. The spectra can be decomposed into threespectral components: (1) continuum emission from stellar photospheres,which dominates the near-infrared (NIR; 2.5-4.9 μm) spectral region;(2) a weak NIR excess continuum, which has a color temperature of~103 K, carries a luminosity of a few percent of the totalfar-infrared (FIR) dust luminosity LFIR and most likelyarises from the interstellar medium (ISM); and (3) the well-known broademission features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm, which are generallyattributed to aromatic carbon particles. These aromatic features inemission (AFEs) dominate the mid-infrared (MIR; 5.8-11.6 μm) part ofthe spectrum and resemble the so-called type A spectra observed in manynonstellar sources and the diffuse ISM in our own Galaxy. The fewnotable exceptions include NGC 4418, where a dust continuum replaces theAFEs in MIR, and NGC 1569, where the AFEs are weak and the strongestemission feature is [S IV] 10.51 μm. The relative strengths of theAFEs vary by 15%-25% among the galaxies. However, little correlation isseen between these variations and either IRAS 60 μm/100 μm fluxdensity ratio R(60/100) or the FIR/blue luminosity ratioLFIR/LB, two widely used indicators of the currentstar formation activity, suggesting that the observed variations are nota consequence of the radiation field differences among the galaxies. Wedemonstrate that the NIR excess continuum and AFE emission arecorrelated, suggesting that they are produced by similar mechanisms andsimilar (or the same) material. On the other hand, as the current starformation activity increases, the overall strengths of the AFEs and theNIR excess continuum drop significantly with respect to that of the FIRemission from large dust grains. In particular, the summed luminosity ofthe AFEs falls from ~0.2 LFIR for the most IR-quiescent''galaxies to ~0.1 LFIR for the most IR-active'' galaxies.This is likely a consequence of the preferential destruction in intenseradiation fields of the small carriers responsible for the NIR/AFEemission.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA member states (especially the PI countries, France, Germany, theNetherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISASand NASA. Tidally Triggered Star Formation in Close Pairs of Galaxies. II. Constraints on Burst Strengths and AgesGalaxy-galaxy interactions rearrange the baryons in galaxies and triggersubstantial star formation; the aggregate effects of these interactionson the evolutionary histories of galaxies in the universe are poorlyunderstood. We combine B- and R-band photometry and optical spectroscopyto estimate the strengths and timescales of bursts of triggered starformation in the centers of 190 galaxies in pairs and compact groups.Based on an analysis of the measured colors and EW(Hα), wecharacterize the preexisting and triggered populations separately. Thebest-fitting burst scenarios assume stronger reddening corrections forline emission than for the continuum and continuous star formationlasting for >~100 Myr. The most realistic scenarios require aninitial mass function that is deficient in the highest mass stars. Thecolor of the preexisting stellar population is the most significantsource of uncertainty. Triggered star formation contributessubstantially (probably >~50%) to the R-band flux in the centralregions of several galaxies; tidal tails do not necessarily accompanythis star formation. Many of the galaxies in our sample have bluercenters than outskirts, suggesting that pre- or nonmerger interactionsmay lead to evolution along the Hubble sequence. These objects wouldappear blue and compact at higher redshifts; the older, redder outskirtsof the disks would be difficult to detect. Our data indicate thatgalaxies with larger separations on the sky contain weaker, and probablyolder, bursts of star formation on average. However, confirmation ofthese trends requires further constraints on the colors of the olderstellar populations and on the reddening for individual galaxies. Physical Coupling of Kazarian Galaxies with Surrounding GalaxiesResults from a statistical study of Kazarian galaxies and the objectssurrounding them are presented. It is shown that: (1) the sample ofKazarian galaxies up to 16m.0 is complete. (2) Roughly 35.7% of theKazarian galaxies are members of clusters, 14.0% of groups, and 13.6% ofbinary systems, while 36.7% are single galaxies. (3) Of the 580 Kazariangalaxies, roughly 61.2% are infrared, 8.8% radio, and 2.8% x-raysources. (4) The relative numbers of Kazarian galaxies for completesamples of I, R, and X in the different groups are systematically higherthan the corresponding numbers for samples of all Kazarian galaxies. The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy SampleIRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above thecharacteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs. A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxiesWe have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of normality''. Thedefinition of a normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for `normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5 The infrared supernova rate in starburst galaxiesWe report the results of our ongoing search for extincted supernovae(SNe) at near-infrared wavelengths. We have monitored at 2.2 mu m asample of 46 Luminous Infrared Galaxies and detected 4 SNe. The numberof detections is still small but sufficient to provide the firstestimate of supernova rate at near-infrared wavelengths. We measure a SNrate of SNNIR_r=7.6+/- 3.8 SNu which is an order of magnitudelarger than observed in quiescent galaxies. On the other hand, theobserved near-infrared rate is still a factor 3-10 smaller than thatestimated from the far-infrared luminosity of the galaxies. Amongvarious possibilities, the most likely scenario is that dust extinctionis so high (AV>30) to obscure most SNe even in thenear-IR.The role of type Ia SNe is also discussed within this context. We derivethe type Ia SN rate as a function of the stellar mass of the galaxy andfind a sharp increase toward galaxies with higher activity of starformation. This suggests that a significant fraction of type Ia SNe areassociated with young stellar populations.Finally, as a by-product, we give the average K-band light curve ofcore-collapse SNe based on all the existing data, and review therelation between SN rate and far-infrared luminosity.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile (proposal 66.B-0417), at the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo(TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galileiof the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica), and at the StewardObservatory 61'' telescope.
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