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|Spiral galaxies observed in the near-infrared K band. I. Data analysis and structural parameters|
Deep surface photometry in the K band was obtained for 54 normal spiralgalaxies, with the aim of quantifying the percentage of faint bars andstudying the morphology of spiral arms. The sample was chosen to cover awider range of morphological types while inclination angles anddistances were limited to allow a detailed investigation of the internalstructure of their disks and future observations and studies of the diskkinematics. An additional constraint for a well defined subsample wasthat no bar structure was seen on images in the visual bands. Accuratesky projection parameters were determined from the K maps comparingseveral different methods. The surface brightness distribution wasdecomposed into axisymmetric components while bars and spiral structureswere analyzed using Fourier techniques.Bulges were best represented by a Sérsic r1/n law withan index in the typical range of 1-2. The central surface brightness ofthe exponential disk and bulge-to-disk ratio only showed weakcorrelation with Hubble type. Indications of a central point source werefound in many of the galaxies. An additional central, steep, exponentialdisk improved the fit for more than 80% of the galaxies suggesting thatmany of the bulges are oblate.Bars down to the detection level at a relative amplitude of 3% weredetected in 26 of 30 galaxies in a subsample classified as ordinary SAspirals. This would correspond to only 5% of all spiral galaxies beingnon-barred at this level. In several cases, bars are significantlyoffset compared to the starting points of the main spiral pattern whichindicates that bar and spiral have different pattern speeds. A smallfraction (10%) of the sample has complex central structuresconsisting of several sets of bars, arcs or spirals.A majority of the galaxies (60%) displays a two-armed, grand-designspiral pattern in their inner parts which often breaks up into multiplearms in their outer regions. Phase shifts between the inner and outerpatterns suggest in some cases that they belong to different spiralmodes. The pitch angles of the main two-armed symmetric spiral patternin the galaxies have a typical range of 5-30 °. The sample shows alack of strong, tight spirals which could indicate that such patternsare damped by non-linear, dynamical effects due to their high radialforce perturbations.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile; programs: ESO 63.N-0343, 65.N-0287, 66.N-0257.Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/849Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|Minor-axis velocity gradients in disk galaxies|
We present the ionized-gas kinematics and photometry of a sample of 4spiral galaxies which are characterized by a zero-velocity plateau alongthe major axis and a velocity gradient along the minor axis,respectively. By combining these new kinematical data with thoseavailable in the literature for the ionized-gas component of the S0s andspirals listed in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies werealized that about 50% of unbarred galaxies show a remarkable gasvelocity gradient along the optical minor axis. This fraction rises toabout 60% if we include unbarred galaxies with an irregular velocityprofile along the minor axis. This phenomenon is observed all along theHubble sequence of disk galaxies, and it is particularly frequent inearly-type spirals. Since minor-axis velocity gradients are unexpectedif the gas is moving onto circular orbits in a disk coplanar to thestellar one, we conclude that non-circular and off-plane gas motions arenot rare in the inner regions of disk galaxies.Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatoryin La Silla (Chile) (ESO 69.B-0706 and 70.B-0338), with the MultipleMirror Telescope which is a joint facility of the SmithsonianInstitution and the University of Arizona, and with the ItalianTelescopio Nazionale Galileo (AOT-5, 3-18) at the Observatorio del Roquede los Muchachos in La Palma (Spain).Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/507
|Warm gas kinematics in shell galaxies|
Shells are interpreted as debris from interaction/acquisition episodesthat occur in a galaxy. We present a study of the warm (T~104 K) gas component in a sample of five shell galaxiesbelonging to the Malin & Carter compilation. Hα observationshave been obtained at the ESO 3.6-m telescope equipped with a CIGALEscanning Fabry-Perot interferometer coupled with a new IPCS camera.Most of our sample galaxies show disturbed/irregular gaseous velocityfields. The gas distribution in NGC 7070A and 7135 shows elongated,asymmetric structure relative to the stellar body. The continuum andline maps for ESO 2400100 show a double nucleus. The nuclei are slightlyoff-centre with respect to the barycentre of the pair, a deformationthat cannot arise from projection effects and that suggests a strongon-going tidal interaction.Kinematics of the stellar and gas component derived for NGC 1553 aresimilar, although the gas component shows evidence for non-circularmotion. In most of our objects the gas and the stellar kinematics appeardecoupled, but no rings of gas nor diffuse gas shells are detected. Ifshell galaxies form through an acquisition/merging event, the generalhypothesis according to which the gas in Es is accreted from outside thegalaxy is further supported by these data. We speculate concerning shellgalaxy evolution using additional information coming from studies ofline-strength indices.
|Extended H I Disks in Dust Lane Elliptical Galaxies|
We present the results of H I observations of five dust lane ellipticalgalaxies with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Two galaxies (NGC3108 and NGC 1947) are detected, and sensitive upper limits are obtainedfor the other three. In the two detected galaxies, the H I isdistributed in a regular, extended, and warped disklike structure of lowsurface brightness. Adding data from the literature, we find thatseveral more dust lane elliptical galaxies have regular H I structures.This H I is likely to be a remnant of accretions and/or mergers thattook place a considerable time ago and in which a significant fractionof the gas survived to form a disk. The presence of regular H Istructures suggests that some mergers lead to galaxies with extended lowsurface brightness density gas disks. These gas disks will evolve veryslowly, and these elliptical galaxies will remain gas-rich for a longperiod of time. One of the galaxies we observed (NGC 3108) has a verylarge amount of neutral hydrogen(MHI=4.5×109 MsolarMHI/LB~0.09), which is very regularly distributedin an annulus extending to a radius of ~6 Reff. Thekinematics of the H I distribution suggest that the rotation curve ofNGC 3108 is flat out to at least the last observed point. We estimate amass-to-light ratio of M/LB~18Msolar/LB,solar at a radius of ~6Refffrom the center. Several of the galaxies we observed have an unusuallylow gas-to-dust ratio MHI/Mdust, suggesting thattheir cold interstellar medium, if present as expected from the presenceof dust, may be mainly in molecular rather than atomic form. Based onobservations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), which isfunded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a NationalFacility managed by CSIRO.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies|
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.
|A Preliminary Classification Scheme for the Central Regions of Late-Type Galaxies|
The large-scale prints in The Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies have been usedto formulate a classification scheme for the central regions oflate-type galaxies. Systems that exhibit small bright central bulges ordisks (type CB) are found to be of earlier Hubble type and of higherluminosity than galaxies that do not contain nuclei (type NN). Galaxiescontaining nuclear bars, or exhibiting central regions that are resolvedinto individual stars and knots, and galaxies with semistellar nuclei,are seen to have characteristics that are intermediate between those oftypes CB and NN. The presence or absence of a nucleus appears to be auseful criterion for distinguishing between spiral galaxies andmagellanic irregulars.
|Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system|
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.
|Dynamics of the Pavo-Indus and Grus clouds of galaxies|
A study of groups of galaxies in the above regions was carried out byselecting a sample extending one magnitude deeper than previous work inthe area, complete down to 15 mag. We report new redshift determinationsfor 58 galaxies in the region and 13 other miscellaneous galaxies, basedon La Silla observations. Using a total of 266 galaxies with measuredredshifts in the Pavo-Indus and Grus clouds, we perform a new analysisof groupings following a well-tested algorithm. A total of 18 groups issingled out, most of them known from previous work, even though a fewadditional members are added. For all the groups, we have calculateddynamical parameters and M/L ratios. All groups are found to be boundaggregates, but only one group can be virialized. For the six mostpopulated examples, having at least five members, we also calculateseveral mass estimators and discuss the wide range of observed M/Lratios, which extends from nine to nearly 500 M(solar)/L(solar). Weintroduce two parameters to measure the presence of either a dominantgalaxy or internal subcondensations, respectively, and test whether anycorrelation with the M/L ratios can be detected. No clear correlationsare found.
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members|
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.
|Southern Sky Redshift Survey - The catalog|
The catalog of radial velocities for galaxies which comprise thediameter-limited sample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey ispresented. It consolidates the data of observations carried out at theLas Campanas Observatory, Observatorio Nacional, and South AfricanAstronomical Observatory. The criteria used for the sample selection aredescribed, as well as the observational procedures and the techniqueutilized to obtain the final radial velocities. The intercomparisonbetween radial velocity measurements from different telescopes indicatesthat the final data base is fairly homogeneous with a typical error ofabout 40 km/s. The sample is at present 90 percent complete, and themissing galaxies are predominantly objects with very low surfacebrightness for which it is very difficult to obtain optical redshifts.
|A catalog of southern groups of galaxies|
A catalog of groups of galaxies identified in the southern Galactic capis presented. This catalog was constructed utilizing the group-findingalgorithm developed by Huchra and Geller (1982) to analyze galaxysamples with well-defined selection criteria and complete velocityinformation.
|Revised supernova rates in Shapley-Ames galaxies|
Observations of 855 Shapley Ames galaxies made from November 1, 1980 toOctober 31, 1988, together with improved supernova luminosities, havebeen used to derive the frequency of supernovae of different types, andthe results are presented in tables. From a uniform database of 24supernovae discovered, the following SN rates are found, expressed in SNper century per 10 to the 10th L(B)(solar): SN Ia, 0.3; SN Ib, 0.3; andSN II, 1.0. The present data confirm the relatively high frequency of SNII in late-type galaxies that has been found by many previousinvestigators.
|The supernova rate in Shapley-Ames galaxies|
A visual search for SNs in 748 Shapley-Ames galaxies during the 5-yearperiod from November 1, 1980 to October 31, 1985 has yielded SN rates of0.3h-squared, 0.4h-squared, and 1.1h-squared for objects of types Ia,Ib, and II, respectively. These data are judged to imply that Tammann's(1974, 1982) SN rates are probably too high by a factor of about 3. Fora Galactic luminosity of 2 x 10 to the 10th solar L(B), the predicted SNrates in the Milky Way system are 0.6h-squared, 0.8h-squared, and2.2h-squared/century, respectively, for the three aforementioned types.
|How common are 'dust-lanes' in early-type galaxies?|
Despite much recent interest in the properties of elliptical galaxieswith dust lanes, no attempt has yet been made to determine the incidenceof such galaxies among the elliptical population as a whole. Using acomplete sample of early-type galaxies, and accounting as far aspossible for selection effects, the true fraction of galaxies with dustis estimated to be about 40 percent for nearby ellipticals and somewhathigher than this for S0s. On the basis of their observed axial ratiosand absolute magnitudes, diskless galaxies with dust constitute a classof true elliptical galaxies quite distinct from S0(2/3) dust-lanegalaxies. Dust absorption in elliptical galaxies may mimic isophotaltwisting in some cases (e.g., IC3370). This can be distinguished fromtrue twisting by two-color surface photometry. Shells are found aroundabout 25 percent of elliptical galaxies in the sample studied, but thereis no strong correlation between the presence of shells and dust. Thisis intriguing since both features are often taken as signs of pastinteractions with the environment.
|Southern Galaxy Catalogue.|
|A catalog of dusty elliptical galaxies|
A catalog of about 100 dusty elliptical galaxies and some relatedobjects is presented. A morphological classification system is proposed,and the observed dust lane characteristics of some of the individualgalaxies are described. The properties of the galaxies are discussed,including the distribution of morphological types, their radioproperties, radio source orientation, neutral hydrogen, kinematics anddynamics, and relationship to other types of peculiar galaxies.
|Catalogue of central velocity dispersions of galaxies|
A total of 880 measurements of velocity dispersions for 546 galaxieshave been compiled. These data have been used to look for biasesintroduced by the observational techniques and reduction procedures. Twomain effects have been corrected for, due to the reference and the slitwidth. A catalog of homogeneous data has been compiled, where the rawdata are corrected for these effects.
|UBV photometry of 262 southern galaxies|
Multiaperture photometry of 262 bright southern galaxies in the JohnsonUBV system is given. Most of these are south of -30 deg declination,although some northward to -10 deg are included. A total of 169 objectshave published radial-velocity determinations. These provide distancesand enable construction of color-magnitude diagrams for this subset ofobjects through a physical diameter of 2.0 kpc (with H = 100). Thetwo-color diagrams for the inner regions of the galaxies differ fromthose of integrated galaxies due to the color changes towards theircenters. Comparison with theoretical models of Larson and Tinsley (1978)suggest that the colors of the inner portions of most ellipticals andlenticulars are consistent with their having all stars formed at nearlyone epoch with little subsequent star formation, while for spiralslarger amounts of star formation, either in bursts or continuously, aresuggested. This simple picture is complicated by the presence of certainobjects having peculiar colors indicative of large amounts of recentstar formation.
|Contributions to galaxy photometry. II - Standard total magnitudes and colors of bright galaxies from multiaperture photoelectric photometry in the UBV system|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977ApJS...33..219D&db_key=AST
|Surface Photometry of Galaxies: Comparison of the Luminosity Profiles and Photometric Parameters of Southern Galaxies Measured at Cordoba and Mount Stromlo|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973PASP...85..150D&db_key=AST
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