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The 1.0 Megaparsec Galaxy Pair Sample in Low-Density Regions
Using complete redshift catalogs, we have compiled a list of galaxypairs based solely on a pair's projected separation, rp, andvelocity difference, ΔV. We have made high-velocity precision H Iobservations of each galaxy in the sample and have reported these in theliterature. Due to the nature of the redshift catalogs, we are able toquantitatively evaluate the effects of isolation and number density ofsurrounding galaxies on each pair in the sample. For the close galaxypairs (rp<100 kpc), the degree of isolation (a measure ofthe number of near neighbors) has little effect on the median ΔV.This median is about 55 km s-1 for the 25 close pairs (ifmedium-density close pairs are omitted ΔV is even smaller, but thedifference is not statistically significant). The effect of isolation isstrong for the entire sample of galaxy pairs with separations as largeas 1.0 Mpc. For these larger separation pairs, relaxation of strictisolation requirements introduces small groups into the sample, whichdramatically increases the median ΔV. We find little evidence ofan increase in the median ΔV with decreasing rp, norwith increasing total luminosity. For our isolated pairs in low-densityregions, the overall median ΔV is only 30 km s-1. Forsimilar separations and isolation criteria, galaxy satellites withlarger luminosity ratios (i.e., less dynamical friction) in higherdensity regions have ΔV approximately twice as large. Weconjecture that our orbits are highly eccentric, so that the indirecteffect of dynamical friction leads to predominantly small ΔV.However, the halos of our galaxies may also be of low density (althoughhighly extended).

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

The QDOT all-sky IRAS galaxy redshift survey
We describe the construction of the QDOT survey, which is publiclyavailable from an anonymous FTP account. The catalogue consists ofinfrared properties and redshifts of an all-sky sample of 2387 IRASgalaxies brighter than the IRAS PSC 60-μm completeness limit(S_60>0.6Jy), sparsely sampled at a rate of one-in-six. At |b|>10deg, after removing a small number of Galactic sources, the redshiftcompleteness is better than 98per cent (2086/2127). New redshifts for1401 IRAS sources were obtained to complete the catalogue; themeasurement and reduction of these are described, and the new redshiftstabulated here. We also tabulate all sources at |b|>10 deg with noredshift so far, and sources with conflicting alternative redshiftseither from our own work, or from published velocities. A list of 95ultraluminous galaxies (i.e. with L_60μm>10^12 L_solar) is alsoprovided. Of these, ~20per cent are AGN of some kind; the broad-lineobjects typically show strong Feii emission. Since the publication ofthe first QDOT papers, there have been several hundred velocity changes:some velocities are new, some QDOT velocities have been replaced by moreaccurate values, and some errors have been corrected. We also present anew analysis of the accuracy and linearity of IRAS 60-μm fluxes. Wefind that the flux uncertainties are well described by a combination of0.05-Jy fixed size uncertainty and 8per cent fractional uncertainty.This is not enough to cause the large Malmquist-type errors in the rateof evolution postulated by Fisher et al. We do, however, find marginalevidence for non-linearity in the PSC 60-μm flux scale, in the sensethat faint sources may have fluxes overestimated by about 5per centcompared with bright sources. We update some of the previous scientificanalyses to assess the changes. The main new results are as follows. (1)The luminosity function is very well determined overall but is uncertainby a factor of several at the very highest luminosities(L_60μm>5x10^12L_solar), as this is where the remainingunidentified objects are almost certainly concentrated. (2) Thebest-fitting rate of evolution is somewhat lower than our previousestimate; expressed as pure density evolution with density varying as(1+z)^p, we find p=5.6+/-2.3. Making a rough correction for the possible(but very uncertain) non-linearity of fluxes, we find p=4.5+/-2.3. (3)The dipole amplitude decreases a little, and the implied value of thedensity parameter, assuming that IRAS galaxies trace the mass, isΩ=0.9(+0.45, -0.25). (4) Finally, the estimate of density varianceon large scales changes negligibly, still indicating a significantdiscrepancy from the predictions of simple cold dark matter cosmogonies.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Investigation of Barred Galaxies. V. Surroundings of SB and SA Galaxies
Not Available

The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: 21 Centimeter H I Line Data
A compilation of 21 cm line spectral parameters specifically designedfor application of the Tully-Fisher (TF) distance method is presentedfor 1201 spiral galaxies, primarily field Sc galaxies, for which opticalI-band photometric imaging is also available. New H I line spectra havebeen obtained for 881 galaxies. For an additional 320 galaxies, spectraavailable in a digital archive have been reexamined to allow applicationof a single algorithm for the derivation of the TF velocity widthparameter. A velocity width algorithm is used that provides a robustmeasurement of rotational velocity and permits an estimate of the erroron that width taking into account the effects of instrumental broadeningand signal-to-noise. The digital data are used to establish regressionrelations between measurements of velocity widths using other commonprescriptions so that comparable widths can be derived throughconversion of values published in the literature. The uniform H I linewidths presented here provide the rotational velocity measurement to beused in deriving peculiar velocities via the TF method.

The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging Data
Properties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field.

Very Wide Galaxy Pairs of the Northern and Southern Sky
We present highly accurate observations of the 21 cm line of hydrogen ingalaxies made at the Arecibo and Parkes Observatories. The galaxiesobserved have been identified, through rigorous selection criteriaapplied to the CfA and SSRS catalogs, as being members of pairs withprojected separations of up to 1.5 Mpc (H0 = 75 km s-1 Mpc-1). Theseobservations form the completion of the Chengalur-Nordgren galaxy pairsample with data previously published by Chengalur, Nordgren andcolleagues. The new selection criteria used in this paper are anextension to larger projected separations of the criteria usedpreviously. Forty-nine new galaxies are observed, while H I is detectedin 41 of them. With the addition of these galaxies, the completed samplehas highly accurate H I velocities for a total of 219 galaxies.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Galaxy Pairs, Redshift Catalogs, and the Cosmic Peculiar Velocity
We discuss pairs of spiral galaxies with projected separations r_p_ranging from very wide (r_p_ ~ 1.0 Mpc) to very small (r_p_ <~ 75kpc). Single-dish H I data for the wide pairs and H I aperture synthesisas well as CCD images for the close pairs were presented in earlierpapers. From pairs (regardless of isolation criteria) in redshiftcatalogs, we find that the kinematics of spiral-spiral pairs inlow-density regions is qualitatively different from that in high-densityregions. The velocity distribution function f({DELTA}V) in low-densityregions has two components: (i) a narrow component (which is related toisolated pairs) with a very small rms value σ_v,n_ of the"one-dimensional random cosmic peculiar velocity" δν, and (ii)a broad, slowly decreasing component (which is related to pairs in loosegroups) with a large rms value of the "one-dimensional random cosmicpeculiar velocity" σnu,b_. Thus, we confirm that thedistribution of the "one- dimensional cosmic peculiar velocity"{DELTA}ν is not Gaussian and its rms value σ_V_ varies withenvironment. The median {DELTA}V_med_ of the absolute value of thevelocity difference of isolated wide pairs is ~30 km s^-1^, considerablysmaller than all estimates of σ_v_. This small {DELTA}V_med_suggests that the pairs are on low total energy, almost radial orbits,and it is also a constraint on cosmological models of structureformation. We find some circumstantial evidence for a negativecorrelation between the peculiar velocity δν and thedifferential Hubble flow velocity {DELTA}V_H_ which would be the casefor bound orbits near the maximum separation (" turnaround ``) at thecurrent epoch. If future larger samples (e.g., the CfA2 and the SSRS2surveys) confirm this, then a total galaxy mass ~10^12^ M_sun_ isimplied. All the six close pairs for which we have detailed H I andoptical CCD images show some signs of interaction, even though theselection criteria were specifically independent of known morphologicalpeculiarities. For three of the six pairs there is good evidence for thepairs also being on high eccentricity, low total energy orbits, andthere is some evidence that the impact parameter for one pair is ~1 diskradius. The median velocity difference {DELTA}V_med_ of the close pairssample is also ~30 km s^-1^. This small value of {DELTA}V_med_ isprobably an indirect effect of dynamical friction.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Large-Scale Structures in the Zone of Avoidance: The Galactic Anticenter Region
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...449..527L&db_key=AST

Dynamics of Binary Galaxies. III. Details of the Close Pairs
In a previous paper [Chengalur et al. ApJ, 107, 1984(1994)] H Isynthesis data and CCD images were presented for an objectively chosensample of six close spiral-spiral galaxy pairs. In this paper we presenta detailed analysis of the data. Although the presence of tidal featureswas not an explicit selection criterion, five of our six pairs showtidal tails and bridges. The remaining pair also shows signs ofinteraction: both galaxies in the pair have disturbed velocity fieldsand one of the two galaxies has a central concentration of molecular gasand is undergoing a starburst. The morphology of three of the six pairsimplies that the galaxies are on high eccentricity, low total energyorbits, and for one of these pairs there is some evidence that theimpact parameter is as small as ~1 disk radius. For the remaining threepairs the tidal features are not as pronounced, and the observations donot yield as much information on the orbit. However, even for thesepairs, the observed morphology is consistent with the galaxies being onslow, small impact parameter orbits, provided the galaxies are at arelatively early phase of the orbit, i.e., prior to the first closeencounter. We also find weak evidence for preferential alignment in thepairs (with the lack of preferential alignment being ruled out at the97% level), in the sense that the major axis of a galaxy tends to pointtoward the companion galaxy. This sample of close pairs is complementedby a larger sample of wide pairs (Chengalur et al. 1993). The medianvelocity difference {DELTA}V of the sample of close pairs in low-densityregions is not much different from that for the wide pairs sample, inparticular, there is no evidence for positive energy impacts. The effectof dynamical friction on infall velocities is controversial and will bediscussed in the following paper [Chengalur et al., in preparation(1995)] which combines the data on close and wide pairs.

Dynamics of binary galaxies. 2: Close pairs
As part of a comprehensive study of binary galaxies, broadband opticalCharge Coupled Device (CCD) images and high resolution H I maps arepresented for six close pairs of spiral galaxies. A previous paperChengalur, et al., (1993) presented the results of a study of binarygalaxies with wide separations. The current sample of close pairs waschosen from the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) redshift catalog usingselection criteria that were objective and completely independent of anypreviously known morphological peculiarities. Nonetheless, all thegalaxies show some sign of interaction, implying that the selectioncriteria were sufficiently well tailored to choose physically associatedparis. All the galaxies show kinematical disturbances and haveasymmetric rotation curves. Tidal tails and bridges are clearly detectedfor some, and two pairs have a large common H I envelope. This common HI envelope also shows a large scale radial velocity gradient and givesthe impression of being in rotation about a single kinematical axis.There is relatively good agreement between the optical and H I images,with similar tidal features being seen in both. The H I features,however, extend to a much larger galactocentric radius than thecorresponding optical features. In at least one case, however, thestellar disk appears relatively normal, while the H I disk appearsdisturbed even towards the center of the galaxy. The systematic velocitydifference for the galaxy pairs has been measured quite accuratelyeither from the integrated H I spectral profile, or from a global fit tothe galaxy velocity fields. The median velocity difference for the sixgalaxy pairs is very small, approximately 20 km/s. Detailed analysis ofthe data will be presented in a separate paper.

Dynamics of Binary Galaxies. I. Wide Pairs
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993ApJ...419...30C&db_key=AST

Velocity differences in binary galaxies. I - Suggestions for a nonmonotonic, two-component distribution
A compilation of published high-precision velocities for 107 isolatedgalaxies is presented and used to obtain the distribution function oftheir velocity differences. The distribution shows a peak at the zerodifference as expected, but it also exhibits a preference for valuesnear 72 km/2. The distribution function declines smoothly beyond about72 km/s, with no significant peaks at multiples of 72 km/s, as claimedby Tifft (1977, 1980, 1982). It is argued that criteria for selectionprocedures on binary galaxy samples which are defined on the basis oftoo narrow a projected separation in the sky can produce a nonmonotonicdistribution if the orbits are eccentric. Such orbits can produce astrong secondary peak only if the level of incompleteness inbinary-galaxy samples is quite high, suggesting that the presentstatistical estimates of the masses of binary galaxies should bereevaluated.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

Properties and simulations of interacting spiral galaxies with transient 'ocular' shapes
Computer simulations of interacting galaxies show a transient oval-apexstructure resembling an eye, which sometimes leads to the formation of apermanent central bar. A dimensionless tidal strength parametereffectively distinguishes between the different possible outcomes.Several examples of ocular structure in real galaxies have been found.The rotation curves of ocular galaxies are predicted to have largevelocity irregularities that correspond to distinctive spiral arm anddouble-parallel arm features. The amplitude of the velocity features maybe useful in determining the strength of the tidal interactions.

Isolated Triplets of Galaxies - a Complete Summary of Radial Velocities and Reduced Data
Not Available

Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - Binaries
A new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass.

Arm classifications for spiral galaxies
The spiral arm classes of 762 galaxies are tabulated; 636 galaxies withlow inclinations and radii larger than 1 arcmin were classified on thebasis of their blue images on the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS),76 SA galaxies in the group catalog of Geller and Huchra were alsoclassified from the POSS, and 253 galaxies in high-resolution atlaseswere classified from their atlas photographs. This spiral armclassification system was previously shown to correlate with thepresence of density waves, and galaxies with such waves were shown tooccur primarily in the densest galactic groups. The present sampleindicates, in addition, that grand design galaxies (i.e., those whichtend to contain prominent density wave modes) are physically larger thanflocculent galaxies (which do not contain such prominent modes) by afactor of about 1.5. A larger group sample confirms the previous resultthat grand design galaxies are preferentially in dense groups.

A VLA 20 CM survey of poor groups of galaxies
The paper reports on VLA 20 cm observations of an extensive sample ofgalaxies in 139 poor groups. These groups, composed of galaxies down tothe limit of the Zwicky et al. (CGCG) catalog, were chosen using apercolation algorithm set at a high surface-density threshold.Approximately 50 percent of the groups have measured redshifts. Thesegroups were surveyed using a 'snapshot' mode of the VLA with aresolution of about 13 arcsec. Analysis of the resulting radio andoptical properties reveals that the presence of a nearby companiongalaxy has an important role in generating radio emission in a galaxy.CCD observations of two radio-loud, disturbed galaxies with companionsare presented and are used to discuss models of radio-source production.Nine tailed radio galaxies are found in the poor groups, which is muchmore than had been expected from previous work on rich clusters and fromtheoretical models. The paper discusses previous statistical biases andproposes a method for bending head-tail sources in poor groups. From theconfinement of extended radio features associated with tailed sources,the presence of a substantial intracluster medium that should radiatesignificantly at soft-X-ray energies is predicted.

Neutral hydrogen in small groups of galaxies
Neutral hydrogen in 36 pairs and small groups of galaxies was studiedusing the Arecibo radio telescope. Potential groups were selected fromthe Uppsala General Catalogue of Galaxies of Nilson (1973) by a simplealgorithm with the aims of determining or improving redshifts forgalaxies in possible groups and of mapping some of the larger galaxiesto determine their internal dynamics. The H I spectra are examined indetail and problems of confusion in these and previous observations areaddressed. A simple analysis of the groups' mean dynamical mass suggeststhat the mass determined from the galaxies' rotation is sufficient tobind them, but there may be important unmodeled selection orcontamination problems. A simple method for estimating errors of H Ivelocity measurements is also derived.

The extragalactic distance scale derived from 'sosie' galaxies. I - Distances of 167 galaxies which are sosies of 14 nearby galaxies
The method of 'sosie' galaxies is applied to a large sample of galaxiesextracted from the BGP catalog of H I line data and the Second ReferenceCatalog of Bright Galaxies. The sosies of 14 calibrating galaxies(primary calibrators and galaxies in the nearest groups) are defined asthose having the same parameters, either (1) morphological type T, axisratio R, and maximum rotation velocity VM or (2) T, R, andluminosity index lambdac. Distance moduli directly derivedfrom apparent magnitudes and/or diameters are provided on the distancescale whose zero point is defined by the adopted distance moduli of thecalibrators. The external mean error (0.4 mag) is competitive with thebest currently available.

Arecibo H I data for 136 spiral galaxies
The results of observations of the neutral hydrogen emission of 136spiral galaxies observed using the 21 cm spectral-line system of theArecibo Observatory are presented. Most of the 114 detected objects havebeen mapped along the major axis, and cumulative spectra andposition-velocity contour maps for each of them are presented. The dataare used to determine the overall H I content, systemic velocity, linewidths, and scale-length H I diameters. Data are also presented, indetailed tabular form, for each of the positions observed on thedetected objects.

H I line studies of galaxies. IV - Distance moduli of 468 disk galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...59...43B&db_key=AST

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

A catalog of hierarchical subclustering in the Turner-Gott groups
Information on the substructure, to four levels of hierarchy, ispresented for the 103 groups listed by Turner and Gott (TG) in theircatalog of groups of galaxies. All galaxies brighter than Mpg= 14.0 in the region delta is 0 deg or greater and b(II) is 40 deg orgreater that have been assigned group memberships by TG are included.Also listed is the local environmental information for each of thegalaxies, giving the surface density enhancement beta in the galaxy'sneighborhood, calculated at 15 levels in the range beta = 4.6 to 10,000.

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Right ascension:09h50m06.60s
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