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Water-Vapor Maser Survey for Active Galactic Nuclei: A Megamaser in NGC 6926
We made a survey of water-vapor maser emission for 93 AGNs with theNobeyama 45-m and Mopra 22-m telescopes from 1999 to 2002. A megamaserwas detected in a Seyfert 2 galaxy, NGC 6926, at a distance of 80Mpc, in2002 June. [Greenhill et al. (2003a) have also reported a detection ofthe megamaser at the close date.] The peak flux density was 110mJy, andthe total isotropic luminosity was 340 Lȯ. The masershows triply peaked spectrum, suggesting an edge-on disk. A narrow-linefeature of the maser components at VLSR = 6001 kms-1 was strongly variable with a time scale of a few tens ofdays, and the variation should be of intrinsic origin. We also showed apossibility of variability of water-vapor maser emission of a megamaserpreviously detected in a Seyfert/ultraluminous FIR galaxy, NGC 6240.

An Atlas of Warm Active Galactic Nuclei and Starbursts from the IRAS Deep Fields
We present a set of 180 active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates basedon color selection from the IRAS slow-scan deep observations, with colorcriteria broadened from the initial Point Source Catalog samples so asto include similar objects with redshifts up to z=1 and allowing fortwo-band detections. Spectroscopic identifications have been obtainedfor 80 (44%); some additional identifications are secure based on radiodetections or optical morphology, although yet unobservedspectroscopically. These spectroscopic identifications include 13 type 1Seyfert galaxies, 17 type 2 Seyferts, 29 starburst galaxies, 7 LINERsystems, and 13 emission-line galaxies so heavily reddened as to remainof ambiguous classification. The optical magnitudes range from R=12.0 to20.5; the counts suggest that incompleteness is important fainter thanR=15.5. Redshifts extend to z=0.51, with a significant part of thesample at z>0.2. Even with the relaxed color criteria, this sampleincludes slightly more AGNs than star-forming systems among those wherethe spectra contain enough diagnostic feature to make the distinction.The active nuclei include several broad-line objects with strong Fe IIemission, and composite objects with the absorption-line signatures offading starbursts. These AGNs with warm far-IR colors have littleoverlap with the ``red AGNs'' identified with 2MASS; only a singleSeyfert 1 was detected by 2MASS with J-K>2. Some reliable IRASdetections have either very faint optical counterparts or onlyabsorption-line galaxies, potentially being deeply obscured AGNs. TheIRAS detections include a newly identified symbiotic star, and severalpossible examples of the ``Vega phenomenon,'' including dwarfs as coolas type K. Appendices detail these candidate stars, and theoptical-identification content of a particularly deep set ofhigh-latitude IRAS scans (probing the limits of optical identificationfrom IRAS data alone).Based on observations from the European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical AstronomyObservatories, operated by the Association of Universities for Researchin Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the NationalScience Foundation; the Isaac Newton and William Herschel telescopes,operated by the Royal Greenwich Observatory on behalf of the SERC at theSpanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, and Lowell Observatory.

The 1000 Brightest HIPASS Galaxies: H I Properties
We present the HIPASS Bright Galaxy Catalog (BGC), which contains the1000 H I brightest galaxies in the southern sky as obtained from the H IParkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS). The selection of the brightest sourcesis based on their H I peak flux density (Speak>~116 mJy)as measured from the spatially integrated HIPASS spectrum. The derived HI masses range from ~107 to 4×1010Msolar. While the BGC (z<0.03) is complete inSpeak, only a subset of ~500 sources can be consideredcomplete in integrated H I flux density (FHI>~25 Jy kms-1). The HIPASS BGC contains a total of 158 new redshifts.These belong to 91 new sources for which no optical or infraredcounterparts have previously been cataloged, an additional 51 galaxiesfor which no redshifts were previously known, and 16 galaxies for whichthe cataloged optical velocities disagree. Of the 91 newly cataloged BGCsources, only four are definite H I clouds: while three are likelyMagellanic debris with velocities around 400 km s-1, one is atidal cloud associated with the NGC 2442 galaxy group. The remaining 87new BGC sources, the majority of which lie in the zone of avoidance,appear to be galaxies. We identified optical counterparts to all but oneof the 30 new galaxies at Galactic latitudes |b|>10deg.Therefore, the BGC yields no evidence for a population of``free-floating'' intergalactic H I clouds without associated opticalcounterparts. HIPASS provides a clear view of the local large-scalestructure. The dominant features in the sky distribution of the BGC arethe Supergalactic Plane and the Local Void. In addition, one can clearlysee the Centaurus Wall, which connects via the Hydra and Antlia Clustersto the Puppis Filament. Some previously hardly noticable galaxy groupsstand out quite distinctly in the H I sky distribution. Several newstructures, including some not behind the Milky Way, are seen for thefirst time.

The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

The cold gas properties of Markarian galaxies
A sample of 61 Markarian galaxies detected in the CO line was compiled.Using available HI, element H2, optical and radio continuumdata, the analysis of the gas kinematics and the star formationproperties for this sample of galaxies was performed. The mainconclusion can be summarized as follows: (1) The HI and CO line widthsare well correlated. Interaction between galaxies has no influence onthe CO line broadening. A rapidly rotating nuclear disk in the galaxymight lead to the CO line broadening with less influence on the HI line.(2) The atomic and molecular gas surface densities are well correlatedwith the blue, FIR and radio continuum surface brightness; however, thecorrelation for molecular component is stronger.\ (3) In general, thegalaxies with UV-excess (Markarian galaxies) do not differ in their starformation properties from the non-UV galaxies.

A Spectroscopic Study of a Large Sample Of Wolf-Rayet Galaxies
We analyze long-slit spectral observations of 39 Wolf-Rayet (WR)galaxies with heavy element mass fraction ranging over 2 orders ofmagnitude, from Zsolar/50 to 2Zsolar. Nearly allgalaxies in our sample show broad WR emission in the blue region of thespectrum (the blue bump) consisting of an unresolved blend of N IIIλ4640, C III λ4650, C IV λ4658, and He IIλ4686 emission lines. Broad C IV λ5808 emission (the redbump) is detected in 30 galaxies. Additionally, weaker WR emission linesare identified, most often the N III λ4512 and Si IIIλ4565 lines, which have very rarely or never been seen anddiscussed before in WR galaxies. These emission features arecharacteristic of WN7-WN8 and WN9-WN11 stars, respectively. We derivethe numbers of early WC (WCE) and late WN (WNL) stars from theluminosities of the red and blue bumps, and the number of O stars fromthe luminosity of the Hβ emission line. Additionally, we propose anew technique for deriving the numbers of WNL stars from the N IIIλ4512 and Si III λ4565 emission lines. This technique ispotentially more precise than the blue-bump method because it does notsuffer from contamination of WCE and early WN (WNE) stars and nebulargaseous emission. It is found that the relative number of WR starsN(WR)/N(O+WR) decreases with decreasing metallicity, in agreement withpredictions of evolutionary synthesis models. The relative number ratiosN(WC)/N(WN) and the equivalent widths of the blue bump EW(λ4650)and of the red bump EW(λ5808) derived from observations are alsoin satisfactory agreement with theoretical predictions, except for themost metal-deficient WR galaxies. A possible source of disagreement istoo low a line emission luminosity adopted for a single WCE star inlow-metallicity models. We assemble a sample of 30 H II regions withdetected He II λ4686 nebular emission to analyze the possibleconnection of this emission with the hard UV radiation of the WR stars.The theoretical predictions satisfactorily reproduce the observedintensities and equivalent widths of the He II λ4686 nebularemission line. However, galaxies with nebular He II λ4686emission do not always show WR emission. Therefore, in addition to theionization of He+ in the H II region by WR stars, othermechanisms for the origin of He II λ4686 such as radiative shocksprobably need to be invoked.

Galactic Fountains and Galactic Winds
The development of galactic fountain theories is reviewed with specialemphasis on the different approaches and concepts that have been used inthe past. In particular the outstanding contribution of Franz Kahn toour physical understanding is appreciated. It is argued that galacticoutflows represent an essential phase during galaxy evolution. Thedynamics of the outflow imprints its signature on the emission spectraof soft X-rays, which may well be observable with AXAF and XMM. Finally,some remarks about winds in starburst galaxies and AGN are made.

Massive star populations and the IMF in metal-rich starbursts
We present new spectroscopic observations of Mkn 309, a starburst galaxywith one of the largest WR populations known. A highly super solarmetallicity of 12 + log (O/H) ~ 9.3-9.4 is derived. Using additionalobjects from Guseva et al. (2000) we analyse a sample of five metal-rich([O/H] > 0) WR galaxies with the main goal of constraining the basicproperties of the massive star populations (IMF slope, Mup)and the star formation history (age, burst duration) of these objects byquantitative comparisons with evolutionary synthesis models. Thefollowing main results are obtained: The observations are well explainedby extended bursts of star formation with durations Delta t ~ 4-10 Myrseen at ages of 7-15 Myr or a superposition of several bursts with agedifferences of ~ 4-10 Myr including a young (la 5 Myr) burst. Thisnaturally explains both the observed WR populations (including WN and WCstars) and the presence of red supergiants. The burst durations,somewhat longer compared to those derived in other WR galaxies using thesame models (Schaerer et al. 1999a), are plausible in view of thephysical sizes of the observed regions and the nature and morphology ofour objects (nuclear starbursts), and pose no fundamental physicalproblem. The SEDs in the optical range are very well reproduced for allobjects, provided the stellar light suffers from a smaller extinctionthan that of the gas (derived from the Balmer decrement). This confirmsearlier findings from studies combining UV-optical data of otherstarburst galaxies. All the considered observational constraints arecompatible with a Salpeter IMF extending to masses Mup 40 Msun. Adopting a conservative approach we derive a lowerlimit of Mup  30 Msun for the Salpeter IMF.From more realistic assumptions on the metallicity and SF history wefavour a lower limit Mup  30-40 Msun, whichis also in agreement with Hβ equivalent width measurements ofmetal-rich H ii regions in spiral galaxies indicating an upper masscut-off of at least ~ 35-50 Msun. Steep IMF slopes (alpha>~ 3.3) are very unlikely. The uncertainties of our results arediscussed. We compare our findings to other work on massive starpopulations and the IMF in similar environments. We stress theimportance of direct analysis of stellar populations compared to otherindirect methods based on properties of ionized gas to constrain the IMFin metal-rich starbursts. Based on observations at Kitt Peak NationalObservatory, National Optical Astronomical Observatories, operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercontract with the Nationsal Science Foundation

New catalogue of Wolf-Rayet galaxies and high-excitation extra-galactic HII regions
We present a new compilation of Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies andextra-galactic Hii regions showing broad He ii lambda 4686 emissiondrawn from the literature. Relevant information on the presence of otherbroad emission lines ([N i] lambda 5199ii, C iv lambda 5808 and others)from WR stars of WN and WC subtypes, and other existing broad nebularlines is provided. In total we include 139 known WR galaxies. Amongthese, 57 objects show both broad He ii lambda 4686 and C iv lambda 5808features. In addition to the broad (stellar) He ii lambda 4686 emission,a nebular He ii component is well established (suspected) in 44 (54)objects. We find 19 extra-galatic Hii regions without WR detectionsshowing nebular He ii lambda 4686 emission. The present sample can beused for a variety of studies on massive stars, interactions of massivestars with the ISM, stellar populations, starburst galaxies etc. Thedata is accessible electronically and will be updated periodically. Thecatalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The Supernova Rate in Starburst Galaxies
We conducted an optical CCD search for supernovae in a sample of 142bright [m(B) <= 16 mag], nearby (z<=0.03) starburst galaxies overthe period 1988 December to 1991 June, to a limiting R-band magnitude of18. Five supernovae were found, in all cases outside the host galaxy'snucleus. We determine supernova rates (in supernova units or SNU) in theextranuclear regions to be 0.7 h^2 SNU for Type Ia, 0.7 h^2 SNU for TypeIb/c, and ~0.6 h^2 SNU for Type II, with large uncertainties but upperlimits of 2.2 h^2, 2.5 h^2, and 1.7 h^2 SNU, respectively. These ratesare similar to those measured in ``normal'' galaxies. We found noevidence for a supernova-induced brightening in any galactic nucleusand, with a few reasonable assumptions, can place upper limits of 9 h^2,12 h^2, and 7 h^2 SNU on the rates of unobscured supernovae Types Ia,Ib/c, and II, respectively, inside the nuclei.

Molecular Gas Superwind from the Face-On Wolf-Rayet Galaxy Markarian 1259
We report the results of 12 CO ( J=1-0 ) mapping observationsof the Wolf-Rayet starburst galaxy Markarian 1259, which has opticalevidence for the superwind seen from a nearly pole-on view. The COemission is detected in the central 4 kpc region. The nuclear COspectrum shows a blueshifted ( Delta V~=-27 km s ^{-1} ) broad ({FWHM}~=114 km s ^{-1} ) component as well as a narrow one ( {FWHM}~=68km s ^{-1} ). The off-nuclear CO spectra also show the single-peakedbroad component ( {FWHM}~=100 km s ^{-1} ). The single-peaked COprofiles of both the nuclear and off-nuclear regions may be explained ifwe introduce a CO gas disk with a velocity dispersion of ~100 km s ^{-1}. If this gas disk were extended up to a few kiloparsecs in radius, wemay explain the wide line widths of the off-nuclear CO emission.Alternatively, we may attribute the off-nuclear CO emission to the gasassociated with the superwind. However, if all the CO gas moves alongthe biconical surface of the superwind, the CO spectra would showdouble-peaked profiles. Hence, the single-peaked CO profiles of theoff-nuclear regions may be explained by the idea that the morphologyand/or velocity field of the molecular gas superwind are more complex,as suggested by hydrodynamical simulations.

A New Superwind Wolf-Rayet Galaxy Markarian 1259
We report the discovery of a starburst-driven wind (superwind) from thestarburst nucleus galaxy Mrk 1259. The estimated number ratio ofWolf-Rayet (WR) to O stars amounts to ~=0.09. While the nuclearemission-line region is due to the usual photoionization by massivestars, the circumnuclear emission-line regions show anomalous lineratios that can be due to cooling shocks. Since the host galaxy seems tobe a face-on disk galaxy and the excitation conditions of thecircumnuclear emission-line regions show spatial symmetry, we considerthat we are seeing the superwind nearly from a pole-on view. Coolingshock models may explain the observed emission-line ratios of thecircumnuclear regions, although a factor of 2 overabundance of nitrogenis necessary. All these suggest that the high-mass--enhanced starburstoccurred ~5 x 106 yr ago in the nuclear region of Mrk 1259.

A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies
Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey ofMarkarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared datafrom the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKsobserved at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% ofthose objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHzmeasurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from theNational Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported.Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from theIRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, withreasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPACExtragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infraredcharacteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, thatis well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratioamong Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey thewell-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightestcorrelation seen for starburst MRKs.

Corrections and additions to the third reference catalogue of bright galaxies
List of corrections and additions to the Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies (RC3) are given. The corrected version of the catalogue(RC3.9b), dated April 1994, is currently available through the nationaldata centers.

Shocked molecular hydrogen in NGC 4038/4039, 'the antennae'
The nuclei of the interacting pair NGC 4038/4039 have been observed inthe 2.123-micron v = 1 to 0 S(1) line of excited molecular hydrogen. Theobserved S(1)-line luminosity/FIR luminosity ratios for NGC 4038 and NGC4039 are found to be too high to be compatible with a model in which theH2 is excited by radiatively driven gas motions in the star-formingregions. Alternative excitation mechanisms considered include supernovaexplosions and collisions between the molecular clouds of the twogalaxies.

A statistical study of properties of Seyfert and starburst galaxies
Spectral and morphological data for 282 Seyfert and emission-linegalaxies spanning radio to X-ray wavelengths are compiled. The datainclude a large number of optical emission-line measurements which havenot been reported previously. These data are intended to provide aconvenient summary of the relevant properties of these galaxies, as wellas a data base to search for correlations among the various parametersin order to obtain a better understanding of the active galaxyphenomenon. The paper presents the data and analyzes the distributionsof various properties of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies and starburstgalaxies. It is found that Seyferts 2s have a higher 60 micron/forbiddenO III 5007 A flux ratio than Seyfert 1s. This result, combined with thefact that Seyfert 2s are more heavily reddened, indicate that they havea higher dust content. It is also found that starburst nuclei arecomparable to Seyfert 2s in far-infrared and 20 cm luminosities,although their optical spectra are markedly different.

Far-infrared luminosities of Markarian starburst galaxies. II - Individual galaxies
IRAS observations of galaxies in the Balzano sample of opticallyselected starburst nuclei and of a comparison of Virgo spiral galaxiesare used to derive far-infrared luminosities. Distances and blue andH-alpha luminosities of the starburst galaxies are also tabulated.

Spectral classification of emission-line galaxies
A revised method of classification of narrow-line active galaxies and HII region-like galaxies is proposed. It involves the line ratios whichtake full advantage of the physical distinction between the two types ofobjects and minimize the effects of reddening correction and errors inthe flux calibration. Large sets of internally consistent data are used,including new, previously unpublished measurements. Predictions ofrecent photoionization models by power-law spectra and by hot stars arecompared with the observations. The classification is based on theobservational data interpreted on the basis of these models.

A catalog of Markarian galaxies
A catalog of Markarian galaxies is presented which tabulates redshifts,spectral and morphological classifications, magnitudes, infrared andradio flux densities, and over 600 references to available datapublished before January 1, 1986. Redshifts are now available for 1228objects with strong ultraviolet continua, and follow-up spectroscopicand photometric observations of Markarian galaxies have providedclassifications of 115 Seyfert 1, 43 Seyfert 2, and 137 starburst and HII-type galaxies. After a description of the Markarian survey and thecurrent catalog, a summary of the general results obtained from the datais presented. A preliminary study of the infrared properties ofMarkarian galaxies as measured by IRAS reveals a number of interestingresults, including the existence of a sample of elliptical andlenticular galaxies with appreciable infrared emission.

Radio observations of starburst galaxies
Scaled array observations were made with the VLA at 1465 MHz and 4885MHz of starburst regions having various morphologies. These are bluecompact galaxies Mrk 59 and II Zw 40; starburst nuclei Mrk 52, 357, 603,1089, 1259, and 1344; and giant H II regions NGC 595, 604, 5455, 5461,and 5471 in M33 and M101. Radio spectra are deconvolved into thermal andnonthermal components, which relate to the ionizing radiation from thestarburst and the number of supernova remnants from the starburst.Starburst models based on various forms of the initial mass function arecompared to the radio observations and to IRAS data. Results forstarburst nuclei match expectations for a conventional IMF, but bluecompact galaxies and giant H II regions show a deficiency of nonthermalradiation, implying a possible deficiency of supernova remnants.

Spectra of Seyfert galaxies and Seyfert galaxy candidates
New spectral classifications of a number of Seyfert galaxies, as well asof other objects that are not but were earlier suspected of beingSeyfert galaxies, are presented. Measured redshifts for all theseobjects are also given. Mrk 266 SW and Mrk 1066, two galaxies near thelower end of the Seyfert 2's and close to Liners (low-ionization nuclearemission-line regions), are studied spectrophotometrically. Theirrelative emission-line spectra agree much better with published modelsfor photoionization by a low-luminosity power-law-like radiation sourcethan by shock-wave heating. The spectra of Mrk 883 and Mrk 1320, whichare borderline Seyfert galaxies, of Mrk 984, a double emission-linegalaxy, and Mrk 1459, a galaxy photoionized by a hot-star population,are briefly discussed.

Star-burst galactic nuclei
Markarian (1967) has conducted a survey of galaxies having strongultraviolet continua. In connection with this survey, a new group ofgalaxies was discovered which could provide additional insight into thenature and evolution of active galactic nuclei. The optical morphologyof the discovered galaxies is similar to that shown by Seyfert galaxies,with dominant feature often being a bright, starlike nucleus. However,these nuclei do not usually display the broad emission-line spectra socharacteristic of the Seyferts. Their narrow emission features and otherobservable properties can be explained by the presence of a hot, youngstar population. For this reason, these objects have become known asstar-burst nuclei. The nuclear star-burst phenomenon might supplymaterial for gravitational accretion, and, therefore, for thedevelopment of active galaxies. Balzano and Weedman (1981) have studiedthese nuclei as a distinct group. The present investigation representsthe first comprehensive survey.

Accurate Optical Positions for Markarian Galaxies 1096-1302
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1981AJ.....86..816K&db_key=AST

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