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A Three-dimensional Study of the Local Environment of Bright IRAS Galaxies: The Active Galactic Nucleus-Starburst Connection
We present a three-dimensional study of the local (<=100h-1 kpc) and the large scale (<=1 h-1 Mpc)environment of bright IRAS balaxies (BIRGs). For this purpose we use 87BIRGs located at high Galactic latitudes (with 0.008<=z<=0.018),as well as a control sample of nonactive galaxies having the samemorphological, redshift, and diameter size distributions as thecorresponding BIRG sample. Using the Center for Astrophysics and theSouthern Sky Redshift Survey galaxy catalogs (mb<~15.5),as well as our own spectroscopic observations (mb<~19.0),for a subsample of the original BIRG sample, we find that the fractionof BIRGs with a close neighbor is significantly higher than that oftheir control sample. Comparing with a related analysis of Seyfert 1 andSeyfert 2 galaxies by Koulouridis and coworkers, we find that BIRGs havea similar environment to that of Seyfert 2 galaxies, although thefraction of BIRGs with a bright, close neighbor is even higher than thatfor Seyfert 2 galaxies. An additional analysis of the relation betweenFIR colors and the type of activity of each BIRG shows a significantdifference between the colors of strongly interacting and noninteractingstarbursts and a resemblance between the colors of noninteractingstarbursts and Seyfert 2 galaxies. Our results support the view thatclose interactions can drive molecular clouds toward the galacticcenter, triggering starburst activity and obscuring the nuclearactivity. When the close neighbor moves away, starburst activity isreduced with the simultaneous appearance of an obscured (type 2) activegalactic nucleus (AGN). Finally, the complete disentanglement of thepair gives birth to an unobscured (type 1) AGN.

Near-Infrared and Star-forming Properties of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies
We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) NICMOS continuum and Paαobservations to study the near-infrared and star formation properties ofa representative sample of 30 local (d~35-75 Mpc) luminous infraredgalaxies (LIRGs, infrared [8-1000 μm] luminosities oflogLIR=11-11.9 Lsolar). The data provide spatialresolutions of 25-50 pc and cover the central ~3.3-7.1 kpc regions ofthese galaxies. About half of the LIRGs show compact (~1-2 kpc)Paα emission with a high surface brightness in the form of nuclearemission, rings, and minispirals. The rest of the sample show Paαemission along the disk and the spiral arms extending over scales of 3-7kpc and larger. About half of the sample contains H II regions withHα luminosities significantly higher than those observed in normalgalaxies. There is a linear empirical relationship between the mid-IR 24μm and hydrogen recombination (extinction-corrected Paα)luminosity for these LIRGs, and the H II regions in the central part ofM51. This relation holds over more than four decades in luminosity,suggesting that the mid-IR emission is a good tracer of the starformation rate (SFR). Analogous to the widely used relation between theSFR and total IR luminosity of R. Kennicutt, we derive an empiricalcalibration of the SFR in terms of the monochromatic 24 μm luminositythat can be used for luminous, dusty galaxies.

Infrared 3-4 μm Spectroscopy of Infrared Luminous Galaxies with Possible Signatures of Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei
We present the results of infrared 2.8-4.1 μm (L-band) spectroscopyof nearby infrared luminous galaxies with possible signatures ofdust-obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in data at otherwavelengths. The samples are chosen to include sources with a radioexcess relative to far-infrared emission, strong absorption features inmid-infrared 5-11.5 μm spectra, unusually weak [C II] 158 μmemission relative to the far-infrared continuum, and radio galaxiesclassified optically as narrow-line objects. Our aim is to investigatewhether the signatures of possible obscured AGNs can be detected in ourL-band spectra based on the strengths of emission and absorptionfeatures. Six of nine observed sources clearly show 3.3 μm polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbon emission features, a good starburst indicator. Anabsorption feature at 3.1 μm due to ice-covered dust is detected inIRAS 04154+1755 and IRAS 17208-0014. The signature of a barecarbonaceous dust absorption feature at 3.4 μm is seen in NGC 1377.Our L-band spectra reveal strong signatures of obscured AGNs in allthree optical Seyfert 2 galaxies (IRAS 04154+1755, Cygnus A, and 3C 234)and two galaxies classified optically as non-Seyfert galaxies (NGC 828and NGC 1377). Among the remaining optical non-Seyfert galaxies, IRAS17208-0014 might also show a buried AGN signature, whereas no explicitAGN evidence is seen in the L-band spectra of the mid-infraredabsorption feature source IRAS 15250+3609 and two weak [C II] emitters,IC 860 and CGCG 1510.8+0725.Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which isoperated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Radio properties of FIR-megamaser nuclei
Aims.Radio data on the nuclear emissions have been used to characterizethe dominant nuclear activity in a sample of FIR (ultra-) luminousgalaxies and the subgroup of known OH Megamasers. This study complementsan earlier study of the optical classification of these Megamasernuclei.Methods.Classification of the radio activity in the nuclei isbased on three critical parameters: the radio brightness temperature,the radio spectral index, and the ratio of FIR and radio fluxes. A firstmethod gives equal weight to the three parameters and a second methoduses a weighted function to classify the nuclei.Results.The presentsample shows that only 43% of the sample shows some - weak or strong -AGN characteristics. About 66% of the OH-MM sample and 81% of thenon-OH-MM sample can be actually classified as Starburst-dominatedsources. Radio diagnostic diagrams using these diagnostic parametersshow a continuous distribution ranging between AGN-dominated andSBN-dominated sources. The diagnostic diagrams also support the notionthat AGNs and starbursts coexist in the nuclei.Conclusions.A comparisonof the radio and optical classifications shows a consistency in theextreme cases of clear SBN and AGNs. A significant part of the sourceswith optical AGN-like activity have an SBN classification in the radio.The discrepant classifications are discussed in order to arrive at afinal classification of the dominant power source in the nucleus.

The evolution of actively star-forming galaxies in the mid-infrared
In this paper we analyze the evolution of actively star-forming galaxiesin the mid-infrared (MIR). This spectral region, characterized bycontinuum emission by hot dust and by the presence of strong emissionfeatures generally ascribed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)molecules, is the most strongly affected by the heating processesassociated with star formation and/or active galactic nuclei (AGNs).Following the detailed observational characterization of galaxies in theMIR by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have updated themodelling of this spectral region in our spectrophotometric modelGRASIL. In the diffuse component we have updated the treatment of PAHsaccording to the model by Li & Draine. As for the dense phase of theinterstellar medium associated with the star-forming regions, themolecular clouds, we strongly decrease the abundance of PAHs as comparedto that in the cirrus, based on the observational evidence of the lackor weakness of PAH bands close to the newly formed stars, possibly dueto the destruction of the molecules in strong ultraviolet fields. Therobustness of the model is checked by fitting near-infrared to radiobroad-band spectra and the corresponding detailed MIR spectra of a largesample of galaxies, at once. With this model, we have analyzed thelarger sample of actively star-forming galaxies by Dale et al. We showthat the observed trends of galaxies in the ISO-IRAS-radio colour-colourplots can be interpreted in terms of the different evolutionary phasesof star formation activity, and the consequent different dominance inthe spectral energy distribution of the diffuse or dense phase of theISM. We find that the observed colours indicate a surprising homogeneityof the starburst phenomenon, allowing only a limited variation of themost important physical parameters, such as the optical depth of themolecular clouds, the time-scale of the escape of young stars from theirfor mation sites, and the gas consumption time-scale. In this paper wedo not attempt to reproduce the far-infrared coolest region in thecolour-colour plots, as we concentrate on models meant to reproduceactive star-forming galaxies, but we discuss possible requirements of amore complex modelling for the coldest objects.

Simulating the Spitzer Mid-Infrared Color-Color Diagrams
We use a simple parameterization of the mid-IR spectra of a wide rangeof galaxy types in order to predict their distribution in the InfraredArray Camera (IRAC) 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm and MultibandPhotometer for Spitzer 24 μm color-color diagrams. We distinguishthree basic spectral types by the energetically dominant component inthe 3-12 μm regime: stellar-dominated, polycyclic aromatichydrocarbon (PAH)-dominated, and continuum-dominated. We use a Markovchain Monte Carlo approach to arrive at a more systematic and robustrepresentation of the mid-IR spectra of galaxies than do moretraditional approaches. We find that IRAC color-color plots are wellsuited to distinguishing the above spectral types, while the addition of24 μm data allows us to suggest practical three-color cuts thatpreferentially select higher redshift sources of a specific type. Wecompare our simulations with the color-color plot obtained by theSpitzer First Look Survey and find reasonable agreement. Lastly, wediscuss other applications as well as future directions for this work.

The observations and studies of OH megamasers associated with external galaxies
During the thirty years since the first discovery of OH megamaserassociated with external galaxies, a great progress of observations andstudies for OH megamasers associated with external galaxies has beenproceeded. So far 106 OH megamasers associated with external galaxieshave been found, including 59 higher red-shifted ones. The observationsand studies of the OH megamasers associated with AGN and starburstgalaxies are the very efficient tools to investigate characteristics oftheir central sources and circumnuclear discs. A review on the currentprogress concerning surveys, observations and theoretical investigationson extragalactic OH megamaser sources is given in this paper.

Studies of Extragalactic Formaldehyde and Radio Recombination Lines
We present the most sensitive and extensive survey yet performed ofextragalactic H2CO 6 cm (4.829 GHz) emission/absorption.Sixty-two sources were observed with the C-band system of the AreciboTelescope to a 1 σ rms noise level of ~0.3 mJy. We report a newdetection of H2CO 6 cm absorption toward NGC 520 and theconfirmation of H2CO 6 cm absorption toward several sources.We report confirmation of H2CO 6 cm emission toward the OHmegamasers Arp 220, IC 860, and IRAS 15107+0724. At present these arethe only extragalactic H2CO 6 cm emitters independentlyconfirmed. A characterization of the properties of formaldehydeabsorbers and emitters based on infrared properties of the galaxies isdiscussed. We also conducted a simultaneous survey of the H110αhydrogen recombination line toward a sample of 53 objects. We report thedetection of H110α toward the giant extragalactic H II region NGC604 in M33.

Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S Database
We have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tracer of Star Formation?
Infrared (IR) emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μmare generally attributed to IR fluorescence from (mainly)far-ultraviolet (FUV) pumped large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)molecules. As such, these features trace the FUV stellar flux and arethus a measure of star formation. We examined the IR spectralcharacteristics of Galactic massive star-forming regions and of normaland starburst galaxies, as well as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) andultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The goal of this study is toanalyze whether PAH features are a good qualitative and/or quantitativetracer of star formation, and hence to evaluate the application of PAHemission as a diagnostic tool in order to identify the dominantprocesses contributing to the infrared emission from Seyfert galaxiesand ULIRGs. We develop a new mid-infrared (MIR)/far-infrared (FIR)diagnostic diagram based on our Galactic sample and compare it to thediagnostic tools of Genzel and coworkers and Laurent and coworkers, withthese diagnostic tools also applied to our Galactic sample. This MIR/FIRdiagnostic is derived from the FIR normalized 6.2 μm PAH flux and theFIR normalized 6.2 μm continuum flux. Within this diagram, theGalactic sources form a sequence spanning a range of 3 orders ofmagnitude in these ratios, ranging from embedded compact H II regions toexposed photodissociation regions (PDRs) and the (diffuse) interstellarmedium (ISM). However, the variation in the 6.2 μm PAHfeature-to-continuum ratio is relative small. Comparison of ourextragalactic sample with our Galactic sources revealed an excellentresemblance of normal and starburst galaxies to exposed PDRs. WhileSeyfert 2 galaxies coincide with the starburst trend, Seyfert 1 galaxiesare displaced by at least a factor of 10 in 6.2 μm continuum flux, inaccordance with general orientation-dependent unification schemes forAGNs. ULIRGs show a diverse spectral appearance. Some show a typical AGNhot dust continuum. More, however, either are starburst-like or showsigns of strong dust obscuration in the nucleus. One characteristic ofthe ULIRGs also seems to be the presence of more prominent FIR emissionthan either starburst galaxies or AGNs. We discuss the observedvariation in the Galactic sample in view of the evolutionary state andthe PAH/dust abundance and discuss the use of PAHs as quantitativetracers of star formation activity. Based on these investigations, wefind that PAHs may be better suited as a tracer of B stars, whichdominate the Galactic stellar energy budget, than as a tracer of massivestar formation (O stars).

A study of the infrared characteristics of host IRAS sources with OH megamasers
OH megamasers are the most luminous cosmic maser sources known. So farpowerful OH maser emission has been discovered from 90 extragalacticobjects. An important observational characteristic of the OH megamasersources is their relationship between L(OH) and L(IR). We study therelationship between logL(OH) and logL(IR) for the 67 OH megamasersources for which there are data on L(OH) and L(IR). Accounting forMalmquist bias, the relationship L(OH) ~L(IR)1.41 isobtained. We use the largest sample currently available to study therelationship between L(OH) and L(IR) for OH megamaser sources. Ourresults agree with Kandalian's results within the uncertainties.The infrared properties of the host IRAS sources with OH megamasers arealso studied. The most striking features are the anticorrelation of S(12μm)/S(25 μm) versus S(60 μm)/S(100 μm) and the correlationof S(12 μm)/S(25 μm) versus S(25 μm)/S(60 μm). They areconsistent with Henkel, Wouterlooy & Bally's finding that S(12μm)/S(25 μm) is anticorrelated with S(60 μm)/S(100 μm), butare the opposite of Henkel et al.'s result that S(12 μm)/S(25 μm)is correlated with S(25 μm)/S(60 μm). This is an interestingdifference. Our colour-colour plots suggest that the peak of theinfrared spectra of our sample of OH sources is at a longer wavelengththan the peak in the sample of Henkel et al. This suggests that infraredradiation from our sample is dominated by emission from material atgreater separations from the central source.

CO Molecular Gas in Infrared-luminous Galaxies
We present the first statistical survey of the properties of the12CO(1-0) and 12CO(3-2) line emission from thenuclei of a nearly complete subsample of 60 infrared (IR) luminousgalaxies selected from SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey (SLUGS). Thissubsample is flux limited at S60μm>=5.24 Jy with far-IR(FIR) luminosities mostly at LFIR>1010Lsolar. We compare the emission line strengths of12CO(1-0) and (3-2) transitions at a common resolution of~15". The measured 12CO(3-2) to (1-0) line intensity ratiosr31 vary from 0.22 to 1.72, with a mean value of 0.66 for thesources observed, indicating a large spread of the degree of excitationof CO in the sample. These CO data, together with a wide range of dataat different wavelengths obtained from the literature, allow us to studythe relationship between the CO excitation conditions and the physicalproperties of gas/dust and star formation in the central regions ofgalaxies. Our analysis shows that there is a nonlinear relation betweenCO and FIR luminosities, such that their ratioLCO/LFIR decreases linearly with increasingLFIR. This behavior was found to be consistent with theSchmidt law relating star formation rate to molecular gas content, withan index N=1.4+/-0.3. We also find a possible dependence of the degreeof CO gas excitation on the efficiency of star-forming activity. Usingthe large velocity gradient (LVG) approximation to model the observeddata, we investigate the CO-to-H2 conversion factor X for theSLUGS sample. The results show that the mean value of X for the SLUGSsample is lower by a factor of 10 compared to the conventional valuederived for the Galaxy, if we assume the abundance of CO relative toH2, ZCO=10-4. For a subset of 12galaxies with H I maps, we derive a mean total face-on surface densityof H2+HI of about 42 Msolar pc-2 withinabout 2 kpc of the nucleus. This value is intermediate between that ingalaxies like our own and those with strong star formation.

Infrared Emission of Normal Galaxies from 2.5 to 12 Micron: Infrared Space Observatory Spectra, Near-Infrared Continuum, and Mid-Infrared Emission Features
We present ISOPHOT spectra of the regions 2.5-4.9 μm and 5.8-11.6μm for a sample of 45 disk galaxies from the US Infrared SpaceObservatory Key Project on Normal Galaxies. The galaxies were selectedto span the range in global properties of normal, star-forming diskgalaxies in the local universe. The spectra can be decomposed into threespectral components: (1) continuum emission from stellar photospheres,which dominates the near-infrared (NIR; 2.5-4.9 μm) spectral region;(2) a weak NIR excess continuum, which has a color temperature of~103 K, carries a luminosity of a few percent of the totalfar-infrared (FIR) dust luminosity LFIR and most likelyarises from the interstellar medium (ISM); and (3) the well-known broademission features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm, which are generallyattributed to aromatic carbon particles. These aromatic features inemission (AFEs) dominate the mid-infrared (MIR; 5.8-11.6 μm) part ofthe spectrum and resemble the so-called type A spectra observed in manynonstellar sources and the diffuse ISM in our own Galaxy. The fewnotable exceptions include NGC 4418, where a dust continuum replaces theAFEs in MIR, and NGC 1569, where the AFEs are weak and the strongestemission feature is [S IV] 10.51 μm. The relative strengths of theAFEs vary by 15%-25% among the galaxies. However, little correlation isseen between these variations and either IRAS 60 μm/100 μm fluxdensity ratio R(60/100) or the FIR/blue luminosity ratioLFIR/LB, two widely used indicators of the currentstar formation activity, suggesting that the observed variations are nota consequence of the radiation field differences among the galaxies. Wedemonstrate that the NIR excess continuum and AFE emission arecorrelated, suggesting that they are produced by similar mechanisms andsimilar (or the same) material. On the other hand, as the current starformation activity increases, the overall strengths of the AFEs and theNIR excess continuum drop significantly with respect to that of the FIRemission from large dust grains. In particular, the summed luminosity ofthe AFEs falls from ~0.2 LFIR for the most ``IR-quiescent''galaxies to ~0.1 LFIR for the most ``IR-active'' galaxies.This is likely a consequence of the preferential destruction in intenseradiation fields of the small carriers responsible for the NIR/AFEemission.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA member states (especially the PI countries, France, Germany, theNetherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISASand NASA.

The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.

Mid-IR emission of galaxies in the Virgo cluster III. The data
We present ISOCAM imaging data at 6.75 and 15 mu m for 145 galaxies inthe Virgo cluster and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster. Of these, 99 forma complete, optically-selected, volume-limited sample including galaxiesin the core and in the periphery of the Virgo cluster, suitable forstatistical analysis. 34 of the Virgo galaxies were resolved by ISOCAM:for these objects we present mid-IR images, radial light and colourprofiles, as well as effective and isophotal radii, surface brightnessand light concentration indices. The mid-IR colours of the targetgalaxies show a weak trend with the H band luminosity, with values ofF(6.75 mu m)/F(15 mu m) ge 1 found generally in massive objects(LH>=1010 LHsun), and F(6.75 mum)/F(15 mu m) le 1 in low-mass (LH <= 1010LHsun) dwarf galaxies. All early-type galaxies (type le S0a)have F(6.75 mu m)/F(15 mu m) ge 1, as expected when the mid-IR emissionis dominated by the photosphere of the cold stellar population. Themid-IR, near-IR and visible light concentration indices of brightgalaxies are tightly correlated with one another, indicating that thespatial distribution of the mid-IR emitting sources is, to the firstorder, similar to that of the stars.Figures 1 and 2, and Tables 1, 2, 4, 5 are only available in electronicform at http://www.edpsciences.org

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Normal Galaxies: Physical Conditions in the Interstellar Medium
The most important cooling lines of the neutral interstellar medium(ISM) lie in the far-infrared (FIR). We present measurements by theInfrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer of seven linesfrom neutral and ionized ISM of 60 normal, star-forming galaxies. Thegalaxy sample spans a range in properties such as morphology, FIR colors(indicating dust temperature), and FIR/blue ratios (indicating starformation activity and optical depth). In two-thirds of the galaxies inthis sample, the [C II] line flux is proportional to FIR dust continuum.The other one-third show a smooth decline inL[CII]/LFIR with increasing Fν(60μm)/Fν(100 μm) and LFIR/LB,spanning a range of a factor of more than 50. Two galaxies at the warmand active extreme of the range haveL[CII]/LFIR<2×10-4 (3 σupper limit). This is due to increased positive grain charge in thewarmer and more active galaxies, which leads to less efficient heatingby photoelectrons from dust grains. The ratio of the two principalphotodissociation region (PDR) cooling linesL[OI]/L[CII] shows a tight correlation withFν(60 μm)/Fν(100 μm), indicating thatboth gas and dust temperatures increase together. We derive atheoretical scaling between [N II] (122 μm) and [C II] from ionizedgas and use it to separate [C II] emission from neutral PDRs and ionizedgas. Comparison of PDR models of Kaufman et al. with observed ratios of(1) L[OI]/L[CII] and(L[CII]+L[OI])/LFIR and (2)L[OI]/LFIR and Fν(60μm)/Fν(100 μm) yields far-UV flux G0 andgas density n. The G0 and n values estimated from the twomethods agree to better than a factor of 2 and 1.5, respectively, inmore than half the sources. The derived G0 and n correlatewith each other, and G0 increases with n asG0~nα, where α~1.4 . We interpret thiscorrelation as arising from Strömgren sphere scalings if much ofthe line and continuum luminosity arises near star-forming regions. Thehigh values of PDR surface temperature (270-900 K) and pressure(6×104-1.5×107 K cm-3)derived also support the view that a significant part of grain and gasheating in the galaxies occurs very close to star-forming regions. Thedifferences in G0 and n from galaxy to galaxy may be due todifferences in the physical properties of the star-forming clouds.Galaxies with higher G0 and n have larger and/or denserstar-forming clouds.

Evidence for the Heating of Atomic Interstellar Gas by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
We report a strong correlation between the [C II] 158 μm cooling lineand the mid-infrared flux in the 5-10 μm range in a wide variety ofstar-forming galaxies. The mid-infrared flux is dominated by thearomatic features in emission (AFEs), which are thought to arise fromlarge polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are generallyassociated with the smallest interstellar grains. The [C II] line is thedominant gas coolant in most regions of atomic interstellar gas andtherefore reflects the heating input to the gas. The ratio of these twoquantities, [C II]/AFE, remains nearly constant around 1.5% againstvariations in the ratio of the IRAS 60 μm band flux to the 100 μmband flux, R(60/100). This is in contrast to the drop in the [CII]/far-infrared (FIR) ratio with increasing R(60/100), which signalshigher dust temperatures and more intense radiation fields. We interpretthe stable [C II]/AFE ratio as evidence that gas heating is dominated bythe PAHs or small grains, which are also AFE carriers, over a wide rangeof conditions. The trend of decreasing [C II]/FIR and AFE/FIR withincreasing radiation field suggests a decrease in the importance of PAHsor small grains relative to large grains both in gas heating and in dustcooling. We summarize the observed trends and suggest two plausiblescenarios.

The SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey - I. First measurements of the submillimetre luminosity and dust mass functions
This is the first of a series of papers presenting results from theSCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey (SLUGS), the first statistical surveyof the submillimetre properties of the local Universe. As the initialpart of this survey, we have used the SCUBA camera on the James ClerkMaxwell Telescope to observe 104 galaxies from the IRAS Bright GalaxySample. We present here the 850-μm flux measurements. The 60-, 100-,and 850-μm flux densities are well fitted by single-temperature dustspectral energy distributions, with the sample mean and standarddeviation for the best-fitting temperature beingTd=35.6+/-4.9K and for the dust emissivity indexβ=1.3+/-0.2. The dust temperature was found to correlate with60-μm luminosity. The low value of β may simply mean that thesegalaxies contain a significant amount of dust that is colder than thesetemperatures. We have estimated dust masses from the 850-μm fluxesand from the fitted temperature, although if a colder component ataround 20K is present (assuming a β of 2), then the estimated dustmasses are a factor of 1.5-3 too low. We have made the first directmeasurements of the submillimetre luminosity function (LF) and of thedust mass function. Unlike the IRAS 60-μm LF, these are well fittedby Schechter functions. The slope of the 850-μm LF at lowluminosities is steeper than -2, implying that the LF must flatten atluminosities lower than we probe here. We show that extrapolating the60-μm LF to 850μm using a single temperature and β does notreproduce the measured submillimetre LF. A population of `cold' galaxies(Td<25K) emitting strongly at submillimetre wavelengthswould have been excluded from the 60-μm-selected sample. If suchgalaxies do exist, then this estimate of the 850-μm flux is biased(it is underestimated). Whether such a population does exist is unknownat present. We correlate many of the global galaxy properties with theFIR/submillimetre properties. We find that there is a tendency for lessluminous galaxies to contain hotter dust and to have a greater starformation efficiency (cf. Young). The average gas-to-dust ratio for thesample is 581+/-43 (using both the atomic and molecular hydrogen), whichis significantly higher than the Galactic value of 160. We believe thatthis discrepancy is probably due to a `cold dust' component atTd<=20K in our galaxies. There is a surprisingly tightcorrelation between dust mass and the mass of molecular hydrogen,estimated from CO measurements, with an intrinsic scatter of ~=50percent.

The FIRST Bright Quasar Survey. II. 60 Nights and 1200 Spectra Later
We have used the Very Large Array (VLA) FIRST survey and the AutomatedPlate Measuring Facility (APM) catalog of the Palomar Observatory SkySurvey I (POSS-I) plates as the basis for constructing a newradio-selected sample of optically bright quasars. This is the firstradio-selected sample that is competitive in size with current opticallyselected quasar surveys. Using only two basic criteria, radio-opticalpositional coincidence and optical morphology, quasars and BL Lacobjects can be identified with 60% selection efficiency; the efficiencyincreases to 70% for objects fainter than 17 mag. We show that a moresophisticated selection scheme can predict with better than 85%reliability which candidates will turn out to be quasars. This paperpresents the second installment of the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey(FBQS), with a catalog of 636 quasars distributed over 2682deg2. The quasar sample is characterized and all spectra aredisplayed. The FBQS detects both radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars outto redshift z>3. We find a large population of objects ofintermediate radio loudness; there is no evidence in our sample for abimodal distribution of radio characteristics. The sample includes ~29broad absorption line quasars, both high and low ionization, and anumber of new objects with remarkable optical spectra.

ISO Mid-Infrared Observations of Normal Star-Forming Galaxies: The Key Project Sample
We present mid-infrared maps and preliminary analysis for 61 galaxiesobserved with the ISOCAM instrument aboard the Infrared SpaceObservatory. Many of the general features of galaxies observed atoptical wavelengths-spiral arms, disks, rings, and bright knots ofemission-are also seen in the mid-infrared, except the prominent opticalbulges are absent at 6.75 and 15 μm. In addition, the maps are quitesimilar at 6.75 and 15 μm, except for a few cases where a centralstarburst leads to lower Iν(6.75μm)/Iν(15 μm) ratios in the inner region. We alsopresent infrared flux densities and mid-infrared sizes for thesegalaxies. The mid-infrared color Iν(6.75μm)/Iν(15 μm) shows a distinct trend with thefar-infrared color Iν(60 μm)/Iν(100μm). The quiescent galaxies in our sample [Iν(60μm)/Iν(100 μm)<~0.6] show Iν(6.75μm)/Iν(15 μm) near unity, whereas this ratio dropssignificantly for galaxies with higher global heating intensity levels.Azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles indicate the extent towhich the mid-infrared flux is centrally concentrated, and provideinformation on the radial dependence of mid-infrared colors. Thegalaxies are mostly well resolved in these maps: almost half of themhave <10% of their flux in the central resolution element. Acomparison of optical and mid-infrared isophotal profiles indicates thatthe flux at 4400 Å near the optical outskirts of the galaxies isapproximately 8 (7) times that at 6.75 μm (15 μm), comparable toobservations of the diffuse quiescent regions of the Milky Way. Thispaper is based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory(ISO). ISO is an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA memberstates (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands,and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

On the local radio luminosity function of galaxies. II. Environmental dependences among late-type galaxies
Using new extensive radio continuum surveys at 1.4 GHz (FIRST and NVSS),we derive the distribution of the radio/optical and radio/NIR luminosity(RLF) of late-type (Sa-Irr) galaxies (m_p<15.7) in 5 nearby clustersof galaxies: A262, Cancer, A1367, Coma and Virgo. With the aim ofdiscussing possible environmental dependences of the radio properties,we compare these results with those obtained for relatively isolatedobjects in the Coma supercluster. We find that the RLF of Cancer, A262and Virgo are consistent with that of isolated galaxies. Conversely weconfirm earlier claims that galaxies in A1367 and Coma have their radioemissivity enhanced by a factor ~ 5 with respect to isolated objects. Wediscuss this result in the framework of the dynamical pressure sufferedby galaxies in motion through the intra-cluster gas (ram-pressure). Wefind that the radio excess is statistically larger for galaxies in fasttransit motion. This is coherent with the idea that enhanced radiocontinuum activity is associated with magnetic field compression. TheX-ray luminosities and temperatures of Coma and A1367 imply that thesetwo clusters have significantly larger intracluster gas density than theremaining three studied ones, providing a clue for explaining the higherradio continuum luminosities of their galaxies. Multiple systems in theComa supercluster bridge (with projected separations smaller than 300kpc) have radio luminosities significantly larger than isolatedgalaxies. Table~1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html}

The Supernova Rate in Starburst Galaxies
We conducted an optical CCD search for supernovae in a sample of 142bright [m(B) <= 16 mag], nearby (z<=0.03) starburst galaxies overthe period 1988 December to 1991 June, to a limiting R-band magnitude of18. Five supernovae were found, in all cases outside the host galaxy'snucleus. We determine supernova rates (in supernova units or SNU) in theextranuclear regions to be 0.7 h^2 SNU for Type Ia, 0.7 h^2 SNU for TypeIb/c, and ~0.6 h^2 SNU for Type II, with large uncertainties but upperlimits of 2.2 h^2, 2.5 h^2, and 1.7 h^2 SNU, respectively. These ratesare similar to those measured in ``normal'' galaxies. We found noevidence for a supernova-induced brightening in any galactic nucleusand, with a few reasonable assumptions, can place upper limits of 9 h^2,12 h^2, and 7 h^2 SNU on the rates of unobscured supernovae Types Ia,Ib/c, and II, respectively, inside the nuclei.

Optical Classification of Megamaser Galaxies
We have obtained spectroscopic observations of the nuclear regions of 42galaxies known to harbor strong OH masers. These megamaser galaxiesrepresent a subsample of FIR (ultra)luminous galaxies, which typicallyhave FIR luminosities in excess of 10^11 L_ȯ. The primary goal ofthis study is to investigate the nuclear activity sources of OHmegamaser galaxies. We are able to classify the nuclear emission-linespectra of all but one of our sample, and we find that this class ofgalaxies is dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), althoughstarburst galaxies do make up an appreciable fraction of the megamasersas well. Fully 45% of the megamasers exhibit Seyfert or LINER spectra,predominantly of Seyfert 2 type, although two galaxies with broad linesare observed. This observation is consistent with the currentunification models for the two types of Seyfert activity, since theassumed geometry necessary to detect a megamaser places the Seyfertnucleus behind a high column density of molecular gas (i.e., themolecular torus). Starburst-nucleus galaxies comprise 32.5% of oursample, while 22.5% are classified as ``composite nuclear spectra''(CSN) sources, showing evidence of both AGN and starburst activity. Anumber of objects show unusual emission-line ratios, not surprising fora group of galaxies that are known a priori to possess substantialabsorbing material along the line of sight to their nuclei. Our resultsare compared to previous studies of FIR-selected galaxy samples, as wellas to radio-continuum observations of these galaxies. The activityclassification obtained from the radio data disagrees with the opticalclassifications in roughly 25% of the sources; we discuss possibleexplanations for these discrepancies.

Mid-infrared spectroscopy of obscured IRAS galaxies
Spectra from 6 to 12 mu m are presented for the infrared galaxies NGC1266, Arp 148, and IRAS 1713+53. Though they are not markedly luminous(<= 10(12) L_ȯ), their IRAS colors are close to the colors ofultraluminous infrared galaxies, and thus indicative of heavyobscuration. The 6-12 mu m spectra are dominated by emission features ofpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules at 6.2, 7.7, and 8.6 mu m.This demonstrates the existence of dust-enshrouded starbursts in thosegalaxies. Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory, anESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially thePI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom)with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

Infrared Space Observatory Measurements of [C II Line Variations in Galaxies
We report measurements of the [C II] fine-structure line at 157.714 mu min 30 normal star-forming galaxies with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer(LWS) on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The ratio of the line tototal far-infrared (FIR) luminosity, L_{[{C} {II}]}/L_{{FIR}} , measuresthe ratio of the cooling of gas to that of dust, and thus the efficiencyof the grain photoelectric heating process. This ratio varies by morethan a factor of 40 in the current sample. About two-thirds of thegalaxies have L_{[{C} {II}]}/L_{{FIR}} ratios in the narrow range of(2-7)x10^{-3} . The other one-third show trends of decreasing L_{[{C}{II}]}/L_{{FIR}} with increasing dust temperature, as measured by theflux ratio of infrared emission at 60 and 100 mu m, F_ν(60 mu{m})/F_ν(100 mu {m}) , and with increasing star formation activity,measured by the ratio of FIR and blue-band luminosity,L_{{{FIR}}}/LB . We also find three FIR-bright galaxies thatare deficient in the [C II] line, which is undetected with 3 sigma upperlimits of L_{[{C} {II}]}/L_{{FIR}}<(0.5-2)x10^{-4} . The trend in theL_{[{C} {II}]}/L_{{FIR}} ratio with the temperature of dust and withstar formation activity may be due to decreased efficiency ofphotoelectric heating of gas at high UV radiation intensity as dustgrains become positively charged, decreasing the yield and the energy ofthe photoelectrons. The three galaxies with no observedphotodissociation region lines have among the highestL_{{{FIR}}}/LB and F_ν(60 mu {m})/F_ν(100 mu {m})ratios. Their lack of [C II] lines may be due to a continuing trend ofdecreasing L_{[{C} {II}]}/L_{{FIR}} with increasing star formationactivity and dust temperature seen in one-third of the sample with warmIRAS colors. In that case, the upper limits on L_{[{C} {II}]}/L_{{FIR}}imply a ratio of UV flux to gas density of G0/n>10 cm3 (where G0 is in units of the local averageinterstellar field). The low L_{[{C} {II}]}/L_{{FIR}} ratio could alsobe due to either weak [C II], owing to self-absorption, or a strong FIRcontinuum from regions weak in [C II], such as dense H II regions orplasma ionized by hard radiation of active galactic nuclei. Themid-infrared and radio images of these galaxies show that most of theemission comes from a compact nucleus. CO and H I are detected in thesegalaxies, with H I seen in absorption toward the nucleus.

21 CM H1 Line Spectra of Galaxies in Nearby Clusters
A compilation of HI line fluxes, systemic velocities and line widths ispresented for \Ndet detected galaxies, mostly in the vicinities of 30nearby rich clusters out to a redshift of z ~ .04, specifically for usein applications of the Tully-Fisher distance method. New 21 cm HI lineprofiles have been obtained for ~ 500 galaxies in 27 Abell clustersvisible from Arecibo. Upper limits are also presented for \Nnod galaxiesfor which HI emission was not detected. In order to provide ahomogeneous line width determination optimized for Tully-Fisher studies,these new data are supplemented by the reanalysis of previouslypublished spectra obtained both at Arecibo and Green Bank that areavailable in a digital archive. Corrections for instrumental broadening,smoothing, signal-to-noise and profile shape are applied, and anestimate of the error on the width is given. When corrected forturbulent broadening and viewing angle, the corrected velocity widthspresented here will provide the appropriate line width parameter neededto derive distances via the Tully-Fisher relation.

A ^12^CO(1-0) survey of spiral galaxies in the region of the Coma supercluster.
We present observations of the ^12^CO(J=1-0) line at 2.6mm of 65galaxies located in the Coma supercluster region: 33 actually belong tothe Coma supercluster while 32 are either foreground or backgroundobjects. These data have been obtained using the NRAO 12m telescope atKitt Peak (United States), and for four galaxies, using the IRAM 30mtelescope at Pico Veleta (Spain). Out of these 65 galaxies, 54 had neverbeen observed in the CO(1-0) line; 49 have been detected by us, of which37 are new detections. We give molecular gas masses deduced from the COline integrated intensities, and upper limits for the 16 undetectedobjects, computed with a Galactic conversion factorN(H_2_)=2.3x10^20^I(CO) and H_0_=75km/s/Mpc.

Search for methanol emission at 834 and 1617 MHz: K-type doubling lines
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Constellation:Coma Berenices
Right ascension:13h15m03.50s
Aparent dimensions:0.912′ × 0.562′

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ICIC 860

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