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 The structure of elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Results from the INT Wide Field SurveyWe report on a complete CCD imaging survey of 226 elliptical galaxies inthe North-East quadrant of the Virgo cluster, representative of theproperties of giant and dwarf elliptical galaxies in this cluster. Wefit their radial light profiles with the Sersic r1/n model oflight distribution. We confirm the result of Graham & Guzman(\cite{Graham03}, AJ, 125, 2936) that the apparent dichotomy between Eand dE galaxies in the luminosity-< μ>e plane nolonger appears when other structural parameters are considered and canbe entirely attributed to the onset of core'' galaxies atBT  -20.5 mag. When core'' galaxies are notconsidered, E and dE form a unique family with n linearly increasingwith the luminosity. For 90 galaxies we analyze the B-I color indices,both in the nuclear and in the outer regions. Both indices are bluertoward fainter luminosities. We find also that the outer color gradientsdo not show any significant correlation with the luminosity. The scatterin all color indicators increases significantly toward lowerluminosities, e.g. galaxies fainter than BT  -15 have aB-I spread > 0.5 mag.Table 2, Figs. 13 and 14 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Completing H I observations of galaxies in the Virgo clusterHigh sensitivity (rms noise  0.5 mJy) 21-cm H I line observationswere made of 33 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, using the refurbishedArecibo telescope, which resulted in the detection of 12 objects. Thesedata, combined with the measurements available from the literature,provide the first set of H I data that is complete for all 355 late-type(Sa-Im-BCD) galaxies in the Virgo cluster with mp ≤ 18.0mag. The Virgo cluster H I mass function (HIMF) that was derived forthis optically selected galaxy sample is in agreement with the HIMFderived for the Virgo cluster from the blind HIJASS H I survey and isinconsistent with the Field HIMF. This indicates that both in this richcluster and in the general field, neutral hydrogen is primarilyassociated with late-type galaxies, with marginal contributions fromearly-type galaxies and isolated H I clouds. The inconsistency betweenthe cluster and the field HIMF derives primarily from the difference inthe optical luminosity function of late-type galaxies in the twoenvironments, combined with the HI deficiency that is known to occur ingalaxies in rich clusters.Tables \ref{t1, \ref{sample_dat} and Appendix A are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org A multibeam HI survey of the Virgo cluster - two isolated HI clouds?We have carried out a fully sampled large area (4°× 8°)21-cm HI line survey of part of the Virgo cluster using the Jodrell Bankmultibeam instrument. The survey has a sensitivity some three timesbetter than the standard HIJASS (HI Jodrell All Sky Survey) and HIPASS(HI Parkes All Sky Survey) surveys. We detect 31 galaxies, 27 of whichare well-known cluster members. The four new detections have beenconfirmed in the HIPASS data and by follow-up Jodrell Bank pointedobservations. One object lies behind M86, but the other three have noobvious optical counterparts upon inspection of the digital sky surveyfields. These three objects were mapped at Arecibo with a smaller3.6-arcmin half power beam width (HPBW) and a four times bettersensitivity than the Jodrell Bank data, which allow an improveddetermination of the dimensions and location of two of the objects, butsurprisingly failed to detect the third. The two objects are resolved bythe Arecibo beam, giving them a size far larger than any optical imagesin the nearby field. To our mass limit of 5 ×107(Δv/50 km s-1) Msolar andcolumn density limit of 3 × 1018(Δv/50 kms-1) atom cm-2, these new detections representonly about 2 per cent of the cluster atomic hydrogen mass. Ourobservations indicate that the HI mass function of the cluster turnsdown at the low-mass end, making it very different to the field galaxyHI mass function. This is quite different to the Virgo cluster opticalluminosity function, which is much steeper than that in the generalfield. Many of the sample galaxies are relatively gas-poor compared withHI selected samples of field galaxies, confirming the anaemic spirals'view of Virgo cluster late-type galaxies. The velocity distribution ofthe HI detected galaxies is also very different to that of the clusteras a whole. There are relatively more high-velocity galaxies in the HIsample, suggesting that they form part of a currently infallingpopulation. The HI sample with optical identifications has a minimum HIcolumn density cut-off more than an order of magnitude above thatexpected from the sensitivity of the survey. This observed columndensity is above the normally expected level for star formation tooccur. The two detections with no optical counterparts have very muchlower column densities than that of the rest of the sample, below thestar formation threshold. Star Clusters in Virgo and Fornax Dwarf Irregular GalaxiesWe present the results of a search for clusters in dwarf irregulargalaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters using Hubble Space Telescope(HST) WFPC2 snapshot data. The galaxy sample includes 28 galaxies, 11 ofwhich are confirmed members of the Virgo and Fornax Clusters. In the 11confirmed members, we detect 237 cluster candidates and determine theirV magnitudes, V-I colors, and core radii. After statistical subtractionof background galaxies and foreground stars, most of the clustercandidates have V-I colors of -0.2 and 1.4, V magnitudes lying between20 and 25 mag, and core radii between 0 and 6 pc. Using Hαobservations, we find that 26% of the blue cluster candidates are mostlikely H II regions. The rest of the cluster candidates are most likelymassive (>104 Msolar) young and old clusters. Acomparison between the red cluster candidates in our sample and theMilky Way globular clusters shows that they have similar luminositydistributions but that the red cluster candidates typically have largercore radii. Assuming that the red cluster candidates are in factglobular clusters, we derive specific frequencies (SN)ranging from ~0 to 9 for the galaxies. Although the values areuncertain, seven of the galaxies appear to have specific frequenciesgreater than 2. These values are more typical of elliptical andnucleated dwarf elliptical galaxies than they are of spiral or LocalGroup dwarf irregular galaxies. A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxiesWe have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of normality''. Thedefinition of a normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5 Hα surface photometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. IV. The current star formation in nearby clusters of galaxiesHα +[NII] imaging observations of 369 late-type (spiral) galaxiesin the Virgo cluster and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster are analyzed,covering 3 rich nearby clusters (A1367, Coma and Virgo) and nearlyisolated galaxies in the Great-Wall. They constitute an opticallyselected sample (mp<16.0) observed with ~ 60 %completeness. These observations provide us with the current(T<107 yrs) star formation properties of galaxies that westudy as a function of the clustercentric projected distances (Theta ).The expected decrease of the star formation rate (SFR), as traced by theHα EW, with decreasing Theta is found only when galaxies brighterthan Mp ~ -19.5 are considered. Fainter objects show no orreverse trends. We also include in our analysis Near Infrared data,providing information on the old (T>109 yrs) stars. Puttogether, the young and the old stellar indicators give the ratio ofcurrently formed stars over the stars formed in the past, orbirthrate'' parameter b. For the considered galaxies we also determinethe global gas content'' combining HI with CO observations. We definethe gas deficiency'' parameter as the logarithmic difference betweenthe gas content of isolated galaxies of a given Hubble type and themeasured gas content. For the isolated objects we find that b decreaseswith increasing NIR luminosity. In other words less massive galaxies arecurrently forming stars at a higher rate than their giant counterpartswhich experienced most of their star formation activity at earliercosmological epochs. The gas-deficient objects, primarily members of theVirgo cluster, have a birthrate significantly lower than the isolatedobjects with normal gas content and of similar NIR luminosity. Thisindicates that the current star formation is regulated by the gaseouscontent of spirals. Whatever mechanism (most plausibly ram-pressurestripping) is responsible for the pattern of gas deficiency observed inspiral galaxies members of rich clusters, it also produces the observedquenching of the current star formation. A significant fraction of gas`healthy'' (i.e. with a gas deficiency parameter less than 0.4) andcurrently star forming galaxies is unexpectedly found projected near thecenter of the Virgo cluster. Their average Tully-Fisher distance isfound approximately one magnitude further away (muo = 31.77)than the distance of their gas-deficient counterparts (muo =30.85), suggesting that the gas healthy objects belong to a cloudprojected onto the cluster center, but in fact lying a few Mpc behindVirgo, thus unaffected by the dense IGM of the cluster. Based onobservations taken at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional(Mexico), the OHP (France), Calar Alto and NOT (Spain) observatories.Table \ref{tab4} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Broad-band colours of Virgo cluster low surface brightness dwarf irregular galaxiesWe present UBVRI images and surface photometry of a complete sample of29 low-luminosity dwarf irregular galaxies in the Virgo cluster, forwhich we derive central surface brightnesses, scalelengths, integratedmagnitudes and median colours. The colour distributions are discussed interms of radial surface brightness profiles, and colour gradients areinterpreted and compared with corresponding ones for lowsurface-brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. By combining broad-band andnarrow-band filter observations, the past and current influences of thecluster environment on the evolution of LSB dwarf irregular galaxies isevaluated. 1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. VII. Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo ClusterWe present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) observations and surfacebrightness profile decompositions for 75 faint (13.5 <~ mp<~ 18.5) galaxies, primarily taken among dwarf Ellipticals members ofthe Virgo cluster, with some Centaurus Cluster members, a BCD and twopeculiar galaxies taken as fillers. We model their surface brightnessprofiles with a de Vaucouleurs (D), exponential (E), mixed (bulge+diskor M) or truncated (T) law, and we derive for each galaxy the H bandeffective surface brightness (μe) and effective radius(re), the asymptotic total magnitude HT and thelight concentration index C31, defined as the ratio betweenthe radii that enclose 75% and 25% of the total light HT. Fora subsample we compare the NIR surface photometry with similar datataken in the B and V bands, and we give the B-H and B-V color profiles.Combining the present data with those previously obtained by our group(1157 objects) we analyze the NIR properties of a nearly completesample, representative of galaxies of all morphological types, spanning4 decades in luminosity. We confirm our earlier claim that the presenceof cusps and extended haloes in the light profiles (C31>5)is a strong, non-linear function of the total luminosity. We also findthat: i) among dE and dS0 galaxies D profiles are absent; 50% of thedecompositions are of type M, the remaining being of type E or T. ii)Less than 50% of the giant elliptical galaxies have pure D profiles, themajority being represented by M profiles. iii) Most giant galaxies (fromelliptical to Sb) have M profiles. iv) Most of late type spirals (Scd toBCD) have either E or T profiles. v) The type of decomposition is astrong function of the total H band luminosity, independent of theHubble classification: the fraction of type E decompositions decreaseswith increasing luminosity, while those of type M increase withluminosity. Pure D profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 Lsolar and become dominantabove 1011 Lsolar, while T profiles are presentonly among low luminosity galaxies. vi) We find that dE-peculiargalaxies have structural parameters indistinguishable from those oflate-type dwarfs, thus they might represent the missing link between dEsand dIs. Based on observations taken with the ESO/NTT (ESO program64.N-0288), with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on theisland of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the CNAA at theSpanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC, with the SanPedro Martir 2.1~m telescope of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional(OAN, Mexico), and with the OHP 1.2~m telescope, operated by the FrenchCNRS. Late-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster - II. Star formation propertiesWe study star-formation-inducing mechanisms in galaxies throughmultiwavelength measurements of a sample of dwarf galaxies in the Virgocluster described in Paper I. Our main goal is to test howstar-formation-inducing mechanisms depend on several parameters of thegalaxies, such as morphological type and hydrogen content. We derive thestar formation rate and star formation histories of the galaxies, andcheck their dependence on other parameters. Comparison of the samplegalaxies with population synthesis models shows that these objects havesignificantly lower metallicity than the solar value. The colours cangenerally be explained as a combination of two different stellarpopulations: a young (3-20 Myr) metal-poor population which representsthe stars currently forming presumably in a starburst, and an older(0.1-1 Gyr) population of previous stellar generations. There isevidence that the older stellar population was also formed in astarburst. This is consistent with the explanation that star formationin this type of objects takes place in short bursts followed by longquiescent periods. No significant correlation is found between the starformation properties of the sample galaxies and their hydrogen content.Apparently, when star formation occurs in bursts, other parametersinfluence the star formation properties more significantly than theamount of atomic hydrogen. No correlation is found between the projectedVirgocentric distance and the rate of star formation in the galaxies,suggesting that tidal interactions are not significant in triggeringstar formation in cluster dwarf galaxies. Late-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster - I. The samplesWe selected samples of late-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo clusterwith HI information. The galaxies were observed at the Wise Observatoryusing several broad-band and Hα bandpasses. UV measurements werecarried out with the IUE Observatory from VILSPA, and with the FAUSTshuttle-borne UV telescope. We describe the observations in detail,paying particular attention to the determination of measurement errors,and present the observational results together with published data andfar-infrared information from IRAS. The sample will be analysed insubsequent papers, in order to study star formation mechanisms ingalaxies. An Einstein X-Ray Survey of Optically Selected Galaxies. I. DataWe present the results of a complete Einstein imaging proportionalcounter X-ray survey of optically selected galaxies from theShapley-Ames Catalog, the Uppsala General Catalogue, and the EuropeanSouthern Observatory Catalog. Well-defined optical criteria are used toselect the galaxies, and X-ray fluxes are measured at the opticallydefined positions. The result is a comprehensive list of X-ray detectionand upper limit measurements for 1018 galaxies. Of these, 827 haveeither independent distance estimates or radial velocities. Associatedoptical, redshift, and distance data have been assembled for thesegalaxies, and their distances come from a combination of directlypredicted distances and those predicted from the Faber-Burstein GreatAttractor/Virgocentric infall model. The accuracy of the X-ray fluxeshas been checked in three different ways; all are consistent with thederived X-ray fluxes being of <=0.1 dex accuracy. In particular,there is agreement with previously published X-ray fluxes for galaxiesin common with a 1991 study by Roberts et al. and a 1992 study byFabbiano et al. The data presented here will be used in further studiesto characterize the X-ray output of galaxies of various morphologicaltypes and thus to enable the determination of the major sourcescontributing to the X-ray emission from galaxies. Arecibo H i Mapping of a Large Sample of Dwarf Irregular GalaxiesNeutral hydrogen mapping of 70 dwarf irregular (Sm, Im, and BCD)galaxies is reported, with position-velocity contour maps (and a fewcontour maps in R.A. and decl.) presented for those resolved by theArecibo beam. The galaxies were selected either from the Virgo ClusterCatalog, from similarly identified field galaxies, or from a distance-limited sample within the Arecibo declination range. We do not find anyisolated dwarfs with a larger H I to optical radius ratio than DDO 154;the "protogalaxy" H I 1225+01 of Giovanelli & Haynes continues to bea unique object among dwarfs that have been mapped in H I. For alldwarfs with significant rotation, we are able to determine the sense ofthe spin. For a number of better resolved dwarfs, we are able todetermine rotation curves, in most cases extending well beyond the lastmeasured point in available synthesis array maps. Correlations among theseveral measures of galaxy size and mass are studied; in a companionpaper we combine these data with those for the set of all availablemapped dwarf irregular galaxies and for mapped spirals spanning asimilar range of redshifts to investigate variations in Tully-Fisherrelations and in surface densities as functions of galaxy size andluminosity or mass. Extended LY alpha -absorbing Halos around Nearby GalaxiesIn order to establish the Lyα absorption cross section ofpresent-day galaxies, we have identified 38 galaxies with z = 0-0.08that lie within 40-500 h^-1^ kpc of the line of sight to a QSO observedwith the Faint Object Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope(HST). Including three galaxies in the field of 3C 273 investigated byprevious authors, we find that nine of 41 galaxies have associatedLyα absorption. If the identified Lyα absorption systems aregenuinely associated with the galaxies, then the covering factor of gasaround galaxies remains roughly constant at ~40% between 100 and 300h^-1^ kpc. Beyond 300 h^-1^ kpc, the incidence of absorption dropssharply. We conclude that (1) nearby galaxies do not possessLyα-absorbing halos beyond 300 h^-1^ kpc in radius and (2) thecovering factor of present-day galaxies between 50 and 300 h^-1^ kpc is44% at an equivalent width limit of W >= 0.3 A. For the nine galaxieswith associated Lyα absorption lines, differences in the galaxiessystemic velocities and the velocity of the absorption line, {DELTA}v,range over +/- 300 km s^-1^, consistent with the distribution found atredshifts > 0.1 by Lanzetta et al. and Le Brun, Bergeron, &Boisse. Values of {DELTA}v spanning several hundred km s^-1^ areprobably real for some of the QSO-galaxy pairs, however, and do notsimply arise from errors in measuring cz_gal_ or cz_abs_. This suggeststhat the absorbing clouds are kinematically tied to the galaxy disks andthat the distribution of {DELTA}v may arise because of the effects ofgalaxy inclination. We find no evidence for a correlation betweenLyα equivalent width and galaxy line-of-sight separation, whichweakens the argument that the identified galaxies are directlyassociated with the Lyα lines. Also, we find that absorption doesnot arise only from bright galaxies, since there are several examples inwhich low-luminosity galaxies apparently cause absorption. Yet we showthat the absorbing halos around galaxies cannot be independent of galaxyluminosity because if all low- redshift galaxies were surrounded byextended halos, the number of Lyα absorption systems found in HSTspectra would be much larger than has recently been determined. Thisresult leads us to question whether the galaxies are actuallyresponsible for the Lyα absorption lines or whether theassociation in redshift is fortuitous. Our results support the picturesuggested by others that Lyα lines arise in filaments or sheetsthat connect and contain the overdense regions that galaxies inhabit.This conclusion, however, remains at odds with the results of Lanzettaet al., who find that Lyα systems are more intimately linked withgalaxies. It may be, therefore, that we are seeing an evolution of theway in which Ly& lines associate with galaxies over the last fewbillion years. We suggest that at least some of the Lyα cloudsthat are not associated with galaxies at z ~ 0.5 have been slowlymerging with galaxies over time, creating larger but less uniform gasdistributions around the galaxies we see today. An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect. Distribution of the spin vectors of the disk galaxies of the Virgo cluster. I. The catalogue of 310 disk galaxies in the Virgo area.Not Available General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groupsWe present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog. The kinematics of the Virgo cluster revisitedThe paper updates the velocity data of Virgo cluster galaxies andreconsiders the kinematic structure of the Virgo cluster. New velocitiesare given for 144 galaxies listed in the Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC).Improved velocities are given for another 131 VCC galaxies. The Virgocluster is disentangled from its surrounding clouds of galaxies, and thelikely members of each of these clouds are listed. The velocitydistribution of dwarf elliptical cluster members is found to be highlyasymmetric. This phenomenon is interpreted as evidence for the imminentmerging of two subclusters in the core region, which points to thedynamical youth of the Virgo cluster. The mean heliocentric velocity ofthe Virgo cluster is estimated at 1050 +/- 35 km/s. The Virgo cluster as a test for quantization of extragalactic redshiftsTifft's (1972, 1977) hypothesis that redshifts are partially quantizedwith a periodicity in the range 70-75 km/s is tested for samples ofbright spiral and dwarf irregular galaxies with accurate H I redshiftsin the region of the Virgo cluster. The heliocentric redshifts arecorrected for solar motion, first by adopting an estimate of the sun'smotion with respect to the centroid of the Local Group, and then byallowing the solar velocity vector to vary in direction over the wholesky. Power spectrum analyses of the corrected redshifts are used tosearch for a significant periodicity in the prescribed range 70-75 km/s.No such periodicity is found for the dwarf irregulars, but there is apossible periodicity of about 71.1 km/s for the bright spirals. In afurther exploratory study, the sample of 112 spirals is divided upaccording to environment. The spirals in high-density regions of thecluster show no quantization, whereas those in low-density regionsappear to be partially quantized in intervals of about 71.0 km/s. 21 centimeter line width distances of cluster galaxies and the value of H0Locally calibrated blue and infrared Tully-Fisher (TF) relations areapplied to an 82 percent complete sample of 81 Sab-Sm galaxies which arebona fide members of the Virgo Cluster. A nearly unbiased Virgo modulusof 31.60 + or - 0.15 can be derived in perfect agreement withindependent recent determinations. It is shown that the blue TF andinfrared TF relations give almost identical distance moduli from anyselected Virgo subsample. The intrinsic scatter about the two TFrelations is 0.7 mag, considerably larger than the observed scatter inthe UMa Cluster and in 10 more distant clusters. Distance determinationof these clusters therefore can be achieved only by fitting the upperenvelopes of their TF relations onto the blue and infrared upperenvelopes of the Virgo Cluster. The resulting distances define a linearexpansion law with a small scatter. The present cluster data require H0= 56.6 + or - 0.9 km/s/Mpc. H I detection survey of a complete magnitude-limited sample of dwarf irregular galaxies in the Virgo Cluster areaNew single-beam Arecibo H I observations of 298 late-type galaxies inthe Virgo Cluster drawn mostly from the new catalog of Binggeli,Sandage, and Tammann (1985) are presented. Two hundred seventeen ofthese constitute a magnitude-limited 'complete sample' of such galaxies,types Sdm through Im and BCD. Sixty-one percent of this 'completesample' was detected, greatly enhancing the store of redshifts and H Imasses for such galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. For detected galaxies,heliocentric velocities, 50 percent profile widths, and single-beamfluxes are presented. For those that escaped detection, upper limits arecomputed to the flux appropriate to the redshift range (-600 to +3000km/s). The pattern of H I deficiency in the Virgo clusterA sample of 160 galaxies in the Virgo region, including 16 new 21-cmprofiles in the Virgo 5-degree core obtained with the 305-m Arecibotelescope, are examined to investigate the severe depletion ofinterstellar H I within spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster core. Asimilar and non-Gaussian distribution is found for the distribution of HI deficiencies of both faint galaxies and brighter spirals, andpopulations of galaxies with normal abundances of interstellar H I, andthose of gas poor objects exhibiting a late-type morphology, are bothnoted. One-sixth of the sample within the Virgo 5-degree core have lostmore than 90 percent by mass of their original neutral hydrogen, andthree quarters of the galaxies found within 2.5 degrees of M87 are H Ipoor by more than a factor of three. The most deficient galaxies arealso found to be the ones with the smallest ratios of H I to opticaldisk size, and H I poor galaxies are redder than normal, indicating thatstar formation has been quenched. Candidate Galaxies for Study of the Local Velocity Field and Distance Scale Using Space Telescope - Part Three - Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster CoreAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985AJ.....90.2006S&db_key=AST Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones. An investigation of dwarf galaxies in the Virgo clusterIt is noted in the present 21-cm H I observations of a sample of 32dwarf irregular (dI) and 12 dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies located inthe Virgo cluster that, while 18 of the 32 dIs were detected in H I,none of the dEs were detected at the 2-3 million solar mass level. Thisdisparity in H I content between dIs and dEs effectively dispels thepossibility that the dEs are currently in a state of quiescence betweenbursts of star formation. Optical spectroscopy, CCD images, and IRphotometry for a limited subsample of the dwarfs indicate that the dEs,although very H I-poor, have observed (J-K) colors which indicate highmetallicity; this suggests a degree of enrichment due to multiplegenerations of star formation. Studies of the Virgo cluster. III - A classification system and an illustrated atlas of Virgo cluster dwarf galaxiesAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89..919S&db_key=AST A catalog of dwarf galaxies in VirgoA catalog listing the location, apparent angular diameter, type,estimated central light concentration, and estimated brightness of 846dwarf galaxies in a 200-deg-sq region in Virgo is presented. Thegalaxies comprise 634 ellipticals, 137 IC-3475-type galaxies, 73 dwarfspirals and irregulars, and two objects which are jets of normalgalaxies, and were found on nine long-exposure IIIa-J-emulsion platesmade with the 1.2-m-Schmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory from 1971to 1976. Concordances to other catalogs, tables of additionalparameters, maps, graphs, and photographs are provided. The projecteddistributions of normal and dwarf galaxies and the dependence ofapparent luminosity on central light concentration are discussed. It isfound that dwarf ellipticals and IC-3475-type galaxies are probablemembers of the Virgo cluster, while dwarf spirals and possibly dwarfirregulars are not.
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