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|Gas in early-type galaxies: cross-fuelling in late-type-early-type pairs?|
We present 12CO (J= 1-0) and 12CO (J= 2-1)observations of eight early-type galaxies, forming part of a sample ofinteracting galaxies, each consisting of one late- and one early-typesystem. All of the early-type galaxies observed are undetected in CO tolow levels, allowing us to place tight constraints on their moleculargas content. Additionally, we present HI absorption data for one system.The implications for possible gas transfer from the late- to theearly-type galaxy during the interaction are discussed.
|Elliptical Galaxies with Emission Lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey|
As part of a study of star formation history along the Hubble sequence,we present here the results for 11 elliptical galaxies with strongnebular emission lines. After removing the dilution from the underlyingold stellar populations by use of stellar population synthesis model, wederive the accurate fluxes of all the emission lines in these objects,which are then classified, using emission line ratios, into one Seyfert2, six LINERs and four HII galaxies. We also identify one HII galaxy(A1216+04) as a hitherto unknown Wolf-Rayet galaxy from the presence ofthe Wolf-Rayet broad bump at 4650 Å. We propose that thestar-forming activities in elliptical galaxies are triggered by eithergalaxy-galaxy interaction or the merging of a small satellite/a massivestar cluster, as has been suggested by recent numerical simulations.
|An IRAS High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) Atlas of All Interacting Galaxies in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample|
The importance of far-infrared observations for our understanding ofextreme activity in interacting and merging galaxies has beenillustrated by many studies. Even though two decades have passed sinceits launch, the most complete all-sky survey to date from which far-IRselected galaxy samples can be chosen is still that of the InfraredAstronomical Satellite (IRAS). However, the spatial resolution of theIRAS all-sky survey is insufficient to resolve the emission fromindividual galaxies in most interacting galaxy pairs, and hence previousstudies of their far-IR properties have had to concentrate either onglobal system properties or on the properties of very widely separatedand weakly interacting pairs. Using the HIRES image reconstructiontechnique, it is possible to achieve a spatial resolution ranging from30" to 1.5m (depending on wavelength and detector coverage), whichis a fourfold improvement over the normal resolution of IRAS. This issufficient to resolve the far-IR emission from the individual galaxiesin many interacting systems detected by IRAS, which is very importantfor meaningful comparisons with single, isolated galaxies. We presenthigh-resolution 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm images of 106 interactinggalaxy systems contained in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS,Sanders et al.), a complete sample of all galaxies having a 60 μmflux density greater than 5.24 Jy. These systems were selected to haveat least two distinguishable galaxies separated by less than threeaverage galactic diameters, and thus we have excluded very widelyseparated systems and very advanced mergers. Additionally, some systemshave been included that are more than three galactic diameters apart,yet have separations less than 4' and are thus likely to suffer fromconfusion in the RBGS. The new complete survey has the same propertiesas the prototype survey of Surace et al. We find no increased tendencyfor infrared-bright galaxies to be associated with other infrared-brightgalaxies among the widely separated pairs studied here. We find smallenhancements in far-IR activity in multiple galaxy systems relative toRBGS noninteracting galaxies with the same blue luminosity distribution.We also find no differences in infrared activity (as measured byinfrared color and luminosity) between late- and early-type spiralgalaxies.
|A Minor-Merger Interpretation for NGC 1097's ``Jets''|
We have conducted a deep search for neutral hydrogen gas associated withthe faint optical ``jets'' of NGC 1097 using the Very Large Array.Measurable H I would have been expected if the jets were tidal in origingiven their moderately blue optical and near-infrared colors. The jetsare free of H I emission to a limiting surface density(ΣHI) of 0.06 Msolar pc-2 (3σ) over a 1102 km s-1 velocity range. We also rule outextended H I emission down to 0.02 Msolar pc-2 (3σ, ΔV=45 km s-1) within a 4' FWHM aperturecentered on the right-angle turn in jet R1. We have detected an H Isource [MHI=(5.1+/-1.0)×106Msolar] coincident with a small edge-on spiral or irregulargalaxy (NGC 1097B) 12' southwest of NGC 1097, situated between two jets.Two other ~106 Msolar H I point sources in thefield are considered marginal detections. Neither are associated withthe optical jets.The jets' radio-X-ray spectral energy distribution is most consistentwith starlight. However, from their morphology, optical/near-infraredcolors, and lack of H I, we argue that the jets are not tidal tailsdrawn out of NGC 1097's disk or stars stripped from the ellipticalcompanion NGC 1097A. We also reject in situ star formation in ancientradio jets as this requires essentially 100% conversion of gas intostars on large scales. Instead, we conclude that the jets represent thecaptured remains of a disrupted dwarf galaxy that passed through theinner few kiloparsecs of NGC 1097's disk.We present N-body simulations of such an encounter that reproduce theessential features of NGC 1097's jets: A long and narrow ``X''-shapedmorphology centered near the spiral's nucleus, right-angle bends, and nodiscernible dwarf galaxy remnant. A series of jetlike distributions areformed, with the earliest appearing ~1.4 Gyr after impact. Well-definedX shapes form only when the more massive galaxy has a strong diskcomponent. Ram-pressure stripping of the dwarf's interstellar mediumwould be expected to occur while passing through NGC 1097's disk,accounting for the jets' lack of H I and H II. The remnants' (B-V) colorwould still agree with observations even after ~3 Gyr of passiveevolution, provided the cannibalized dwarf was low-metallicity anddominated by young stars at impact.
|A Radio Survey for Linear and Circular Polarization in Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei|
We conducted a Very Large Array survey of 11 low-luminosity activegalactic nuclei (LLAGNs) for linear and circular polarization at 8.4GHz. We detected circular polarization in one source (M81*) and linearpolarization in three sources. Sensitivity limits were ~0.1% for bothmodes of polarization in nine of 11 sources. The detections confirm theimportance of nonthermal emission in LLAGNs. However, detection ratesfor circular and linear polarization are lower for these sources thanfor more powerful AGNs. Fractional linear polarization in detectedsources is also lower than in more powerful AGNs. The weak linearpolarization in the survey sources indicates their overall similarity toSgr A*. Confusion with thermal sources, depolarization, and weaker, lessextended jets may contribute to these differences. We detect a rotationmeasure >~7×104 rad m-2 for NGC 4579.This may arise from magnetized plasma in the accretion, outflow, orinterstellar regions. Inverted spectra are present in both M81* and SgrA* and absent from all sources in which circular polarization is notdetected. This suggests that optical depth effects are important in thecreation of circular polarization.
|A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies|
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.
|The LX-σ Relation for Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies|
We demonstrate that individual elliptical galaxies and clusters ofgalaxies form a continuous X-ray luminosity-velocity dispersion(LX-σ) relation. Our samples of 280 clusters and 57galaxies have LX~σ4.4 andLX~σ10, respectively. This unifiedLX-σ relation spans 8 orders of magnitude inLX and is fully consistent with the observed and theoreticalluminosity-temperature scaling laws. Our results support the notion thatgalaxies and clusters of galaxies are the luminous tracers of similardark matter halos.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|A Test for Large-Scale Systematic Errors in Maps of Galactic Reddening|
Accurate maps of Galactic reddening are important for a number ofapplications, such as mapping the peculiar velocity field in the nearbyuniverse. Of particular concern are systematic errors which vary slowlyas a function of position on the sky, as these would induce spuriousbulk flow. We have compared the reddenings of Burstein & Heiles (BH)and those of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (SFD) to independentestimates of the reddening, for Galactic latitudes |b|>10^deg. Ourprimary source of Galactic reddening estimates comes from comparing thedifference between the observed B-V colors of early-type galaxies, andthe predicted B-V color determined from the B-V-Mg_2 relation. We havefitted a dipole to the residuals in order to look for large-scalesystematic deviations. There is marginal evidence for a dipolar residualin the comparison between the SFD maps and the observed early-typegalaxy reddenings. If this is due to an error in the SFD maps, then itcan be corrected with a small (13%) multiplicative dipole term. Weargue, however, that this difference is more likely to be due to a small(0.01 mag) systematic error in the measured B-V colors of the early-typegalaxies. This interpretation is supported by a smaller, independentdata set (globular cluster and RR Lyrae stars), which yields a resultinconsistent with the early-type galaxy residual dipole. BH reddeningsare found to have no significant systematic residuals, apart from theknown problem in the region 230^deg
|X-ray luminosities for a magnitude-limited sample of early-type galaxies from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey|
For a magnitude-limited optical sample (B_T <= 13.5 mag) ofearly-type galaxies, we have derived X-ray luminosities from the ROSATAll-Sky Survey. The results are 101 detections and 192 useful upperlimits in the range from 10^36 to 10^44 erg s^-1. For most of thegalaxies no X-ray data have been available until now. On the basis ofthis sample with its full sky coverage, we find no galaxy with anunusually low flux from discrete emitters. Below log (L_B) ~ 9.2L_⊗ the X-ray emission is compatible with being entirely due todiscrete sources. Above log (L_B) ~ 11.2 L_osolar no galaxy with onlydiscrete emission is found. We further confirm earlier findings that L_xis strongly correlated with L_B. Over the entire data range the slope isfound to be 2.23 (+/- 0.12). We also find a luminosity dependence ofthis correlation. Below log L_x = 40.5 erg s^-1 it is consistent with aslope of 1, as expected from discrete emission. Above this value theslope is close to 2, as expected from gaseous emission. Comparing thedistribution of X-ray luminosities with the models of Ciotti et al.leads to the conclusion that the vast majority of early-type galaxiesare in the wind or outflow phase. Some of the galaxies may have alreadyexperienced the transition to the inflow phase. They show X-rayluminosities in excess of the value predicted by cooling flow modelswith the largest plausible standard supernova rates. A possibleexplanation for these super X-ray-luminous galaxies is suggested by thesmooth transition in the L_x--L_B plane from galaxies to clusters ofgalaxies. Gas connected to the group environment might cause the X-rayoverluminosity.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Molecular Gas in Strongly Interacting Galaxies. I. CO (1-0) Observations|
We present observations of the CO (1-0) line in 80 interacting galaxiesas part of a program to study the role of interactions and mergers intriggering starbursts. The sample, which only includes obviouslyinteracting pairs of galaxies, is the largest such sample observed inCO. The observations were carried out at the NRAO 12 m and IRAM 30 mtelescopes. CO emission was detected in 56 galaxies (of which 32 are newdetections), corresponding to a detection rate of 70%. Because mostgalaxies are slightly larger than the telescope beam, correction factorswere applied to include CO emission outside the beam. The correctionfactors were derived by fitting a Gaussian function or an exponential CObrightness distribution to galaxies with multiple pointings and byassuming an exponential model for galaxies with single pointing. Wecompared the global CO fluxes of 10 galaxies observed by us at bothtelescopes. We also compared the measured fluxes for another 10 galaxiesobserved by us with those by other authors using the NRAO 12 m and FCRAO14 m telescopes. These comparisons provide an estimate of the accuracyof our derived global fluxes, which is ~40%. Mapping observations of twoclose pairs of galaxies, UGC 594 (NGC 317) and UGC 11175 (NGC 6621), arealso presented. In subsequent papers we will report the statisticalanalyses of the molecular properties in our sample galaxies and makecomparisons between isolated spirals and interacting galaxies.
|Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.|
|A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters|
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp 188.8.131.52. Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.|
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.
|Briefly noted: Irish astronomy (poem)|
|A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update|
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.
|CO observations of Arp's interacting galaxies|
We performed a (C-12)O (J= 1-0) line survey involving fifty fourinteracting galaxies from the Arp's Catalogue of Peculiar Galaxies, andcompared our results with various other data. The far infraredluminosities, as normalized by the CO luminosities, are much greater forinteracting galaxies than for normal galaxies. From correlations withthe interaction class we found that the molecular gas concentration inthe central few kpc is not necessarily enhanced by interaction. However,the efficiency of star formation from the molecular gas increasessignificantly with the interaction class, which results in an apparentincrease in the star-formation rate with the interaction class.
|A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field|
A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias.
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|A near-infrared imaging survey of interacting galaxies - The small angular-size ARP systems|
Near-IR images of a large sample of interacting galaxies selected fromthe Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies by Arp (1966) have been obtained.Approximately 180 systems have been imaged in at least two, and usuallythree of the standard JHK bands. The survey and the observing and datareduction procedures, are described, and contour plots and aperturephotometry are presented. Future papers will analyze the imaging data bygroupings based on interaction type, stage, and progenitors. The goalsof the analysis are to explore the relationships between galaxyinteractions, activity, and morphology by studying the structure of thenear-IR luminosity distribution, where extinction effects are muchreduced relative to the optical and the major stellar mass component ofgalaxies dominates the observed light.
|Neutral hydrogen observations of galaxies in superclusters|
Neutral hydrogen observations of spiral galaxies in the Uppsala GeneralCatalog were made with the 91 m telescope in Green Bank. Results of theH I observations are presented for 309 objects north of declination +38deg in the right ascension range between 10 h and 22 h and for a sampleof 46 objects just south of the equator in the region around R.A.between 0 h and 3 h. Many of these objects are outlying members ofsuperclusters and may be useful in the study of deviations from Hubbleflow on supercluster scales. Velocity widths as measured by fivedifferent algorithms are presented along with a profile quality index.
|UGC galaxies stronger than 25 mJy at 4.85 GHz|
UGC galaxies in the declination band +5 to +75 deg were identified byposition coincidence with radio sources stronger than 25 mJy on theGreen Bank 4.85 GHz sky maps. Candidate identifications were confirmedor rejected with the aid of published aperture-synthesis maps and new4.86 GHz VLA maps having 15 or 18 arcsec resolution, resulting in asample of 347 nearby radio galaxies plus five new quasar-galaxy pairs.The radio energy sources in UGC galaxies were classified as 'starbursts'or 'monsters' on the basis of their infrared-radio flux ratios, infraredspectral indices, and radio morphologies. The rms scatter in thelogarithmic infrared-radio ratio q is not more than 0.16 for starburstgalaxies selected at 4.85 GHz. Radio spectral indices were obtained fornearly all of the UGC galaxies, and S0 galaxies account for adisproportionate share of the compact flat-spectrum (alpha less than0.5) radio sources. The extended radio jets and lobes produced bymonsters are preferentially, but not exclusively, aligned within about30 deg of the optical minor axes of their host galaxies. The tendencytoward minor-axis ejection appears to be independent of radio-sourcesize and is strongest for elliptical galaxies.
|Radio-continuum sources in nearby and bright E/S0 galaxies - Active nuclei versus star formation|
Results of a sensitive VLA survey of nearby E/S0 galaxies are presented.The 204 galaxies surveyed, plus 12 additional galaxies with existing VLAimages, comprise a volume- and optical magnitude-limited sample. Thediscussion focuses on the relation between radio powers and opticalluminosities, whether the radio emission is driven by an active nucleusor by recent star formation, and what galaxian properties might enhancenuclear activity in an elliptical galaxy. It is suggested that the 67ellipticals in the sample should be targets of sensitive searches forHI, optical emission-line gas, and X-ray emitting gas.
|Radio-continuum sources in nearby and bright E/S0 galaxies - Sample selection and well-studied cases|
A volume-limited sample of 216 nearby and optically bright E/S0 galaxieshas been compiled. Twelve of the galaxies are confirmed radio sourcesfor which VLA images are available. Most of the remaining galaxies havepowers less than or of the order of 10 to the 21st-22nd W/Hz, and thisinformation is used to establish the parameters of a new VLA survey ofthese galaxies. The basic optical properties of the galaxies in thesample are tabulated.
|A multicolor photometric study of the tidal features in interacting galaxies|
Four-color surface photometry (BVri) is presented forlow-surface-brightness tidal features in interacting galaxies. Objectswere selected on the basis of visual morphology including a crosssection of tails, bridges, plumes, shells, and extended envelopes.Intensity cross sections and surface brightness suggests that plumes areface-on or near face-on sheets; tails and bridges are more nearlyone-dimensional, linear figures. In many cases the colors of tidalfeatures are similar to the outer regions of the primary galaxies,confirming the stripping origin hypothesis. However, large colorvariations are found among the morphological components within mostsystems, and within individual components. Blue colors in primaries andtidal features are most dramatic in B-V, not V-1, indicating that starformation, not metallicity or age, is the dominant component. There isclear evidence in the sample of a correlation between the magnitude ofthe color variation and the time. The color variations are largest ashort time after the beginning of the interaction, and they diminish toa very low level in merged systems. This correlation provides analternate estimator of interaction age in systems with ambiguousmorphologies.
|IRAS observations of an optically selected sample of interacting galaxies|
IRAS observations of a large, morphologically selected sample ofstrongly interacting disk-type galaxies have demonstrated thatgalaxy-galaxy collisions can lead to enhanced infrared emission, but notin all cases. Infrared luminosities of the interacting galaxies span alarge range, but are about a factor of 2 higher, on average, than thoseof isolated disk galaxies. The data suggest the existence of a cutoff inblue luminosity, below which no galaxies show markedly enhanced infraredemission. Only the most strongly interacting systems in the sample showextreme values of infrared excess, suggesting that deep,interpenetrating collisions are necessary to drive infrared emission toextreme levels. Comparisons with optical indicators of star formationshow that infrared excess and color temperatures correlate with thelevel of star-formation activity in the interacting galaxies. Allinteracting galaxies in our sample that exhibit an infrared excess andhave higher than normal color temperatures also have optical indicatorsof high levels of star formation. It is not necessary to invokeprocesses other than star formation to account for the enhanced infraredluminosity in this sample of interacting galaxies.
|Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - Binaries|
A new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass.
|A search for features in early-type galaxies|
Using data from the CCD surface-photometry survey of Djorgovski (1985),images of 159 galaxies were examined for the presence of dust lanes,incipient stellar disks, bars, shells, and other features that signifydeviations from elliptical symmetry. The sample contained 116 ellipticalgalaxies, 33 SO galaxies and 10 intermediate galaxies. It was found thatforty-two of the ellipticals either definitely or very likely containdust, either in patches or in well-defined lanes or rings. Five of theE/SO galaxies also show possible or definite dust, as do 15 of the SOs.Three of the elliptical galaxies definitely contain stellar disks, withseveral more possible candidates. The presence of these features inalmost half of the elliptical galaxies studied demonstrates thatelliptical galaxies are not the featureless objects they were oncethought to be. Moreover, the finding of weak stellar disks in some ofthem further blurs the distinction between ellipticals and SOs.
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