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Environmental Effects on Late-Type Galaxies in Nearby Clusters
The transformations that take place in late-type galaxies in theenvironment of rich clusters of galaxies at z=0 are reviewed. From thehandful of late-type galaxies that inhabit local clusters, whether theywere formed in situ and survived as such, avoiding transformation oreven destruction, or if they are newcomers that have recently fallen infrom outside, we can learn an important lesson on the latest stages ofgalaxy evolution. We start by reviewing the observational scenario,covering the broadest possible stretch of the electromagnetic spectrum,from the gas tracers (radio and optical) to the star formation tracers(UV and optical), the old star tracers (near-IR), and the dust (far-IR).Strong emphasis is given to the three nearby, well-studied clustersVirgo, A1367, and Coma, which are representative of differentevolutionary stages, from unrelaxed and spiral-rich (Virgo) to relaxedand spiral-poor (Coma). We continue by providing a review of models ofgalaxy interactions that are relevant to clusters of galaxies.Prototypes of various mechanisms and processes are discussed, and theirtypical timescales are given in an appendix. Observations indicate thepresence of healthy late-type galaxies falling into nearby clustersindividually or as part of massive groups. More rare are infallinggalaxies belonging to compact groups, where significant preprocessingmight take place. Once they have entered the cluster, they lose theirgas and quench their star formation activity, becoming anemic.Observations and theory agree in indicating that the interaction withthe intergalactic medium is responsible for the gas depletion. However,this process cannot be the origin of the cluster lenticular galaxypopulation. Physical and statistical properties of S0 galaxies in nearbyclusters and at higher redshift indicate that they originate from spiralgalaxies that have been transformed by gravitational interactions.

A Virgo high-resolution Hα kinematical survey - II. The Atlas
A catalogue of ionized gas velocity fields for a sample of 30 spiral andirregular galaxies of the Virgo cluster has been obtained by using 3Doptical data. The aim of this survey is to study the influence ofhigh-density environments on the gaseous kinematics of local clustergalaxies. Observations of the Hα line by means of Fabry-Perotinterferometry have been performed at the Canada-France-HawaiiTelescope, European Southern Observatory 3.6-m telescope, Observatoirede Haute-Provence 1.93-m telescope and Observatoire du montMégantic telescope at angular and spectral samplings from 0.4 to1.6arcsec and 7 to 16kms-1. A recently developed, automaticand adaptive spatial binning technique is used to reach a nearlyconstant signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) over the whole field of view,allowing us to keep a high spatial resolution in high-S/N regions andextend the detection of signal in low-S/N regions. This paper is part ofa series and presents the integrated emission-line and velocity maps ofthe galaxies. Both Hα morphologies and kinematics exhibit signs ofperturbations in the form of, for example, external filaments, inner andnuclear spiral- and ring-like structures, inner kinematical twists,kinematical decoupling of a nuclear spiral, streaming motions alongspiral arms and misalignment between kinematical and photometricorientation axes.

Constraining Dark Matter Halo Profiles and Galaxy Formation Models Using Spiral Arm Morphology. I. Method Outline
We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of diskgalaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral armpitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in diskgalaxy rotation curves by using a much larger sample (51 galaxies) thanused previously (17 galaxies). We use this correlation to argue thatimaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic massdistributions out to large look-back times. In contrast to previouswork, we show that observed spiral arm pitch angles are similar whenmeasured in the optical (at 0.4 μm) and the near-infrared (at 2.1μm) with a mean difference of 2.3d+/-2.7d. This is then used tostrengthen the known correlation between P and S using B-band images. Wethen use two example galaxies to demonstrate how an inferred shear ratecoupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derivedvelocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy'sbaryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. We show that ESO 582-G12,a galaxy with a high shear rate (slightly declining rotation curve) at~10 kpc, favors an adiabatically contracted halo, with high initial NFWconcentration (cvir>16) and a high fraction of halobaryons in the form of stars (~15%-40%). In contrast, IC 2522 has a lowshear rate (rising rotation curve) at ~10 kpc and favorsnonadiabatically contracted models with low NFW concentrations(cvir~=2-8) and a low stellar baryon fraction <10%.

Magnetic Fields in Starburst Galaxies and the Origin of the FIR-Radio Correlation
We estimate minimum energy magnetic fields (Bmin) for asample of galaxies with measured gas surface densities, spanning morethan four orders of magnitude in surface density, from normal spirals toluminous starbursts. We show that the ratio of the minimum energymagnetic pressure to the total pressure in the ISM decreasessubstantially with increasing surface density. For the ultraluminousinfrared galaxy Arp 220, this ratio is ~10-4. Therefore, ifthe minimum energy estimate is applicable, magnetic fields in starburstsare dynamically weak compared to gravity, in contrast to normalstar-forming spiral galaxies. We argue, however, that rapid cooling ofrelativistic electrons in starbursts invalidates the minimum energyestimate. We assess a number of independent constraints on the magneticfield strength in starburst galaxies. In particular, we argue that theexistence of the FIR-radio correlation implies that the synchrotroncooling timescale for cosmic-ray electrons is much shorter than theirescape time from the galactic disk; this in turn implies that the truemagnetic field in starbursts is significantly larger thanBmin. The strongest argument against such large fields isthat one might expect starbursts to have steep radio spectra indicativeof strong synchrotron cooling, which is not observed. However, we showthat ionization and bremsstrahlung losses can flatten the nonthermalspectra of starburst galaxies even in the presence of rapid cooling,providing much better agreement with observed spectra. We furtherdemonstrate that ionization and bremsstrahlung losses are likely to beimportant in shaping the radio spectra of most starbursts at GHzfrequencies, thereby preserving the linearity of the FIR-radiocorrelation. We thus conclude that magnetic fields in starbursts aresignificantly larger than Bmin. We highlight severalobservations that can test this conclusion.

Magnetic field evolution in the perturbed Virgo spiral NGC 4654 - MHD 3D modeling
The Virgo cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4654 shows clear signs ofinteraction, but the nature of this interaction is still unclear. Twopossibilities have been discussed: ram pressure stripping and tidalinteraction with NGC 4639. Dynamical simulations speak in favor of thetidal interaction with small addition of constant ram pressure. Wepresent synthetic polarized intensity maps calculated using 3D MHDsimulations based on gas velocity field evolution. Our results arecompared with recent Effelsberg 100 m telescope observations of NGC4654. The MHD model and the observations are qualitatively similar.

A Comparison of Hα and Stellar Scale Lengths in Virgo and Field Spirals
The scale lengths of the old stars and ionized gas distributions arecompared for similar samples of Virgo Cluster members and field spiralgalaxies via Hα and broad R-band surface photometry. While theR-band and Hα scale lengths are, on average, comparable for thecombined sample, we find significant differences between the field andcluster samples. While the Hα scale lengths of the field galaxiesare a factor of 1.14+/-0.07 longer, on average, than their R-band scalelengths, the Hα scale lengths of Virgo Cluster members are, onaverage, 20% smaller than their R-band scale lengths. Furthermore, inVirgo, the scale length ratios are correlated with the size of thestar-forming disk: galaxies with smaller overall Hα extents alsoshow steeper radial falloff of star formation activity. At the sametime, we find no strong trends in scale length ratio as a function ofother galaxy properties, including galaxy luminosity, inclination,morphological type, central R-band light concentration, or bar type. Ourresults for Hα emission are similar to other results for dustemission, suggesting that Hα and dust have similar distributions.The environmental dependence of the Hα scale length placesadditional constraints on the evolutionary process(es) that cause gasdepletion and a suppression of the star formation rate in clusters ofgalaxies.

Abundance segregation in Virgo spiral galaxies
Aims.To derive O/H, N/O, and S/O abundances of ion{H}{ii} regionslocated in nine Virgo spiral galaxies, as well as to verify what is thecause of the abundance segregation found. Methods: .We employedphotoionization models to reproduce observed emission-line intensitiesof ion{H}{ii} regions located in the galaxies considered. The abundancegradients obtained were interpreted using a grid of chemical evolutionmodels. Results: .Our models indicate that galaxies near to thecore of the Virgo cluster are overabundant in O/H, N/O, and S/O by about0.25 dex in comparison to the ones at the periphery. With one exception,models with upper stellar mass limit of Mu = 30-40Mȯ and age of the ionizing star cluster ranging from 1.5to 2.5 Myr were able to reproduce the observational data. Chemicalmodels indicate the collapse time-scale for inner regions of galaxiesnear to the Virgo core is larger than the one in galaxies located at theintermediate and peripheral positions in the cluster, what can be due tothe dense environment existing in Virgo Cluster core.

The Schmidt Law at High Molecular Densities
We combined Hα and recent high-resolution12CO(J=1‑0) data to consider the quantitative relationbetween the gas mass and the star-formation rate, or the so-calledSchmidt law in nearby spiral galaxies at regions of high moleculardensity. The relation between the gas quantity and the star-formationrate has not been previously studied for high-density regions, but usinghigh-resolution CO data obtained at the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, wefound that the Schmidt law is valid at densities as high as 103Modotpc-2 for sample spiral galaxies, which is anorder of magnitude denser than what has been known to be the maximumdensity at which the empirical law holds for non-starburst galaxies.Furthermore, we obtained a Schmidt law index of N = 1.33 ± 0.09and a roughly constant star-formation efficiency over the entire disk,even within several hundred parsecs of the nucleus. These results implythat the physics of star formation does not change in the centralregions of spiral galaxies. Comparisons with starburst galaxies are alsogiven. We find a possible discontinuity in the Schmidt law betweennormal and starburst galaxies.

Why Optically Faint AGNs Are Optically Faint: The Spitzer Perspective
Optically faint X-ray sources (those withfX/fR>10) constitute about 20% of X-ray sourcesin deep surveys and are potentially highly obscured and/or at highredshift. Their faint optical fluxes are generally beyond the reach ofspectroscopy. For a sample of 20 optically faint sources in CDFS, wecompile 0.4-24 μm photometry, relying heavily on the Spitzer SpaceTelescope. We estimate photometric redshifts for 17 of these 20 sources.We find that these AGNs are optically faint, both because they lie atsignificantly higher redshifts (median z~1.6) than most X-ray-selectedAGNs, and because their spectra are much redder than standard AGNs. Theyhave 2-8 keV X-ray luminosities in the Seyfert range, unlike the QSOluminosities of optically faint AGNs found in shallow wide-fieldsurveys. Their contribution to the X-ray Seyfert luminosity function iscomparable to that of z>1 optically bright AGNs.

The Distribution of Bar and Spiral Arm Strengths in Disk Galaxies
The distribution of bar strengths in disk galaxies is a fundamentalproperty of the galaxy population that has only begun to be explored. Wehave applied the bar-spiral separation method of Buta and coworkers toderive the distribution of maximum relative gravitational bar torques,Qb, for 147 spiral galaxies in the statistically well-definedOhio State University Bright Galaxy Survey (OSUBGS) sample. Our goal isto examine the properties of bars as independently as possible of theirassociated spirals. We find that the distribution of bar strengthdeclines smoothly with increasing Qb, with more than 40% ofthe sample having Qb<=0.1. In the context of recurrent barformation, this suggests that strongly barred states are relativelyshort-lived compared to weakly barred or nonbarred states. We do notfind compelling evidence for a bimodal distribution of bar strengths.Instead, the distribution is fairly smooth in the range0.0<=Qb<0.8. Our analysis also provides a first look atspiral strengths Qs in the OSUBGS sample, based on the sametorque indicator. We are able to verify a possible weak correlationbetween Qs and Qb, in the sense that galaxies withthe strongest bars tend to also have strong spirals.

Gas and Stars in an H I-Selected Galaxy Sample
We present the results of a J-band study of the H I-selected AreciboDual-Beam Survey and Arecibo Slice Survey galaxy samples using TwoMicron All Sky Survey data. We find that these galaxies span a widerange of stellar and gas properties. However, despite the diversitywithin the samples, we find a very tight correlation between luminosityand size in the J band, similar to that found in a previous paper byRosenberg & Schneider between the H I mass and size. We also findthat the correlation between the baryonic mass and the J-band diameteris even tighter than that between the baryonic mass and the rotationalvelocity.

A Virgo high-resolution Hα kinematical survey. I. NGC 4438
New Hα emission-line observations of the Virgo cluster galaxy NGC4438 are presented. Fabry-Perot interferometry data at an effectiveangular resolution of ~2 arcsec are used to map the kinematics of theionized gas in the galaxy. For the first time we obtain a velocity fieldcovering a large area in NGC 4438, much larger than that deduced fromprevious Hi and CO maps. The kinematics of the extended, low surfacebrightness Hα filaments to the West of the galactic disk isdiscussed. We report on the discovery of a northern Hα structurewhich is clumpier than the other filaments. Evidence for multiplespectral components through the data-cube are presented in a nuclearshell and in the approaching half of the disk. The role of VCC 1040, adwarf elliptical galaxy located to the South of NGC 4438, is presentedto investigate the origin of a small-scale stellar tail of NGC 4438. Itcould be due to a minor tidal interaction between the two galaxies.

Completing H I observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster
High sensitivity (rms noise ˜ 0.5 mJy) 21-cm H I line observationswere made of 33 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, using the refurbishedArecibo telescope, which resulted in the detection of 12 objects. Thesedata, combined with the measurements available from the literature,provide the first set of H I data that is complete for all 355 late-type(Sa-Im-BCD) galaxies in the Virgo cluster with mp ≤ 18.0mag. The Virgo cluster H I mass function (HIMF) that was derived forthis optically selected galaxy sample is in agreement with the HIMFderived for the Virgo cluster from the blind HIJASS H I survey and isinconsistent with the Field HIMF. This indicates that both in this richcluster and in the general field, neutral hydrogen is primarilyassociated with late-type galaxies, with marginal contributions fromearly-type galaxies and isolated H I clouds. The inconsistency betweenthe cluster and the field HIMF derives primarily from the difference inthe optical luminosity function of late-type galaxies in the twoenvironments, combined with the HI deficiency that is known to occur ingalaxies in rich clusters.Tables \ref{t1, \ref{sample_dat} and Appendix A are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Bar-induced perturbation strengths of the galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey - I
Bar-induced perturbation strengths are calculated for a well-definedmagnitude-limited sample of 180 spiral galaxies, based on the Ohio StateUniversity Bright Galaxy Survey. We use a gravitational torque method,the ratio of the maximal tangential force to the mean axisymmetricradial force, as a quantitative measure of the bar strength. Thegravitational potential is inferred from an H-band light distribution byassuming that the M/L ratio is constant throughout the disc. Galaxiesare deprojected using orientation parameters based on B-band images. Inorder to eliminate artificial stretching of the bulge, two-dimensionalbar-bulge-disc decomposition has been used to derive a reliable bulgemodel. This bulge model is subtracted from an image, the disc isdeprojected assuming it is thin, and then the bulge is added back byassuming that its mass distribution is spherically symmetric. We findthat removing the artificial bulge stretch is important especially forgalaxies having bars inside large bulges. We also find that the massesof the bulges can be significantly overestimated if bars are not takeninto account in the decomposition.Bars are identified using Fourier methods by requiring that the phasesof the main modes (m= 2, m= 4) are maintained nearly constant in the barregion. With such methods, bars are found in 65 per cent of the galaxiesin our sample, most of them being classified as SB-type systems in thenear-infrared by Eskridge and co-workers. We also suggest that as muchas ~70 per cent of the galaxies classified as SAB-types in thenear-infrared might actually be non-barred systems, many of them havingcentral ovals. It is also possible that a small fraction of the SAB-typegalaxies have weak non-classical bars with spiral-like morphologies.

LX-SFR relation in star-forming galaxies
We compare the results of Grimm, Gilfanov & Sunyaev and Ranalli,Comastri & Seti on the LX-SFR (X-ray luminosity-starformation rate) relation in normal galaxies. Based on theLX-stellar mass dependence for low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs), we show that low-SFR (<~1 Msolar yr-1)galaxies in the Ranalli et al. sample are contaminated by the X-rayemission from LMXBs, unrelated to the current star formation activity.However, the most important conclusion from our comparison is that,after the data are corrected for the `LMXB contamination', the two datasets become consistent with each other, despite differences in theircontent, variability effects, adopted source distances, X-ray fluxes andSFR determinations, and also in the cosmological parameters used ininterpreting the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) data. They also agreewell, both in the low- and high-SFR regimes, with the predictedLX-SFR dependence derived from the parameters of the`universal' high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) luminosity function. Thisencouraging result emphasizes the potential of the X-ray luminosity asan independent SFR indicator for normal galaxies.

Hα Morphologies and Environmental Effects in Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies
We describe the various Hα morphologies of Virgo Cluster andisolated spiral galaxies and associate the Hα morphologies withthe types of environmental interactions that have altered the clustergalaxies. The spatial distributions of Hα and R-band emission areused to divide the star formation morphologies of the 52 Virgo Clusterspiral galaxies into several categories: normal (37%), anemic (6%),enhanced (6%), and (spatially) truncated (52%). Truncated galaxies arefurther subdivided on the basis of their inner star formation rates intotruncated/normal (37%), truncated/compact (6%), truncated/anemic (8%),and truncated/enhanced (2%). The fraction of anemic galaxies isrelatively small (6%-13%) in both environments, suggesting thatstarvation is not a major factor in the reduced star formation rates ofVirgo spiral galaxies. The majority of Virgo spiral galaxies have theirHα disks truncated (52%), whereas truncated Hα disks arerarer in isolated galaxies (12%). Most of the Hα-truncatedgalaxies have relatively undisturbed stellar disks and normal toslightly enhanced inner disk star formation rates, suggesting thatintracluster medium-interstellar medium (ICM-ISM) stripping is the mainmechanism causing the reduced star formation rates of Virgo spiralgalaxies. Several of the truncated galaxies are peculiar, with enhancedcentral star formation rates, disturbed stellar disks, and barlikedistributions of luminous H II complexes inside the central 1 kpc but nostar formation beyond, suggesting that recent tidal interactions orminor mergers have also influenced their morphology. Two highly inclinedHα-truncated spiral galaxies have numerous extraplanar H IIregions and are likely in an active phase of ICM-ISM stripping. Severalspiral galaxies have one-sided Hα enhancements at the outer edgeof their truncated Hα disks, suggesting modest local enhancementsin their star formation rates due to ICM-ISM interactions. Low-velocitytidal interactions and perhaps outer cluster H I accretion seem to bethe triggers for enhanced global star formation in four Virgo galaxies.These results indicate that most Virgo spiral galaxies experienceICM-ISM stripping, many experience significant tidal effects, and manyexperience both.

Companions to Isolated Elliptical Galaxies: Revisiting the Bothun-Sullivan Sample
We investigate the number of physical companion galaxies for a sample ofrelatively isolated elliptical galaxies. The NASA/IPAC ExtragalacticDatabase (NED) has been used to reinvestigate the incidence of satellitegalaxies for a sample of 34 elliptical galaxies, first investigated byBothun & Sullivan using a visual inspection of Palomar Sky Surveyprints out to a projected search radius of 75 kpc. We have repeatedtheir original investigation using data cataloged in NED. Nine of theseelliptical galaxies appear to be members of galaxy clusters; theremaining sample of 25 galaxies reveals an average of +1.0+/-0.5apparent companions per galaxy within a projected search radius of 75kpc, in excess of two equal-area comparison regions displaced by 150-300kpc. This is significantly larger than the +0.12+/-0.42companions/galaxy found by Bothun & Sullivan for the identicalsample. Making use of published radial velocities, mostly availablesince the completion of the Bothun-Sullivan study, identifies thephysical companions and gives a somewhat lower estimate of +0.4companions per elliptical galaxy. This is still 3 times larger than theoriginal statistical study, but given the incomplete and heterogeneousnature of the survey redshifts in NED, it still yields a firm lowerlimit on the number (and identity) of physical companions. An expansionof the search radius out to 300 kpc, again restricted to sampling onlythose objects with known redshifts in NED, gives another lower limit of4.5 physical companions per galaxy. (Excluding five elliptical galaxiesin the Fornax Cluster, this average drops to 3.5 companions perelliptical.) These physical companions are individually identified andlisted, and the ensemble-averaged radial density distribution of theseassociated galaxies is presented. For the ensemble, the radial densitydistribution is found to have a falloff consistent withρ~R-0.5 out to approximately 150 kpc. For non-FornaxCluster companions the falloff continues out to the 300 kpc limit of thesurvey. The velocity dispersion of these companions is found to reach amaximum of 350 km s-1 at around 120 kpc, after which theyfall at a rate consistent with Keplerian falloff. This falloff may thenindicate the detection of a cut-off in the mass-density distribution inthe elliptical galaxies' dark matter halo at ~100 kpc.

Radio and Far-Infrared Emission as Tracers of Star Formation and Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Cluster Galaxies
We have studied the radio and far-infrared (FIR) emission from 114galaxies in the seven nearest clusters (<100 Mpc) with prominentX-ray emission to investigate the impact of the cluster environment onthe star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in themember galaxies. The X-ray selection criterion is adopted to focus onthe most massive and dynamically relaxed clusters. A large majority ofcluster galaxies show an excess in radio emission over that predictedfrom the radio-FIR correlation, the fraction of sources with radioexcess increases toward cluster cores, and the radial gradient in theFIR/radio flux ratio is a result of radio enhancement. Of theradio-excess sources, 70% are early-type galaxies, and the same fractionhost an AGN. The galaxy density drops by a factor of 10 from thecomposite cluster center out to 1.5 Mpc, yet galaxies show no change inFIR properties over this region and show no indication of masssegregation. We have examined in detail the physical mechanisms thatmight impact the FIR and radio emission of cluster galaxies. Whilecollisional heating of dust may be important for galaxies in clustercenters, it appears to have a negligible effect on the observed FIRemission for our sample galaxies. The correlations between radio and FIRluminosity and radius could be explained by magnetic compression fromthermal intracluster medium pressure. We also find that simple delayedharassment cannot fully account for the observed radio, FIR, and mid-IRproperties of cluster galaxies.

A New Nonparametric Approach to Galaxy Morphological Classification
We present two new nonparametric methods for quantifying galaxymorphology: the relative distribution of the galaxy pixel flux values(the Gini coefficient or G) and the second-order moment of the brightest20% of the galaxy's flux (M20). We test the robustness of Gand M20 to decreasing signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and spatialresolution and find that both measures are reliable to within 10% forimages with average S/N per pixel greater than 2 and resolutions betterthan 1000 and 500 pc, respectively. We have measured G andM20, as well as concentration (C), asymmetry (A), andclumpiness (S) in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet/optical wavelengthsfor 148 bright local ``normal'' Hubble-type galaxies (E-Sd) galaxies, 22dwarf irregulars, and 73 0.05

Radio Continuum Observations of the Virgo Cluster Spiral NGC 4522: The Signature of Ram Pressure
Radio continuum observations at 20 and 6 cm of the highly inclined Virgospiral galaxy NGC 4522 are presented. Both 20 and 6 cm total emissiondistributions are asymmetric with an extended component to the west,where extraplanar atomic gas and Hα emission are found. The 6 cmpolarized emission is located at the eastern edge of the galactic disk.Its peak is located about 1 kpc to the east of the total emission peak.We argue that this phenomena is a characteristic feature for clustergalaxies that are experiencing significant pressure from theintracluster medium. Polarized radio continuum emission is thus apowerful tool to detect interactions of spiral galaxies with the clusterICM. The degree of polarization decreases from the east to the west. Theflattest spectral index between 20 and 6 cm coincides with the peak ofthe 6 cm polarized emission. These findings are consistent with apicture of a large-scale shock due to ram pressure located at the eastof the galaxy where cosmic rays are accelerated. We conclude that it islikely that the galaxy experiences active ram pressure.

VLA H I Observations of Gas Stripping in the Virgo Cluster Spiral NGC 4522
We present VLA H I observations at ~20"~=1.5 kpc resolution of thehighly inclined, H I-deficient Virgo Cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4522,which is one of the clearest and nearest cases of ongoing intraclustermedium-interstellar medium (ICM-ISM) stripping. H I is abundant andspatially coincident with the stellar disk in the center, but beyond R=3kpc the H I distribution in the disk is sharply truncated, and the onlyH I is extraplanar and all on the northwest side. Forty percent of thetotal H I, corresponding to 1.5×108 Msolar,is extraplanar and has likely been removed from the galaxy disk by anICM-ISM interaction. The kinematics and the morphology of the H I appearmore consistent with ongoing stripping and less consistent with gasfall-back, which may occur long after peak pressure. Some of theextraplanar gas has line widths (FWZI) of 150 km s-1,including a blueshifted tail of weaker emission, and much of theextraplanar gas exhibits a modest net blueshift with respect to thegalaxy's disk rotational velocities, consistent with gas acceleratedtoward the mean cluster velocity. The southwest side of the galaxy hasless H I in the disk but more H I in the halo, suggesting more effectivegas removal on the side of the galaxy that is rotating into the ICMwind. In recent simulations of ICM-ISM interactions large surfacedensities of extraplanar gas like that in NGC 4522 are seen atrelatively early stages of active stripping and not during later gasfall-back stages. The galaxy is 3.3d~=800 kpc from M87, somewhat outsidethe region of strongest cluster X-ray emission. The ram pressure at thislocation, assuming a static smooth ICM and standard values for ICMdensity and galaxy velocity, appears inadequate to cause the observedstripping. We consider the possibility that the ram pressure issignificantly stronger than standard values, because of large bulkmotions and local density enhancements of the ICM gas, which may occurin a dynamic, shock-filled ICM experiencing subcluster merging. The H Iand Hα distributions are similar, with both truncated in the diskat the same radius and H II regions located throughout much of theextraplanar H I. This implies that the star-forming molecular ISM hasbeen effectively stripped from the outer disk of the galaxy along withthe H I. The inferred peak stripping rate of ~10 Msolaryr-1 is much larger than the galaxy's total star formationrate of ~0.1 Msolar yr-1, implying that the rateof triggered star formation due to ICM pressure is presently minorcompared with the rate of gas lost as a result of stripping.

Inner-truncated Disks in Galaxies
We present an analysis of the disk brightness profiles of 218 spiral andlenticular galaxies. At least 28% of disk galaxies exhibit innertruncations in these profiles. There are no significant trends oftruncation incidence with Hubble type, but the incidence among barredsystems is 49%, more than 4 times that for nonbarred galaxies. However,not all barred systems have inner truncations, and not allinner-truncated systems are currently barred. Truncations represent areal dearth of disk stars in the inner regions and are not an artifactof our selection or fitting procedures nor the result of obscuration bydust. Disk surface brightness profiles in the outer regions are wellrepresented by simple exponentials for both truncated and nontruncateddisks. However, truncated and nontruncated systems have systematicallydifferent slopes and central surface brightness parameters for theirdisk brightness distributions. Truncation radii do not appear tocorrelate well with the sizes or brightnesses of the bulges. Thissuggests that the low angular momentum material apparently missing fromthe inner disk was not simply consumed in forming the bulge population.Disk parameters and the statistics of bar orientations in our sampleindicate that the missing stars of the inner disk have not simply beenredistributed azimuthally into bar structures. The sharpness of thebrightness truncations and their locations with respect to othergalactic structures suggest that resonances associated with diskkinematics, or tidal interactions with the mass of bulge stars, might beresponsible for this phenomenon.

An Optical Study of a Sample of Spiral Galaxies
We present the first results of an observational project aimed atproducing a database of nearby face-on spiral galaxies in the optical.The project is being run at the IAC-80 telescope in Tenerife. This firstsample is made of from R and I images of NGC 428, 864, 2146, 2273, 2541,2967, 4618, 4654, 6217, and 6643. Overall geometrical parameters areobtained via ellipse fitting to the observed surface photometry. Then,structural decomposition into the main morphological components areperformed via simultaneous fitting of their analytical brightnessprofiles to the measured global radial profile. The characteristicstructural and photometric parameters of those components are soobtained. It is noticeable that the sample is fully composed by barredgalaxies, even when some of them are not classified as such in the RC3catalog. The bars have first been identified in the radial profilesobtained in the ellipse fitting, and subsequently their brightnessdistribution taken from the global radial intensity profile.

Mid-IR emission of galaxies in the Virgo cluster and in the Coma supercluster. IV. The nature of the dust heating sources
We study the relationship between the mid-IR (5-18 μm) emission oflate-type galaxies and various other star formation tracers in order toinvestigate the nature of the dust heating sources in this spectraldomain. The analysis is carried out using a sample of 123 normal,late-type, nearby galaxies with available data at several frequencies.The mid-IR luminosity (normalized to the H-band luminosity) correlatesbetter with the far-IR luminosity than with more direct tracers of theyoung stellar population such as the Hα and the UV luminosity. Thecomparison of resolved images reveals a remarkable similarity in theHα and mid-IR morphologies, with prominent HII regions at bothfrequencies. The mid-IR images, however, show in addition a diffuseemission not associated with HII regions nor with the diffuse Hαemission. This evidence indicates that the stellar populationresponsible for the heating of dust emitting in the mid-IR is similar tothat heating big grains emitting in the far-IR, including relativelyevolved stars responsible for the non-ionizing radiation. The scatter inthe mid-IR vs. Hα, UV and far-IR luminosity relation is mostly dueto metallicity effects, with metal-poor objects having a lower mid-IRemission per unit star formation rate than metal-rich galaxies. Ouranalysis indicates that the mid-IR luminosity is not an optimal starformation tracer in normal, late-type galaxies.

Oxygen and nitrogen abundances in nearby galaxies. Correlations between oxygen abundance and macroscopic properties
We performed a compilation of more than 1000 published spectra of H IIregions in spiral galaxies. The oxygen and nitrogen abundances in each HII region were recomputed in a homogeneous way, using the P-method. Theradial distributions of oxygen and nitrogen abundances were derived. Thecorrelations between oxygen abundance and macroscopic properties areexamined. We found that the oxygen abundance in spiral galaxiescorrelates with its luminosity, rotation velocity, and morphologicaltype: the correlation with the rotation velocity may be slightlytighter. There is a significant difference between theluminosity-metallicity relationship obtained here and that based on theoxygen abundances determined through the R23-calibrations.The oxygen abundance of NGC 5457 recently determined using directmeasurements of Te (Kennicutt et al. \cite{Kennicutt2003})agrees with the luminosity-metallicity relationship derived in thispaper, but is in conflict with the luminosity-metallicity relationshipderived with the R23-based oxygen abundances. The obtainedluminosity-metallicity relation for spiral galaxies is compared to thatfor irregular galaxies. Our sample of galaxies shows evidence that theslope of the O/H - MB relationship for spirals (-0.079± 0.018) is slightly more shallow than that for irregulargalaxies (-0.139 ± 0.011). The effective oxygen yields wereestimated for spiral and irregular galaxies. The effective oxygen yieldincreases with increasing luminosity from MB ˜ -11 toMB ˜ -18 (or with increasing rotation velocity fromVrot ˜ 10 km s-1 to Vrot ˜ 100km s-1) and then remains approximately constant. Irregulargalaxies from our sample have effective oxygen yields lowered by afactor of 3 at maximum, i.e. irregular galaxies usually keep at least1/3 of the oxygen they manufactured during their evolution.Appendix, Tables \ref{table:refero}, \ref{table:referV}, and Figs.\ref{figure:sample2}-\ref{figure:sample5} are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org}

Tracing the star formation history of cluster galaxies using the Hα/UV flux ratio
Since the Hα and UV fluxes from galaxies are sensitive to stellarpopulations of ages <107 and ≈ 108 yrrespectively, their ratio f(Hα)/f(UV) provides us with a tool tostudy the recent t ≤ 108 yr star formation history ofgalaxies, an exercise that we present here applied to 98 galaxies in 4nearby clusters (Virgo, Coma, Abell 1367 and Cancer). The observedf(Hα)/f(UV) ratio is ˜ a factor of two smaller than theexpected one as determined from population synthesis models assuming arealistic delayed, exponentially declining star formation history. Wediscuss various mechanisms that may have affected the observedf(Hα)/f(UV) ratio and we propose that the above discrepancy arisesfrom either the absorption of Lyman continuum photons by dust within thestar formation regions or from the occurrence of star formationepisodes. After splitting our sample into different subsamples accordingto evolutionary criteria we find that our reference sample of galaxiesunaffected by the cluster environment show an average value off(Hα)/f(UV) two times lower than the expected one. We argue thatthis difference must be mostly due to absorption of ≈45% of the Lymancontinuum photons within star forming regions. Galaxies with clear signsof an ongoing interaction show average values of f(Hα)/f(UV)slightly higher than the reference value, as expected if those objectshad SFR increased by a factor of ≃4. The accuracy of the currentUV and Hα photometry is not yet sufficient to clearly disentanglethe effect of interactions on the f(Hα)/f(UV) ratio, butsignificant observational improvements are shortly expected to resultfrom the GALEX mission.Tables 1-3 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Deprojecting spiral galaxies using Fourier analysis. Application to the Ohio sample
We use two new methods developed recently (Barberàet al.\cite{bar03}, A&A, 415, 849), as well as information obtained fromthe literature, to calculate the orientation parameters of the spiralgalaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey. We comparethe results of these methods with data from the literature, and find ingeneral good agreement. We provide a homogeneous set of mean orientationparameters which can be used to approximately deproject the disks of thegalaxies and facilitate a number of statistical studies of galaxyproperties.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/421/595

2-10 keV luminosity of high-mass binaries as a gauge of ongoing star-formation rate
Based on recent work on spectral decomposition of the emission ofstar-forming galaxies, we assess whether the integrated 2-10 keVemission from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs),L2-10HMXB, can be used as a reliable estimator ofongoing star formation rate (SFR). Using a sample of 46 local (z 0.1) star-forming galaxies, and spectral modeling of ASCA, BeppoSAX, andXMM-Newton data, we demonstrate the existence of a linear SFR -L2-10^ HMXB relation which holds over ˜5 decades in X-rayluminosity and SFR. The total 2-10 keV luminosity is not a precise SFRindicator because at low SFR (i.e., in normal andmoderately-starbursting galaxies) it is substantially affected by theemission of low-mass X-ray binaries, which do not trace the current SFRdue to their long evolution lifetimes, while at very high SFR (i.e., forvery luminous FIR-selected galaxies) it is frequently affected by thepresence of strongly obscured AGNs. The availability of purelySB-powered galaxies - whose 2-10 keV emission is mainly due to HMXBs -allows us to properly calibrate the SFR -L2-10HMXB relation. The SFR -L2-10HMXB relation holds also for distant (z ˜1) galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North sample, for which we lackspectral information, but whose SFR can be estimated from deep radiodata. If confirmed by more detailed observations, it may be possible touse the deduced relation to identify distant galaxies that are X-rayoverluminous for their (independently estimated) SFR, and are thereforelikely to hide strongly absorbed AGNs.Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

NGC 4569: Recent evidence for a past ram pressure stripping event
Deep 21-cm H I line observations of the Virgo cluster spiral galaxy NGC4569 have been obtained with the VLA in its D configuration and with theEffelsberg 100-m telescope. A low surface density arm was discovered inthe west of the galaxy, whose velocity field is distinct from that ofthe overall disk rotation. The observed gas distribution, velocity fieldand velocity dispersion are compared to snapshots of dynamicalsimulations that include the effects of ram pressure. Two differentscenarios were explored: (i) ongoing stripping and (ii) a majorstripping event that took place about 300 Myr ago. It is concluded thatonly the post-stripping scenario can reproduce the main observedcharacteristics of NGC 4569. It is not possible to determine if the gasdisk of NGC 4569 had already been truncated before it underwent the rampressure event that lead to its observed H I deficiency.Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Radio continuum spectra of galaxies in the Virgo cluster region
New radio continuum observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster regionat 4.85, 8.6, and 10.55 GHz are presented. These observations arecombined with existing measurements at 1.4 and 0.325 GHz. The sampleincludes 81 galaxies where spectra with more than two frequencies couldbe derived. Galaxies that show a radio-FIR excess exhibit centralactivity (HII, LINER, AGN). The four Virgo galaxies with the highestabsolute radio excess are found within 2° of the centerof the cluster. Galaxies showing flat radio spectra also host activecenters. There is no clear trend between the spectral index and thegalaxy's distance to the cluster center.Figure 3 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.orgTable 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/1

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:12h43m56.90s
Aparent dimensions:4.898′ × 2.692′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 4654
ICIC 3708
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 1987

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