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|Bar Galaxies and Their Environments|
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.
|Multiwavelength Observations of Dusty Star Formation at Low and High Redshift|
If high-redshift galaxies resemble rapidly star-forming galaxies in thelocal universe, most of the luminosity produced by their massive starswill have been absorbed by dust and reradiated as far-infrared photonsthat cannot be detected with existing facilities. This paper examineswhat can be learned about high-redshift star formation from the smallfraction of high-redshift galaxies' luminosities that is emitted ataccessible wavelengths. We first consider the most basic ingredient inthe analysis of high-redshift surveys: the estimation of star formationrates for detected galaxies. Standard techniques require an estimate ofthe bolometric luminosity produced by their massive stars. We review andquantify empirical correlations between bolometric luminosities producedby star formation and the UV, mid-IR, sub-mm, and radio luminosities ofgalaxies in the local universe. These correlations suggest thatobservations of high-redshift galaxies at any of these wavelengthsshould constrain their star formation rates to within ~0.2-0.3 dex. Weassemble the limited evidence that high-redshift galaxies obey theselocally calibrated correlations. The second part of the paper assesseswhether existing surveys have found the galaxies that host the majorityof star formation at high redshift even though they directly detect onlya small fraction of the luminosities of individual galaxies. We describethe characteristic luminosities and dust obscurations of galaxies atz~0, z~1, and z~3. After discussing the relationship between thehigh-redshift populations selected in surveys at different wavelengths,we calculate the contribution to the 850 μm background from each andargue that these known galaxy populations can together have produced theentire observed background. The available data show that a correlationbetween star formation rate and dust obscurationLbol,dust/LUV exists at low and high redshiftalike. The existence of this correlation plays a central role in themajor conclusion of this paper: most star formation at high redshiftoccurred in galaxies with moderate dust obscurations1<~Lbol,dust/LUV<~100 similar to those thathost the majority of star formation in the local universe and to thosethat are detected in UV-selected surveys.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|A Complete Redshift Survey to the Zwicky Catalog Limit in a 2^h X 15 deg Region around 3C 273|
We compile 1113 redshifts (648 new measurements, 465 from theliterature) for Zwicky catalog galaxies in the region (-3.5d <= delta<= 8.5d, 11h5 <= alpha <= 13h5). We include redshifts for 114component objects in 78 Zwicky catalog multiplets. The redshift surveyin this region is 99.5% complete to the Zwicky catalog limit, m_Zw =15.7. It is 99.9% complete to m_Zw = 15.5, the CfA Redshift Survey(CfA2) magnitude limit. The survey region is adjacent to the northernportion of CfA2, overlaps the northernmost slice of the Las CampanasRedshift Survey, includes the southern extent of the Virgo Cluster, andis roughly centered on the QSO 3C 273. As in other portions of theZwicky catalog, bright and faint galaxies trace the same large-scalestructure.
|Bulge-Disk Decomposition of 659 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxy Brightness Profiles|
We present one of the largest homogeneous sets of spiral and lenticulargalaxy brightness profile decompositions completed to date. The 659galaxies in our sample have been fitted with a de Vaucouleurs law forthe bulge component and an inner-truncated exponential for the diskcomponent. Of the 659 galaxies in the sample, 620 were successfullyfitted with the chosen fitting functions. The fits are generally welldefined, with more than 90% having rms deviations from the observedprofile of less than 0.35 mag. We find no correlations of fittingquality, as measured by these rms residuals, with either morphologicaltype or inclination. Similarly, the estimated errors of the fittedcoefficients show no significant trends with type or inclination. Thesedecompositions form a useful basis for the study of the lightdistributions of spiral and lenticular galaxies. The object base issufficiently large that well-defined samples of galaxies can be selectedfrom it.
|The Southern Sky Redshift Survey|
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|A comparative study of morphological classifications of APM galaxies|
We investigate the consistency of visual morphological classificationsof galaxies by comparing classifications for 831 galaxies from sixindependent observers. The galaxies were classified on laser print copyimages or on computer screen using scans made with the Automated PlateMeasuring (APM) machine. Classifications are compared using the RevisedHubble numerical type index T. We find that individual observers agreewith one another with rms combined dispersions of between 1.3 and 2.3type units, typically about 1.8 units. The dispersions tend to decreaseslightly with increasing angular diameter and, in some cases, withincreasing axial ratio (b/a). The agreement between independentobservers is reasonably good but the scatter is non-negligible. In spiteof the scatter, the Revised Hubble T system can be used to train anautomated galaxy classifier, e.g. an artificial neural network, tohandle the large number of galaxy images that are being compiled in theAPM and other surveys.
|Recalibration of the H-0.5 magnitudes of spiral galaxies|
The H-magnitude aperture data published by the Aaronson et al.collaboration over a 10 year period is collected into a homogeneous dataset of 1731 observations of 665 galaxies. Ninety-six percent of thesegalaxies have isophotal diameters and axial ratios determined by theThird Reference Cataloque of Bright Galaxies (RC3; de Vaucouleurs et al.1991), the most self-consistent set of optical data currently available.The precepts governing the optical data in the RC3 are systematicallydifferent from those of the Second Reference Catalogue (de Vaucouleurs,de Vaucouleurs, & Corwin 1976), which were used by Aaronson et al.for their original analyses of galaxy peculiar motions. This in turnleads to systematic differences in growth curves and fiducialH-magnitudes, prompting the present recalibration of the near-infraredTully-Fisher relationship. New optically normalized H-magnitude growthcurves are defined for galaxies of types SO to Im, from which new valuesof fiducial H-magnitudes, Hg-0.5, are measured forthe 665 galaxies. A series of internal tests show that these fourstandard growth curves are defined to an accuracy of 0.05 mag over theinterval -1.5 less than or equal to log (A/Dg) less than orequal to -0.2. Comparisons with the Aaronson et al. values of diameters,axial ratios, and fiducial H-magnitudes show the expected differences,given the different definitions of these parameters. The values ofHg-0.5 are assigned quality indices: a qualityvalue of 1 indicates an accuracy of less than 0.2 mag, quality 2indicates an accuracy of 0.2-0.35 mag, and quality 3 indicates anaccuracy of more than 0.35 mag. Revised values of corrected H I velocitywidths are also given, based on the new set of axial ratios defiend bythe RC3.
|A Preliminary Classification Scheme for the Central Regions of Late-Type Galaxies|
The large-scale prints in The Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies have been usedto formulate a classification scheme for the central regions oflate-type galaxies. Systems that exhibit small bright central bulges ordisks (type CB) are found to be of earlier Hubble type and of higherluminosity than galaxies that do not contain nuclei (type NN). Galaxiescontaining nuclear bars, or exhibiting central regions that are resolvedinto individual stars and knots, and galaxies with semistellar nuclei,are seen to have characteristics that are intermediate between those oftypes CB and NN. The presence or absence of a nucleus appears to be auseful criterion for distinguishing between spiral galaxies andmagellanic irregulars.
|The UV properties of normal galaxies. III. Standard luminosity profiles and total magnitudes.|
In the previous papers of this series we collected and reduced to thesame system all the available photometric data obtained in theultraviolet (UV) range for normal (i.e. non active) galaxies. Here weuse these data to derive standard UV luminosity profiles for threemorphological bins (E/S0; Sa/Sb; Sc/Sd) and extrapolated totalmagnitudes for almost 400 galaxies. We find that: 1) the UV growthcurves are well matched by the B-band revised standard luminosityprofiles, once a proper shift in the effective radius is applied, and 2)the UV light in early-type galaxies is more centrally concentrated thanthe visible light.
|The UV properties of normal galaxies. II. The ``non-IUE'' data.|
In the last decade several satellite and balloon borne experiments havecollected a large number of ultraviolet fluxes of normal galaxiesmeasured through apertures of various sizes and shapes. We havehomogenized this data set by deriving scale corrections with respect toIUE. In a forthcoming paper these data will be used to derive standardluminosity profiles and total magnitudes.
|On the size and formation mechanism of the largest star-forming complexes in spiral and irregular galaxies|
The average diameters of the largest star complexes in most of thespiral and irregular galaxies in the Sandage and Bedke Atlas of Galaxieswere measured from the Atlas photographs. The complex diametersDc correlate with galaxy magnitude as Dc = 0.18 -0.14MB, which has about the same slope as the correlation forthe largest H II regions studied by Kennicutt. There is no obviouscorrelation between Dc and either Hubble type or spiral armclass at a given magnitude. The variation of Dc withMB closely matches the expected variation in thecharacteristic length of the gaseous gravitational instabilityconsidering that the rotation curve varies with MB and thatthe stability parameter Q is about 1 in the outer regions of the disk.This match corresponds to an effective velocity dispersion of 6.1 km/sthat is about the same for all spiral and irregular galaxies.
|Asymmetries in disk galaxies. How often? How strong?|
Asymmetries in the distributions of light and neutral hydrogen are oftenobserved in disk galaxies. But how common are they? It is possible toestimate their number? Lopsided HI distributions and kinematics usuallyresult in an asymmetry of the global HI profile. We have used thefrequency of asymmetries in the 21 cm line profiles from severalsingle-dish surveys to derive a lower limit of 50% for the fraction ofgalaxies with non-circularities. Asymmetries in disk galaxies may,therefore, be the rule rather than the exception.
|Ultraviolet observations of galaxies with the FAUST experiment|
We have used the set of point sources detected by the Far UltravioletSpace Telescope (FAUST) instrument to identify galaxies and study thetotal galaxy flux in a 250 A wide band peaking at 1650 A. A sample of144 galaxies has been obtained after cross-reference with the RC3catalog, elimination of objects confused with stars and variouscorrections for the photometry. The UV-B color dispersion is found toincrease while the galaxies get redder from late to early types. Theirregular galaxies appear on average redder and the Sbc galaxies bluerthan indicated by the spectral energy distributions currently used forthe calculations of K-corrections. Various arguments lead us to make theassumption of a constant dust extinction within each galaxy. The UV fluxper unit area decreases on average from late to early type spirals. Wefind a weak correlation between the UV and far infra-red emission whilethe infra-red to UV flux ratio gets lower when galaxies get bluer (asmeasured by the UV to B flux ratio). The UV flux per unit areacorrelates with the HI gas surface density and the total gas surfacedensity when this quantity is available. The correlation with themolecular gas alone is weak. In the Virgo cluster, the UV flux per unitarea does not decrease in direct proportion to the HI deficiency. Galaxycounts per square degree and per magnitude interval have been obtainedat high-galactic latitudes. Combined with data at fainter magnitudes,they show a variation as a function of magnitude with a near-euclideanslope over a range of 8 magnitudes.
|Star-formation histories and the mass-normalized FIR/ratio correlation in late-type galaxies|
We study the correlation between the mass-normalized far infrared (FIR)(40-120 microns) and radio continuum (at 1.49GHz) luminosities for asample of 114 normal nearby late-type galaxies. The correlation, whichspans 2-3 orders of magnitude, is found to be quite strong with acorrelation coefficient of 0.87, demonstrating that the well-knowncorrelation between the FIR and radio emissions of galaxies is notmerely a mass-scaling ('richness') effect. Adopting the hypothesis thatthe basic reason of the FIR/radio correlation is the star-formationactivity which ubiquitously exists in late-type galaxies, thedisturbance (i.e. the nonlinearity and the scatter) of the correlationdue to variations of star-formation history is estimated using a simpletheoretical model, which shows that the nonlinearity and a large part ofthe scatter of the correlation can be explained by this effect. Applyingthis model to the median values of the mass-normalized FIR luminosities,we suggest that galaxies of different morphological type havesystematically different star-formation histories on time scales of1010 years, consistent with previous optical studies.
|Distribution of the spin vectors of the disk galaxies of the Virgo cluster. I. The catalogue of 310 disk galaxies in the Virgo area.|
|IRAS CPC Observations of Galaxies - Part One - Catalog and Atlas|
. - We present the results of far-infrared imaging observations of 258regions of 12' x9' each centered on a selected individual galaxy, aclose pair, or a compact group of galaxies mapped at 50 and 100 micronwavelength with the CPC instrument of the IRAS satellite. The CPCinstrument has a significantly better resolution than the IRAS Surveyinstrument at these wavelengths, i.e. a round beam with a FWHM of about80" at 50 microns and 95" at 100 microns, respectively, intended to bematched to the diffraction limit of the telescope at 100 microns. Themaps were made using a new algorithm to correct for gain variations,which gives better results than the one used previously for the imagesmade available on tape in 1985. Of 262 objects observed, 167 and 188were detected at 50 and 100 microns, respectively, about 85% of thegalaxies from the same sample listed as detected by the Surveyinstrument in the IRAS Point Source Catalog. For all 55 galaxiesresolved (i.e. with a FWHM major axis diameter exceeding 1.6 times thebeam FWHM and/or extended lower-level emission) by the CPC we alsopresent the averaged maps at 50 and 100 microns. These 55 objectsinclude 35 for which there are no published maps obtained with the IRASSurvey instrument. We rescaled the flux densities of the published CPCmaps using the more accurate IRAS Survey instrument data, since theabsolute flux density calibration of the CPC is only accurate to about+/-60%. We also present images of a triplet of galaxies associated witha single Survey point source, which were resolved into separate sourcesby the CPC.
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|Nearby galaxy flows modeled by the light distribution - Distances, model, and the local velocity anomaly|
Tables giving measured galaxy distances used to construct a map ofobserved peculiar velocities, and giving a grid of the distribution oflight used to construct a map of expected peculiar velocities arepresented. A preferred model was developed which yielded a best fitbetween these maps, and this model was used to generate output kinematicdistances which are recorded for groups and individual galaxies withV0 of less than 3000 km/s. In terms of the ratio ofpeculiar-to-systemic velocities, the local velocity anomaly is the mostimportant perturbation involving substantial numbers of galaxies forthis case. The ratio of these quantities in this case is larger than forthe more famous cases of the Virgocentric or Great Attractorperturbations. Maps which illustrate the fit of the present mass modelto the velocity data in the local region are provided. A graphicaldemonstration of the relative importance of large-scale streaming tolocal motions within the context of this model is presented.
|Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members|
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.
|Investigations of the Local Supercluster velocity field. I - Observations close to Virgo, using Tully-Fisher distances and the Tolman-Bondi expanding sphere|
Results are presented of an investigation of the velocity-distancerelation close to the direction of the Virgo cluster, with distancesfrom the Tully-Fisher relation, and with attention to the Malmquistbias. For Theta greater than 8 deg, a behavior is revealed which is asexpected Tolman-Bondi solutions for an expanding spherical massdistribution. Various density distributions, constrained by the massinside the Local Group distance, agree with the observations, but onlyif the mass within the Virgo 6 deg region is close to or larger than thestandard Virgo virial mass values. It is inferred that the central6-degree mass has the standard M (virial) as a rough lower limit. Fromthis it follows, together with the light ratios within the localsupercluster and the light enhancement relative to the general field,that light does not trace mass. Background contamination produces anasymmetrical distribution of velocities behind r(Vir).
|Massive black holes in the nuclei of spiral galaxies - M31 and the problem on the initial conditions|
The formation of a stationary black hole is constrained by theconditions M above 3 solar masses and cJ/GM-squared = a/m below 1, J andM being the total angular momentum and mass of the configuration whichhas collapsed to the hole. Recent observations indicate that some spiralgalaxies, like M31, harbor a massive black hole in their center. In thecase of M31, for example, the mass of the hole is estimated to be of theorder of 1-10 million solar masses. The a/m content of a fluid model iscalculated for the bulge of a spiral galaxy and search for the limitingmass and angular momentum distributions which would be compatible withthe formation of a massive black hole in the center. The model is thencompared with the data available for the nucleus of M31 to see how farthe observed properties differ from this hypothetical initial condition.
|An extended galaxy redshift survey. I - The catalogue|
Redshifts and blue magnitudes are presented for a sample of 264 'field'galaxies virtually complete to a limiting magnitude of 16.80 mag. Thegalaxies were selected by sampling one galaxy in every three in order ofapparent magnitude on each of nine high-latitude UK Schmidt (UKST)fields. The spectral data came from observations with the 1.9-mtelescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), and theresulting radial velocities have a precision of 130 + or - km/s. Thissurvey augments substantially the Durham/AAT redshift survey. Theobservational techniques and reduction procedures are discussed.
|Revised supernova rates in Shapley-Ames galaxies|
Observations of 855 Shapley Ames galaxies made from November 1, 1980 toOctober 31, 1988, together with improved supernova luminosities, havebeen used to derive the frequency of supernovae of different types, andthe results are presented in tables. From a uniform database of 24supernovae discovered, the following SN rates are found, expressed in SNper century per 10 to the 10th L(B)(solar): SN Ia, 0.3; SN Ib, 0.3; andSN II, 1.0. The present data confirm the relatively high frequency of SNII in late-type galaxies that has been found by many previousinvestigators.
|The local extragalactic velocity field as a test of the explosion and gravitational instability pictures|
Various models for the origin of large-scale structure were tested andconstrained using the local galaxy velocity field derived from theAaronson et al. (1982) catalog of IR magnitudes and H I velocity widthsfor nearby galaxies, together with the IR Tully-Fisher calibration ofthese data (Aaronson et al.,1986). The assumptions and the tests of theVirgocentric flow model, the pancake model, and, particularly, thesimple explosion model based on the work of Ostriker and Cowie (1981)and Ostriker et al. (1986) are discussed. It is concluded that theobservations of the local peculiar velocity field do not support thesimple explosion model.
|A two-component model for the 40-120-micron emission from normal disk galaxies|
By analogy with models available for the Galaxy, a model with a cold anda warm component is proposed to explain the 40-120-micron emission ofnormal late-type galaxies as observed with IRAS. The approach makes useof published H I, H-alpha, and FUV (200-nm) total fluxes. The coldcomponent dust is associated with the neutral ISM and heated by thegeneral interstellar radiation field. The temperature of this componentis constrained by the IRAS 100-micron flux density. Its emission isproportional to the H I flux and is found to correlate well with the FUVemission. The warm component dust is associated with ionized hydrogen inextended low-density H II regions and heated by hot ionizing stars. Itsemission is taken proportional to the H-alpha emission. The modelpredicts only 75 to 80 percent of the observed 40-120 fluxes. The mostplausible explanation for this discrepancy is an underestimation of thewarm component emission.
|A 1.49 GHz supplementary atlas of spiral galaxies with H-magnitudes|
The VLA has been used in its most compact D- and C/D-configurations tomake low-resolution 1.49 GHz maps of spiral galaxies with measuredinfrared magnitudes H(-0.5) and H I velocity widths from the 1982 listof Aaronson and coworkers. Many appear in the 1.49 GHz atlas of allspiral galaxies brighter than B(T) = +12 and north of delta = -45 deg;this supplementary atlas presents maps and radio source parameters ofthe 55 fainter galaxies observed.
|The supernova rate in Shapley-Ames galaxies|
A visual search for SNs in 748 Shapley-Ames galaxies during the 5-yearperiod from November 1, 1980 to October 31, 1985 has yielded SN rates of0.3h-squared, 0.4h-squared, and 1.1h-squared for objects of types Ia,Ib, and II, respectively. These data are judged to imply that Tammann's(1974, 1982) SN rates are probably too high by a factor of about 3. Fora Galactic luminosity of 2 x 10 to the 10th solar L(B), the predicted SNrates in the Milky Way system are 0.6h-squared, 0.8h-squared, and2.2h-squared/century, respectively, for the three aforementioned types.
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