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Chemistry and Star Formation in the Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae
We study the effect of environment on the properties of Type Iasupernovae by analyzing the integrated spectra of 57 local Type Iasupernova host galaxies. We deduce from the spectra the metallicity,current star formation rate, and star formation history of the host andcompare these to the supernova decline rates. Additionally, we comparethe host properties to the difference between the derived supernovadistance and the distance determined from the best-fit Hubble law. Fromthis we investigate possible uncorrected systematic effects inherent inthe calibration of Type Ia supernova luminosities using light-curvefitting techniques. Our results indicate a statistically insignificantcorrelation in the direction of higher metallicity spiral galaxieshosting fainter Type Ia supernovae. However, we present qualitativeevidence suggesting that progenitor age is more likely to be the sourceof variability in supernova peak luminosities than is metallicity. We donot find a correlation between the supernova decline rate and hostgalaxy absolute B magnitude, nor do we find evidence of a significantrelationship between decline rate and current host galaxy star formationrate. A tenuous correlation is observed between the supernova Hubbleresiduals and host galaxy metallicities. Further host galaxyobservations will be needed to refine the significance of this result.Finally, we characterize the environmental property distributions forType Ia supernova host galaxies through a comparison with two larger,more general galaxy distributions using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Theresults show the host galaxy metallicity distribution to be similar tothe metallicity distributions of the galaxies of the NFGS and SDSS.Significant differences are observed between the SN Ia distributions ofabsolute B magnitude and star formation histories and the correspondingdistributions of galaxies in the NFGS and SDSS. Among these is an abruptupper limit observed in the distribution of star formation histories ofthe host galaxy sample, suggesting a Type Ia supernovae characteristicdelay time lower limit of approximately 2.0 Gyr. Other distributiondiscrepancies are investigated and the effects on the supernovaproperties are discussed.

Reddening, Absorption, and Decline Rate Corrections for a Complete Sample of Type Ia Supernovae Leading to a Fully Corrected Hubble Diagram to v < 30,000 km s-1
Photometric (BVI) and redshift data corrected for streaming motions arecompiled for 111 ``Branch-normal,'' four 1991T-like, seven 1991bg-like,and two unusual supernovae of Type Ia (SNe Ia). Color excessesE(B-V)host of normal SNe Ia, due to the absorption of thehost galaxy, are derived by three independent methods, giving excellentagreement leading to the intrinsic colors at maximum of(B-V)00=-0.024+/-0.010 and (V-I)00=-0.265+/-0.016if normalized to a common decline rate of Δm15=1.1. Thestrong correlation between redshift absolute magnitudes (based on anarbitrary Hubble constant of H0=60 km s-1Mpc-1), corrected only for the extrinsic Galactic absorption,and the derived E(B-V)host color excesses leads to thewell-determined yet abnormal absorption-to-reddening ratios ofRBVI=3.65+/-0.16, 2.65+/-0.15, and 1.35+/-0.21.Comparison with the canonical Galactic values of 4.1, 3.1, and 1.8forces the conclusion that the law of interstellar absorption in thepath length to the SN in the host galaxy is different from the localGalactic law, a result consistent with earlier conclusions by others.Improved correlations of the fully corrected absolute magnitudes (on thesame arbitrary Hubble constant zero point) with host galaxymorphological type, decline rate, and intrinsic color are derived. Werecover the result that SNe Ia in E/S0 galaxies are ~0.3 mag fainterthan in spiral galaxies for possible reasons discussed in the text. Thenew decline rate corrections to absolute magnitudes are smaller thanthose by some authors for reasons explained in the text. The fourspectroscopically peculiar 1991T-type SNe are significantly overluminousas compared to Branch-normal SNe Ia. The overluminosity of the seven1999aa-like SNe is less pronounced. The seven 1991bg types in the sampleconstitute a separate class of SNe Ia, averaging in B 2 mag fainter thanthe normal Ia. New Hubble diagrams in B, V, and I are derived out to~30,000 km s-1 using the fully corrected magnitudes andvelocities, corrected for streaming motions. Nine solutions for theintercept magnitudes in these diagrams show extreme stability at the0.02 mag level using various subsamples of the data for both low andhigh extinctions in the sample, proving the validity of the correctionsfor host galaxy absorption. We shall use the same precepts for fullycorrecting SN magnitudes for the luminosity recalibration of SNe Ia inthe forthcoming final review of our Hubble Space Telescope Cepheid-SNexperiment for the Hubble constant.

Cosmological Results from High-z Supernovae
The High-z Supernova Search Team has discovered and observed eight newsupernovae in the redshift interval z=0.3-1.2. These independentobservations, analyzed by similar but distinct methods, confirm theresults of Riess and Perlmutter and coworkers that supernova luminositydistances imply an accelerating universe. More importantly, they extendthe redshift range of consistently observed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia)to z~1, where the signature of cosmological effects has the oppositesign of some plausible systematic effects. Consequently, thesemeasurements not only provide another quantitative confirmation of theimportance of dark energy, but also constitute a powerful qualitativetest for the cosmological origin of cosmic acceleration. We find a ratefor SN Ia of(1.4+/-0.5)×10-4h3Mpc-3yr-1at a mean redshift of 0.5. We present distances and host extinctions for230 SN Ia. These place the following constraints on cosmologicalquantities: if the equation of state parameter of the dark energy isw=-1, then H0t0=0.96+/-0.04, andΩΛ-1.4ΩM=0.35+/-0.14. Includingthe constraint of a flat universe, we findΩM=0.28+/-0.05, independent of any large-scalestructure measurements. Adopting a prior based on the Two Degree Field(2dF) Redshift Survey constraint on ΩM and assuming aflat universe, we find that the equation of state parameter of the darkenergy lies in the range -1.48-1, we obtain w<-0.73 at 95% confidence.These constraints are similar in precision and in value to recentresults reported using the WMAP satellite, also in combination with the2dF Redshift Survey.Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc.,under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This research is primarily associatedwith proposal GO-8177, but also uses and reports results from proposalsGO-7505, 7588, 8641, and 9118.Based in part on observations taken with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. CTIO: Based in part on observations taken at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.Keck: Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. KeckObservatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among theCalifornia Institute of Technology, the University of California, and theNational Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was madepossible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.UH: Based in part on observations with the University of Hawaii 2.2 mtelescope at Mauna Kea Observatory, Institute for Astronomy, University ofHawaii. UKIRT: Based in part on observations with the United KingdomInfrared Telescope (UKIRT) operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalfof the UK. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. VLT: Based inpart on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory,Paranal, Chile, under programs ESO 64.O-0391 and ESO 64.O-0404. WIYN: Based in part on observations taken at the WIYN Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

The Progenitors of Subluminous Type Ia Supernovae
We find that spectroscopically peculiar subluminous Type Ia supernovae(SNe Ia) come from an old population. Of the 16 subluminous SNe Iaknown, 10 are found in E/S0 galaxies, and the remainder are found inearly-type spiral galaxies. The probability that this is a chanceoccurrence is only 0.2%. The finding that subluminous SNe Ia areassociated with an older stellar population indicates that for asufficiently large look-back time (already accessible in currenthigh-redshift searches) they will not be found. Due to a scarcity in oldpopulations, hydrogen and helium main-sequence stars and He red giantstars that undergo Roche lobe overflow are unlikely to be theprogenitors of subluminous SNe Ia. Earlier findings that overluminousSNe Ia [Δm15(B)<~0.95] come from a young progenitorpopulation are confirmed. The fact that subluminous SNe Ia andoverluminous SNe Ia come from different progenitor populations and alsohave different properties is a prediction of the CO white dwarf mergerprogenitor scenario.

On the Relation between Peak Luminosity and Parent Population of Type IA Supernovae: A New Tool for Probing the Ages of Distant Galaxies
We study the properties of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as functions ofthe radial distance from their host galaxy centers. Using a sample of 62SNe Ia with reliable luminosity, reddening, and decline ratedeterminations, we find no significant radial gradients of SNe Ia peakabsolute magnitudes or decline rates in elliptical+S0 galaxies,suggesting that the diversity of SN properties is not related to themetallicity of their progenitors. We do find that the range inbrightness and light curve width of supernovae in spiral galaxiesextends to brighter, broader values. These results are interpreted assupport for an age, but not metallicity, related origin of the diversityin SNe Ia. If confirmed with a larger and more accurate sample of data,the age-luminosity relation would offer a new and powerful tool to probethe ages and age gradients of stellar populations in galaxies atredshift as high as z~1-2. The absence of significant radial gradientsin the peak (B-V)0 and (V-I)0 colors of SNe Iasupports the reddening correction method of Phillips et al. We find noradial gradient in residuals from the SN Ia luminosity-width relation,suggesting that the relation is not affected by properties of theprogenitor populations and supporting the reliability of cosmologicalresults based upon the use of SNe Ia as distance indicators.

Supernova Type Ia Luminosities, Their Dependence on Second Parameters, and the Value of H0
A sample of 35 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with good to excellentphotometry in B and V, minimum internal absorption, and1200

A Search for Environmental Effects on Type IA Supernovae
We use integrated colors and B and V absolute magnitudes of Type Iasupernova (SN) host galaxies in order to search for environmentaleffects on the SN optical properties. With the new sample of 44 SNe weconfirm the conclusion by Hamuy et al. that bright events occurpreferentially in young stellar environments. We find also that thebrightest SNe occur in the least luminous galaxies, a possibleindication that metal-poor neighborhoods produce the more luminousevents. The interpretation of these results is made difficult, however,because of the fact that galaxies with younger stellar populations arealso lower in luminosity. In an attempt to remove this ambiguity, we usemodels for the line strengths in the absorption spectrum of fiveearly-type galaxies, in order to estimate metallicities and ages of theSN host galaxies. With the addition of abundance estimates from nebularanalysis of the emission spectra of three spiral galaxies, we findpossible further evidence that luminous SNe are produced in metal-poorneighborhoods. Further spectroscopic observations of the SN hostgalaxies will be necessary to test these results and assist indisentangling the age and metallicity effects on Type Ia SNe.

The QDOT all-sky IRAS galaxy redshift survey
We describe the construction of the QDOT survey, which is publiclyavailable from an anonymous FTP account. The catalogue consists ofinfrared properties and redshifts of an all-sky sample of 2387 IRASgalaxies brighter than the IRAS PSC 60-μm completeness limit(S_60>0.6Jy), sparsely sampled at a rate of one-in-six. At |b|>10deg, after removing a small number of Galactic sources, the redshiftcompleteness is better than 98per cent (2086/2127). New redshifts for1401 IRAS sources were obtained to complete the catalogue; themeasurement and reduction of these are described, and the new redshiftstabulated here. We also tabulate all sources at |b|>10 deg with noredshift so far, and sources with conflicting alternative redshiftseither from our own work, or from published velocities. A list of 95ultraluminous galaxies (i.e. with L_60μm>10^12 L_solar) is alsoprovided. Of these, ~20per cent are AGN of some kind; the broad-lineobjects typically show strong Feii emission. Since the publication ofthe first QDOT papers, there have been several hundred velocity changes:some velocities are new, some QDOT velocities have been replaced by moreaccurate values, and some errors have been corrected. We also present anew analysis of the accuracy and linearity of IRAS 60-μm fluxes. Wefind that the flux uncertainties are well described by a combination of0.05-Jy fixed size uncertainty and 8per cent fractional uncertainty.This is not enough to cause the large Malmquist-type errors in the rateof evolution postulated by Fisher et al. We do, however, find marginalevidence for non-linearity in the PSC 60-μm flux scale, in the sensethat faint sources may have fluxes overestimated by about 5per centcompared with bright sources. We update some of the previous scientificanalyses to assess the changes. The main new results are as follows. (1)The luminosity function is very well determined overall but is uncertainby a factor of several at the very highest luminosities(L_60μm>5x10^12L_solar), as this is where the remainingunidentified objects are almost certainly concentrated. (2) Thebest-fitting rate of evolution is somewhat lower than our previousestimate; expressed as pure density evolution with density varying as(1+z)^p, we find p=5.6+/-2.3. Making a rough correction for the possible(but very uncertain) non-linearity of fluxes, we find p=4.5+/-2.3. (3)The dipole amplitude decreases a little, and the implied value of thedensity parameter, assuming that IRAS galaxies trace the mass, isΩ=0.9(+0.45, -0.25). (4) Finally, the estimate of density varianceon large scales changes negligibly, still indicating a significantdiscrepancy from the predictions of simple cold dark matter cosmogonies.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

On the local radio luminosity function of galaxies. I. The Virgo cluster
We cross-correlate the galaxies brighter than m_B=18 in the Virgocluster with the radio sources in the NVSS survey (1.4 GHz), resultingin 180 radio-optical identifications. We determine the radio luminosityfunction of the Virgo galaxies, separately for the early- andlate-types. Late-type galaxies develop radio sources with a probabilityproportional to their optical luminosity. In fact their radio/optical(R_B) distribution is gaussian, centered at log R_B ~ -0.5, i.e. theradio luminosity is ~ 0.3 of the optical one. The probability oflate-type galaxies to develop radio sources is almost independent oftheir detailed Hubble type, except for Sa (and S0+S0a) which are afactor of ~ 5 less frequent than later types at any R_B. Giantelliptical galaxies feed ``monster" radio sources with a probabilitystrongly increasing with mass. However the frequency of fainter radiosources is progressively less sensitive on the system mass. The faintestgiant E galaxies (M_B=-17) have a probability of feeding low power radiosources similar to that of dwarf E galaxies as faint as M_B=-13. Table~1is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

HIPPARCOS calibration of the peak brightness of four SNe IA and the value of H_0
HIPPARCOS geometrical parallaxes allowed us to calibrate the CepheidPeriod-Luminosity relation and to compute the true distance moduli of 17galaxies. Among these 17 galaxies, we selected those which generatedtype Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia). We found NGC 5253, parent galaxy of 1895Band 1972E, IC 4182 and NGC 4536 parents of 1937C and 1981B,respectively. We used the available B-band photometry to determine thepeak brightness of these four SNe Ia. We obtained = -19.65 +/- 0.09. Then, we built a sample of 57SNe Ia in order to plot the Hubble diagram and determine its zero-point.Our result (ZPB = -3.16 +/- 0.10) is in agreement with otherdeterminations and allows us to derive the following Hubble constant:H0 = 50 +/- 3 (internal) km.s(-1}.Mpc({-1)) .

Study of the Virgo Cluster Using the B-Band Tully-Fisher Relation
The distances to spiral galaxies of the Virgo cluster are estimatedusing the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relation, and the three-dimensionalstructure of the cluster is studied. The analysis is made for a completespiral sample taken from the Virgo Cluster catalog of Binggeli, Sandage,& Tammann. The sample contains virtually all spiral galaxies down toM_{BT}=-15 mag at 40 Mpc. A careful examination is made ofthe selection effect and errors of the data. We estimate distance to 181galaxies, among which distances to 89 galaxies are reasonably accurate.We compare these distances to those obtained by other authors on agalaxy-by-galaxy basis. We find reasonable consistency of theTully-Fisher distance among various authors. In particular, it is foundthat the discrepancy in the distance among the different analyses withdifferent data is about 15%, when good H I and photometric data areavailable. We clarify that the different results on the Virgo distanceamong authors arise from the choice of the sample and interpretation ofthe data. We confirm that the Tully-Fisher relation for the Virgocluster shows an unusually large scatter sigma = 0.67 mag, compared tothat for other clusters. We conclude that this scatter is not due to theintrinsic dispersion of the Tully-Fisher relation, but due to a largedepth effect of the Virgo cluster, which we estimate to be extended from12 Mpc to 30 Mpc. The distribution of H I--deficient galaxies isconcentrated at around 14--20 Mpc, indicating the presence of a core atthis distance, and this agrees with the distance estimated for M87 andother elliptical galaxies with other methods. We show also that thespatial number density of spiral galaxies takes a peak at this distance,while a simple average of all spiral galaxy distances gives 20 Mpc. Thefact that the velocity dispersion of galaxies takes a maximum at 14--18Mpc lends an additional support for the distance to the core. Thesefeatures cannot be understood if the large scatter of the TF relation ismerely due to the intrinsic dispersion. The structure of the VirgoCluster we infer from the Tully-Fisher analysis looks like a filamentwhich is familiar to us in a late phase of structure formation in thepancake collapse in hierarchical clustering simulations. This Virgofilament lies almost along the line of sight, and this is the originthat has led a number of authors to much confusion in the Virgo distancedeterminations. We show that the M87 subcluster is located around 15--18Mpc, and it consists mainly of early-type type spiral galaxies inaddition to elliptical and S0 galaxies. There are very few late-typespiral galaxies in this subcluster. The spiral rich M49 subclusterconsists of a mixture of all types of spiral galaxies and is located atabout 22 Mpc. The two other known clouds, W and M, are located at about30--40 Mpc and undergo infall toward the core. The M cloud contains fewearly type spirals. We cannot discriminate, however, whether thesesubclusters or clouds are isolated aggregates or merely parts offilamentary structure. Finally, we infer the Hubble constant to be 82+/- 10 km s-1 Mpc-1.

Constraining the Ages of Supernova Progenitors. I. Supernovae and Spiral Arms
We present the first results of a three-part study of supernova (SN)ages using positional age indicators in spiral galaxies. We havemeasured the positions of 90 Spectroscopically identified Type Ia andType II SNs (SNs Ia and SNs II) relative to spiral arms in their hostgalaxies, making a special effort to reduce inhomogeneity in the processof arm tracing for different galaxies. We find that SNs II are moretightly concentrated to the arms than SNs Ia, but both kinds of SNsoccur closer to arms than a random disk population. However, whencompared with the distribution of V and I light relative to the arms,the SNs Ia are no more tightly concentrated than the general stellarpopulation. This indicates that SNs Ia occur in a population old enoughto have diffused away from their formation regions.

BVRI Light Curves for 29 Type IA Supernovae
BV(RI)_KC_ light curves are presented for 27 type Ia supernovaediscovered during the course of the Calan/Tololo Survey and for twoother SNe Ia observed during the same period. Estimates of the maximumlight magnitudes in the B, V, and I bands and the initial decline rateparameter {DELTA}m_15_(B) are also given.

An HI Survey of the Bootes Void. II. The Analysis
We discuss the results of a VLA [Napier et al., Proc. IEEE71,1295(1983)] H I survey of the Bootes void and compare thedistribution and H I properties of the void galaxies to those ofgalaxies found in a survey of regions of mean cosmic density. The Bootessurvey covers 1100 Mpc^3^ or ~ 1% of the volume of the void and consistsof 24 cubes of typically 2 Mpc x 2 Mpc x 1280 km s^-1^, centered onoptically known galaxies. Sixteen targets were detected in H I; 18previously uncataloged objects were discovered directly in H I. Thecontrol samples consists of 12 cubes centered on IRAS-selected galaxieswith FIR luminosities similar to those of the Bootes targets and locatedin regions of one to two times the cosmic mean density. In addition tothe 12 targets 29 companions were detected in H I. We find that thenumber of galaxies within 1 Mpc of the targets is the same to within afactor of 2 for void and control samples, and thus that the small scaleclustering of galaxies is the same in regions that differ by a factor of~6 in density on larger scales. A dynamical analysis of the galaxies inthe void suggests that on scales of a few Mpc the galaxies aregravitationally bound, forming interacting galaxy pairs, loose pairs,and loose groups. One group is compact enough to qualify as a Hicksoncompact group (hereafter referred to as HCG [Hickson, APJ, 255 , 382(1982)]. The galaxies found in the void are mostly late-type, gas-richsystems. A careful scrutiny of their H I and optical properties showsthem to be very similar to field galaxies of the same morphologicaltype. This, combined with our finding that the small scale clustering ofthe galaxies in the voids is the same as in the field, suggests that itis the near environment that mostly affects the evolution of galaxies.

Surface photometry of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster region
Photographic surface photometry is carried out for 246 spiral galaxiesin the Virgo cluster region north of declination + 5 deg. The samplecontains all spiral galaxies of 'certain' and 'possible' Virgo membersin the Virgo Cluster Catalogue of Binggeli, Sandage, & Tammann. Thesample also includes those galaxies which were used in the Tully-Fisheranalyses of the Virgo cluster given in the literature. A catalog ispresented for positions, B-band total magnitudes and inclinations forthese galaxies, and they are compared with the data given in previousstudies.

The Hubble Diagram for Supernovae of Type Ia. II. The Effect on the Hubble Constant of a Correlation between Absolute Magnitude and Light Decay Rate
New Hubble diagrams in B and V are derived for supernovae of type Ibased on light curves from the archive literature plus 13 new lightcurves with superior modern photometry observed in the CerroTololo/University of Chile program (Hamuy et al, 1995). The sample isrestricted to SNe Ia whose light curves are defined by photometrybeginning 5 days or less after maximum light and with (B - V)max <0.5 mag. Supernovae of known type Ib or Ic are also excluded. Theresulting Hubble diagrams, extending to redshifts of 30,00 km s^- 1^,have dispersions in absolute magnitude of 0.34 mag in B and 0.33 mag inV, confirming that spectroscopically "normal" (Branch et al. 1993) SNeIa are among the best standard candles known. A solution for the slopeof the Hubble diagram gives n(B) = 0.977 +/- 0.025 and n(V) = 1.020 +/-0.024 for the exponent in ν~D^n^, proving linearity of the expansionfield to a high level. The residuals in magnitude from the ridge line ofthe Hubble diagram are compared with the light decay rate during thefirst 15 days to test the correlation between the two suggested byPskovskii and by Phillips. The strongest possible correlation using theextant data has a slope 3 times smaller than that derived by Phillips,and 2 times smaller than suggested by Hamuy et al., leading to adecrease of less than 10% in the distance scale based on the present(1995) SNe Ia calibration by means of three supernovae whose distancesare known from Cepheids in their parent galaxies. Applying the maximumpossible correction to M(max) for a Psko'vskii- Phillips effect wouldgive Hubble constants of H_0_(B)<= 54 +/- 4 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^, andH_0_(V) <= 59 +/- 4 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^, where the errors are internal.It is argued that the absence of measurable bias effects in the Hubblediagrams shows that the three local (nearest) SNe Ia presentlycalibrated via Cepheid distances cannot all be overluminous relative tothe average of more distant SNe. If they are underluminous, which mustbe the case by the statistics of the Malmquist effect if the largedispersion in M(max) for SNe Ia claimed by Hamuy et al. applies to thecalibrators, then the value of H_0_ = 52 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^ given by Sahaet al. is an upper limit to the Hubble constant.

The large-scale distribution of late-type galaxies between Virgo and the Great Wall
Neutral hydrogen data are presented for 88 of the Virgo Cluster Cataloggalaxies thought on morphological grounds to lie in the background ofthe cluster. We confirm that the morphological assignment of clustermembership works quite well; very few of the 'background' galaxies arein fact at cluster redshifts. The resulting sample of redshifts, alongwith optical redshifts from the literature, allow us to explore thelarge-scale distribution of galaxies in the space between the LocalSupercluster and the Great Wall. Galaxies in a larger window around theVirgo Cluster, but at redshifts between Virgo and the Great Wall, have afairly low average number density, but the distribution is far fromuniform: Some portions resemble voids, but in other portions galaxiescan be assigned to clouds or filaments of appreciable size (sometimescontaining bound groups). We investigate the luminosity function inhigh- and low-density regions of our galaxy sample, which excludes theVirgo Cluster proper. We find no significant difference. However, ourselection procedures are insensitive to galaxies of very low surfacebrightness, which have been reported to be more abundant in low-densityregions. The average probability of a line of sight intersecting theoptical disk of our sample galaxies is derived separately for the VirgoSupercluster region (redshifts below 3500 km/s) and for the regionbehind (out to 10,000 km/s). The number density ratio of Ly-alpha forestlines to galaxies is larger by a factor of order 10 in the far(low-density) region than in the near. A survey of recent literature ongalaxy redshifts uncovers a new candidate, MCG 0-32-16, for the lowestredshift absorption line.

A catalog of recent supernovae
A listing is given of all supernovae discovered between 1 Jan 1989 and 1Apr 1993. The data show no evidence for a significant dependence of thediscovery probability of supernovae on parent galaxy inclination to theline of sight. If no inclination corrections need to be applied then thesupernova rates in spirals are only about half as large as previouslybelieved. The mean linear separation of supernovae of Type II (SNe II)from the center of their parent galaxy increases with increasingdistance (Shaw effect). The Shaw effect appears less evident, or absent,for (more luminous) supernovae of Type Ia. The data are consistent with,but do not prove, the hypothesis that (presumably reddended) SNe II aremore likely to be discovered in the red than in the blue. Due tointensive surveillance, most bright SNe Ia tend to be found beforemaximum, whereas the majority of faint SNe Ia are discovered aftermaximum light.

The kinematics of the Virgo cluster revisited
The paper updates the velocity data of Virgo cluster galaxies andreconsiders the kinematic structure of the Virgo cluster. New velocitiesare given for 144 galaxies listed in the Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC).Improved velocities are given for another 131 VCC galaxies. The Virgocluster is disentangled from its surrounding clouds of galaxies, and thelikely members of each of these clouds are listed. The velocitydistribution of dwarf elliptical cluster members is found to be highlyasymmetric. This phenomenon is interpreted as evidence for the imminentmerging of two subclusters in the core region, which points to thedynamical youth of the Virgo cluster. The mean heliocentric velocity ofthe Virgo cluster is estimated at 1050 +/- 35 km/s.

An infrared-optical study of IRAS point sources in the Virgo region
Optical identifications for 199 of the 206 IRAS point sources in a 113sq deg area centered on the Virgo cluster are made using four deepIIIa-J plates obtained with the 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope. Only 4percent of the E and S0 galaxies brigher than B = 16 are detected, ascompared with 44 percent of the Sc galaxies. Infrared properties of theVirgo cluster are found to be similar to those of field galaxies atsimilar redshifts. Such IRAS galaxies are typical spirals with B of lessthan about 14, infrared to optical luminosity ratios of about 1, andinfrared luminosities of about 10 to the 9th solar luminosities,properties which are independent of neutral hydrogen content for theVirgo cluster galaxies. Data suggest that the optically faint galaxieshave L(IR) of greater than 10 to the 12th solar luminosities.

The pattern of H I deficiency in the Virgo cluster
A sample of 160 galaxies in the Virgo region, including 16 new 21-cmprofiles in the Virgo 5-degree core obtained with the 305-m Arecibotelescope, are examined to investigate the severe depletion ofinterstellar H I within spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster core. Asimilar and non-Gaussian distribution is found for the distribution of HI deficiencies of both faint galaxies and brighter spirals, andpopulations of galaxies with normal abundances of interstellar H I, andthose of gas poor objects exhibiting a late-type morphology, are bothnoted. One-sixth of the sample within the Virgo 5-degree core have lostmore than 90 percent by mass of their original neutral hydrogen, andthree quarters of the galaxies found within 2.5 degrees of M87 are H Ipoor by more than a factor of three. The most deficient galaxies arealso found to be the ones with the smallest ratios of H I to opticaldisk size, and H I poor galaxies are redder than normal, indicating thatstar formation has been quenched.

An Arecibo survey for extragalactic hydroxyl absorption. I - Presentation of results
Hydroxyl absorption has been detected in a total of 24 galaxies;megamaser emission in six additional galaxies brings the total number ofdetections of extragalactic OH to 30. About 50 percent of theextragalactic absorption lines are asymmetrically skewed toward the red,indicating that the molecular disks could have an unusual velocity orexcitation structure. The hyperfine ratio for the 1667 and 1665 MHztransitions in most galaxies lies within the limits specified by LTEconditions.

Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.

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ICIC 3690
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 1940

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