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The Central Engines of 19 LINERs as Viewed by Chandra
Using archival Chandra observations of 19 LINERs, we explore the X-rayproperties of their inner kiloparsec to determine the origin of theirnuclear X-ray emission, to investigate the presence of an AGN, and toidentify the power source of the optical emission lines. The relativenumbers of LINER types in our sample are similar to those in opticalspectroscopic surveys. We find that diffuse, thermal emission is verycommon and is concentrated within the central few hundred parsecs. Theaverage spectra of the hot gas in spiral and elliptical galaxies arevery similar to those of normal galaxies. They can be fitted with athermal plasma (kT~0.5 keV) plus a power-law (photon index of 1.3-1.5)model. There are on average three detected point sources in their innerkiloparsec with 1037 ergss-1

The Cool ISM in S0 Galaxies. II. A Survey of Atomic Gas
The place of lenticular galaxies within the range of types of galaxiesremains unclear. We previously reported the mass of molecular hydrogenfor a volume-limited sample of lenticular galaxies, where we saw thatthe amount of gas was less than that predicted by the return of stellarmass to the interstellar medium. Here we report observations of atomichydrogen (H I) for the same sample. Detections in several galaxies makemore compelling the case presented in our earlier paper that the mass ofcool gas in S0 galaxies cuts off at ~10% of what is expected fromcurrent models of gas return from stellar evolution. The molecular andatomic phases of the gas in our sample galaxies appear to be separateand distinct, both spatially and in velocity space. We propose that themolecular gas arises mostly from the stellar mass returned to thegalaxy, while the atomic hydrogen is mainly accumulated from externalsources (infall, captured dwarfs, etc.). While this proposal fits mostof the observations, it makes the presence of the upper mass cutoff evenmore mysterious.

Stellar Populations in Nearby Lenticular Galaxies
We have obtained two-dimensional spectral data for a sample of 58 nearbyS0 galaxies with the Multi-Pupil Fiber/Field Spectrograph of the 6 mtelescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the RussianAcademy of Sciences. The Lick indices Hβ, Mg b, and arecalculated separately for the nuclei and for the bulges taken as therings between R=4'' and 7", and the luminosity-weighted ages,metallicities, and Mg/Fe ratios of the stellar populations are estimatedby comparing the data to single stellar population (SSP) models. Fourtypes of galaxy environments are considered: clusters, centers ofgroups, other places in groups, and the field. The nuclei are found tobe on average slightly younger than the bulges in any type ofenvironment, and the bulges of S0 galaxies in sparse environments areyounger than those in dense environments. The effect can be partlyattributed to the well-known age correlation with the stellar velocitydispersion in early-type galaxies (in our sample the galaxies in sparseenvironments are on average less massive than those in denseenvironments), but for the most massive S0 galaxies, withσ*=170-220 km s-1, the age dependence on theenvironment is still significant at the confidence level of 1.5 σ.Based on observations collected with the 6 m telescope (BTA) at theSpecial Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy ofSciences (RAS).

The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. A new view of the origin of the radio-quiet/radio-loud dichotomy?
This is the third in a series of three papers exploring the connectionbetween the multiwavelength properties of AGN in nearby early-typegalaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. Starting from aninitial sample of 332 galaxies, we selected 116 AGN candidates requiringthe detection of a radio source with a flux limit of ~1 mJy, as measuredfrom 5 GHz VLA observations. In Paper I we classified the objects withavailable archival HST images into "core" and "power-law" galaxies,discriminating on the basis of the nuclear slope of their brightnessprofiles. We used HST and Chandra data to isolate the nuclear emissionof these galaxies in the optical and X-ray bands, thus enabling us (oncecombined with the radio data) to study the multiwavelength behaviour oftheir nuclei. The properties of the nuclei hosted by the 29 coregalaxies were presented in Paper II Core galaxies invariably host aradio-loud nucleus, with a median radio-loudness of Log R = 3.6 and anX-ray based radio-loudness parameter of Log RX = -1.3. Herewe discuss the properties of the nuclei of the 22 "power-law" galaxies.They show a substantial excess of optical and X-ray emission withrespect to core galaxies at the same level of radio luminosity.Conversely, their radio-loudness parameters, Log R ˜ 1.6 and LogRX ˜ -3.3, are similar to those measured in Seyfertgalaxies. Thus the radio-loudness of AGN hosted by early-type galaxiesappears to be univocally related to the host's brightness profile:radio-loud AGN are only hosted by core galaxies, while radio-quiet AGNare found only in power-law galaxies. The brightness profile isdetermined by the galaxy's evolution, through its merger history; ourresults suggest that the same process sets the AGN flavour. In thisscenario, the black holes hosted by the merging galaxies rapidly sinktoward the centre of the newly formed object, setting its nuclearconfiguration, described by e.g. the total mass, spin, mass ratio, orseparation of the SMBHs. These parameters are most likely at the originof the different levels of the AGN radio-loudness. This connection mightopen a new path toward understanding the origin of theradio-loud/radio-quiet AGN dichotomy and provide us with a further toolfor exploring the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes.

The DPOSS II compact group survey: first spectroscopically confirmed candidates
This paper presents the results of a pilot redshift survey of 18candidate compact groups from the distant DPOSS survey that extends toredshift ~0.2 the available surveys of compact groups of galaxies,mainly Hickson Compact Groups and Southern Compact Groups. The goal ofour survey was to confirm group membership via redshift information andto measure the characteristic parameters of a representative, albeitsmall, sample of DPOSS survey groups. Of the 18 candidates observed,seven are found to be indeed isolated compact groups, i.e. groups with 3or more concordant members and with no neighbouring known cluster, while7 are chance projection configurations on the sky. Three remainingcandidates, despite having 3 or more concordant member galaxies, arelocated in the neighbourhood of known clusters, while another candidateturned out to be a dense sub-condensation within Abell 0952. The medianredshift of our 7 confirmed groups is z ˜ 0.12, to be compared witha median redshift of 0.03 for the local sample of compact groups byHickson. The typical group size is ~50 kpc, and the median radialvelocity dispersion is 167 km s-1, while typical crossingtimes range from 0.005 H0-1 to 0.03H0-1 with a median value of 0.018H0-1, all similar to the values usually found inthe literature for such structures in the local universe. The averagemass-to-light ratio for our groups, M/LB, is 92h, higher thanthe value found for nearby Hickson compact groups but lower than thatfound for loose groups. Our results suggest that, once full redshiftinformation for its members becomes available, the DPOSS sample willprovide a reference sample to study the properties of compact groupsbeyond the local universe.

The Hubble Space Telescope View of LINER Nuclei: Evidence for a Dual Population?
We study a complete, distance-limited sample of 25 LINERs, 21 of whichhave been imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. In nine objects wedetect an unresolved nucleus. To study their physical properties, wecompare the radio and optical properties of the nuclei of LINERs withthose of other samples of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs), namely,Seyfert galaxies and low-luminosity radio galaxies (LLRGs). Our resultsshow that the LINER population is not homogeneous, as there are twosubclasses: (1) the first class is similar to the LLRG class, as itextends the population of radio-loud nuclei to lower luminosities; (2)the second is similar to Seyfert galaxies and extends the properties ofradio-quiet nuclei toward the lowest luminosities. The objects areoptimally discriminated in the plane formed by the black hole massversus nuclear radio loudness: all radio-loud LINERs haveMBH>~108Msolar, while Seyfertgalaxies and radio-quiet LINERs haveMBH<~108Msolar. The different natureof the various classes of local AGNs are best understood when thefraction of the Eddington luminosity they irradiate,Lo/LEdd, is plotted against the nuclearradio-loudness parameter: Seyfert galaxies are associated withrelatively high radiative efficienciesLo/LEdd>~10-4 (and high accretionrates onto low-mass black holes); LLRGs are associated with lowradiative efficiencies (and low accretion rates onto high-mass blackholes); all LINERs have low radiative efficiency (and accretion rates)and can be radio-loud or radio-quiet, depending on their black holemass.Based on observations obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Sample selection and hosts brightness profiles
This is the first of a series of three papers exploring the connectionbetween the multiwavelength properties of AGNs in nearby early-typegalaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. We selected twosamples, both with high resolution 5 GHz VLA observations available andproviding measurements down to 1 mJy level, reaching radio-luminositiesas low as 1019 W Hz-1. We focus on the 116radio-detected galaxies as to boost the fraction of AGN with respect toa purely optically selected sample. Here we present the analysis of theoptical brightness profiles based on archival HST images, available for65 objects. We separate early-type galaxies on the basis of the slope oftheir nuclear brightness profiles, into core and power-law galaxiesfollowing the Nuker's scheme, rather than on the traditionalmorphological classification (i.e. into E and S0 galaxies). Our sampleof AGN candidates is indistinguishable, when their brightness profilesare concerned, from galaxies of similar optical luminosity but hostingweaker (or no) radio-sources. We confirm previous findings thatrelatively bright radio-sources (Lr > 1021.5 WHz-1) are uniquely associated to core galaxies. However,below this threshold in radio-luminosity core and power-law galaxiescoexist and they do not show any apparent difference in theirradio-properties. Not surprisingly, since our sample is deliberatelybiased to favour the inclusion of active galaxies, we found a higherfraction of optically nucleated galaxies. Addressing the multiwavelengthproperties of these nuclei will be the aim of the two forthcomingpapers.

From gas to galaxies
The unsurpassed sensitivity and resolution of the Square Kilometer Array(SKA) will make it possible for the first time to probe the continuumemission of normal star forming galaxies out to the edges of theuniverse. This opens the possibility for routinely using the radiocontinuum emission from galaxies for cosmological research as it offersan independent probe of the evolution of the star formation density inthe universe. In addition it offers the possibility to detect the firststar forming objects and massive black holes. In deep surveys SKA willbe able to detect HI in emission out to redshifts of z ≈ 2.5 andhence be able to trace the conversion of gas into stars over an erawhere considerable evolution is taking place. Such surveys will be ableto uniquely determine the respective importance of merging and accretinggas flows for galaxy formation over this redshift range (i.e. out towhen the universe was only one third its present age). It is obviousthat only SKA will able to see literally where and how gas is turnedinto stars. These and other aspects of SKA imaging of galaxies will bediscussed.

The Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Population from the Chandra Archive of Galaxies
One hundred fifty-four discrete non-nuclear ultraluminous X-ray (ULX)sources, with spectroscopically determined intrinsic X-ray luminositiesgreater than 1039 ergs s-1, are identified in 82galaxies observed with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer.Source positions, X-ray luminosities, and spectral and timingcharacteristics are tabulated. Statistical comparisons between theseX-ray properties and those of the weaker discrete sources in the samefields (mainly neutron star and stellar-mass black hole binaries) aremade. Sources above ~1038 ergs s-1 display similarspatial, spectral, color, and variability distributions. In particular,there is no compelling evidence in the sample for a new and distinctclass of X-ray object such as the intermediate-mass black holes.Eighty-three percent of ULX candidates have spectra that can bedescribed as absorbed power laws with index <Γ>=1.74 andcolumn density =2.24×1021cm-2, or ~5 times the average Galactic column. About 20% ofthe ULXs have much steeper indices indicative of a soft, and likelythermal, spectrum. The locations of ULXs in their host galaxies arestrongly peaked toward their galaxy centers. The deprojected radialdistribution of the ULX candidates is somewhat steeper than anexponential disk, indistinguishable from that of the weaker sources.About 5%-15% of ULX candidates are variable during the Chandraobservations (which average 39.5 ks). Comparison of the cumulative X-rayluminosity functions of the ULXs to Chandra Deep Field results suggests~25% of the sources may be background objects, including 14% of the ULXcandidates in the sample of spiral galaxies and 44% of those inelliptical galaxies, implying the elliptical galaxy ULX population isseverely compromised by background active galactic nuclei. Correlationswith host galaxy properties confirm the number and total X-rayluminosity of the ULXs are associated with recent star formation andwith galaxy merging and interactions. The preponderance of ULXs instar-forming galaxies as well as their similarities to less-luminoussources suggest they originate in a young but short-lived populationsuch as the high-mass X-ray binaries with a smaller contribution (basedon spectral slope) from recent supernovae. The number of ULXs inelliptical galaxies scales with host galaxy mass and can be explainedmost simply as the high-luminosity end of the low-mass X-ray binarypopulation.

A Green Bank Telescope Search for Water Masers in Nearby Active Galactic Nuclei
Using the Green Bank Telescope, we have conducted a survey for 1.3 cmwater maser emission toward the nuclei of nearby active galaxies, themost sensitive large survey for H2O masers to date. Among 145galaxies observed, maser emission was newly detected in 11 sources andconfirmed in one other. Our survey targeted nearby (v<12,000 kms-1), mainly type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) north ofδ=-20deg and includes a few additional sources as well.We find that more than one-third of Seyfert 2 galaxies have strong maseremission, although the detection rate declines beyond v~5000 kms-1 because of sensitivity limits. Two of the masersdiscovered during this survey are found in unexpected hosts: NGC 4151(Seyfert 1.5) and NGC 2782 (starburst). We discuss the possiblerelations between the large X-ray column to NGC 4151 and a possiblehidden AGN in NGC 2782 to the detected masers. Four of the masersdiscovered here, NGC 591, NGC 4388, NGC 5728, and NGC 6323, havehigh-velocity lines symmetrically spaced about the systemic velocity, alikely signature of molecular gas in a nuclear accretion disk. The masersource in NGC 6323, in particular, reveals the classic spectrum of a``disk maser'' represented by three distinct groups of Dopplercomponents. Future single-dish and VLBI observations of these fourgalaxies could provide a measurement of the distance to each galaxy andof the Hubble constant, independent of standard candle calibrations.

Stellar Kinematics of Boxy Bulges: Large-Scale Bars and Inner Disks
Long-slit stellar kinematic observations were obtained along the majoraxis of 30 edge-on spiral galaxies, 24 with a boxy or peanut-shaped(B/PS) bulge and six with other bulge types for comparison. Such B/PSbulges are identified in at least 45% of highly inclined systems, and agrowing body of theoretical and observational work suggests that theyare the edge-on projection of thickened bars. Profiles of the meanstellar velocity V, the velocity dispersion σ, as well as theasymmetric (h3) and symmetric (h4) deviations froma pure Gaussian are presented for all objects. Comparing these profileswith stellar kinematic bar diagnostics developed from N-bodysimulations, we find bar signatures in 24 of our sample galaxies (80%).Galaxies with a B/PS bulge typically show a double-humped rotation curvewith an intermediate dip or plateau. They also frequently show a ratherflat central velocity dispersion profile accompanied by a secondary peakor plateau, and numerous galaxies have a local central σ minimum(>~40%). The h3 profiles display up to three slopereversals. Most importantly, h3 is normally correlated with Vover the presumed bar length, contrary to expectations from axisymmetricdisks. These characteristic bar signatures strengthen the case for aclose relationship between B/PS bulges and bars and leave little roomfor other explanations of the bulges' shape. We also find thath3 is anticorrelated with V in the very center of mostgalaxies (>~60%), indicating that these objects additionally harborcold and dense decoupled (quasi-) axisymmetric central stellar disks,which may be related to the central light peaks. These central diskscoincide with previously identified star-forming ionized-gas disks(nuclear spirals) in gas-rich systems, and we argue that they formed outof gas accumulated by the bar at its center through inflow. As suggestedby N-body models, the asymmetry of the velocity profile (h3)appears to be a reliable tracer of asymmetries in disks, allowing us todiscriminate between axisymmetric and barred disks seen in projection.B/PS bulges (and thus a large fraction of all bulges) appear to be madeup mostly of disk material, which has acquired a large vertical extentthrough bar-driven vertical instabilities. Their formation is thusprobably dominated by secular evolution processes rather than merging.

Inner Polar Rings in Regular Lenticular Galaxies
We have investigated a sample of S0 galaxies, mostly with circumnucleardust lanes orthogonal to their major axes, chosen from Hubble SpaceTelescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images. Two-dimensionalspectroscopy undertaken with the Multipupil Fiber Spectrograph of the 6m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the RussianAcademy of Sciences has revealed that indeed the ionized gas in thecenters of these eight lenticular galaxies rotate in the planes nearlyorthogonal to the rotation (and symmetry) planes of their centralstellar components. Although almost all the galaxies are located indense environments, an external origin of this rotation plane tilt isnot obvious because all the galaxies but one are known to have extendedH I disks, and in two cases where the angular resolution of H Iobservations allows, we find orthogonality of the external H I and innerionized gas disks. We discuss a possible relation of the inner gas polarrings to a triaxiality of galactic potential. The stellar populations inthe nuclei of all but two galaxies are very old, which excludes recentstar formation bursts and proves that the polar orbits of thecircumnuclear gas are rather stable. In the nuclei of NGC 2655 and NGC4111, we have found signatures of star formation bursts some 1.5-2 Gyrago. This finding can be related to very central gas in NGC 2655, whichis coplanar to the circumnuclear stellar disk and to radial gas inflowin NGC 4111; just these gas reservoirs and not the polar rings may beresponsible for fueling nuclear star formation.Partly based on observations collected with the 6 m telescope at theSpecial Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Minor-axis velocity gradients in disk galaxies
We present the ionized-gas kinematics and photometry of a sample of 4spiral galaxies which are characterized by a zero-velocity plateau alongthe major axis and a velocity gradient along the minor axis,respectively. By combining these new kinematical data with thoseavailable in the literature for the ionized-gas component of the S0s andspirals listed in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies werealized that about 50% of unbarred galaxies show a remarkable gasvelocity gradient along the optical minor axis. This fraction rises toabout 60% if we include unbarred galaxies with an irregular velocityprofile along the minor axis. This phenomenon is observed all along theHubble sequence of disk galaxies, and it is particularly frequent inearly-type spirals. Since minor-axis velocity gradients are unexpectedif the gas is moving onto circular orbits in a disk coplanar to thestellar one, we conclude that non-circular and off-plane gas motions arenot rare in the inner regions of disk galaxies.Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatoryin La Silla (Chile) (ESO 69.B-0706 and 70.B-0338), with the MultipleMirror Telescope which is a joint facility of the SmithsonianInstitution and the University of Arizona, and with the ItalianTelescopio Nazionale Galileo (AOT-5, 3-18) at the Observatorio del Roquede los Muchachos in La Palma (Spain).Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/507

The infrared-X-ray continuum correlation in active galactic nuclei
The correlation between the soft X-ray and near-infrared emission fromactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) is analysed using composite models. Wefind new evidence for differences in the ranges of parameters thatcharacterize the narrow-line region (NLR) of Seyfert galaxies andlow-ionization nuclear emission regions (LINERs). Soft X-rays show lessvariability, so they are better fitted for this kind of analysis. In ourmodels, soft X-rays are emitted in the post-shock region of clouds withrelatively high shock velocities Vs > 250 kms-1. Consequently, dust emission peaks in the mid-infrared.On the other hand, in the photoionized zone, dust is at lowertemperature and usually does not contribute to the mid-infraredemission. The results are sensible enough to allow the same modellingmethod to be applied to different types of AGN. We found that shockvelocities are between 300 and 1000 km s-1, with the NLR oflow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) and type 2 Seyfertgalaxies (Sy2s) showing lower velocities than type 1 Seyfert galaxies(Sy1s). The intensity of the ionizing radiation flux at the Lyman limitfrom the central source is low for LINERs and low-luminosity AGNs (logFh= 9 to 10), increasing towards Sy2s (log Fh~ 11)and Sy1s (11 <=Fh<= 12). Results obtained by modellingthe Einstein and the ROSAT samples of galaxies are in full agreement.Dust-to-gas ratios by number are >=10-14 in LINERs andLLAGNs, between 10-15 and 3 × 10-13 in Sy1sand up to 5 × 10-13 in Sy2s. In order to fit theinfrared and X-ray continua, an η factor is defined, which accountsfor the emitting area of the cloud. If the infrared emission is due tobremsstrahlung and comes from the same cloud that produces the softX-rays, the η values obtained from both emissions must be the same.Therefore, if (η)IR < (η)softX, theremust be a strong contribution of soft X-rays from the active centre.From the η values, we expect to identify the objects that couldpresent strong variability.

Kinematics of 10 Early-Type Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope and Ground-based Spectroscopy
We present stellar kinematics for a sample of 10 early-type galaxiesobserved using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboardthe Hubble Space Telescope and the Modular Spectrograph on the MDMObservatory 2.4 m telescope. These observations are a part of an ongoingprogram to understand the coevolution of supermassive black holes andtheir host galaxies. Our spectral ranges include either the calciumtriplet absorption lines at 8498, 8542, and 8662 Å or the Mg babsorption at 5175 Å. The lines are used to derive line-of-sightvelocity distributions (LOSVDs) of the stars using a maximum penalizedlikelihood method. We use Gauss-Hermite polynomials to parameterize theLOSVDs and find predominantly negative h4 values (boxy distributions) inthe central regions of our galaxies. One galaxy, NGC 4697, hassignificantly positive central h4 (high tail weight). The majority ofgalaxies have a central velocity dispersion excess in the STISkinematics over ground-based velocity dispersions. The galaxies with thestrongest rotational support, as quantified withvmax/σSTIS, have the smallest dispersionexcess at STIS resolution. The best-fitting, general, axisymmetricdynamical models (described in a companion paper) require black holes inall cases, with masses ranging from 106.5 to 109.3Msolar. We replot these updated masses on theMBH-σ relation and show that the fit to only these 10galaxies has a slope consistent with the fits to larger samples. Thegreatest outlier is NGC 2778, a dwarf elliptical with relatively poorlyconstrained black hole mass. The two best candidates for pseudobulges,NGC 3384 and NGC 7457, do not deviate significantly from the establishedrelation between MBH and σ. Neither do the threegalaxies that show the most evidence of a recent merger, NGC 3608, NGC4473, and NGC 4697.Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble SpaceTelescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associatedwith proposal GO-7388.

The Cool Interstellar Medium in S0 Galaxies. I. A Survey of Molecular Gas
Lenticular galaxies remain remarkably mysterious as a class.Observations to date have not led to any broad consensus about theirorigins, properties, and evolution, although they are often thought tohave formed in one big burst of star formation early in the history ofthe universe and to have evolved relatively passively since then. Inthat picture, current theory predicts that stellar evolution returnssubstantial quantities of gas to the interstellar medium; most isejected from the galaxy, but significant amounts of cool gas might beretained. Past searches for that material, though, have provided unclearresults. We present results from a survey of molecular gas in avolume-limited sample of field S0 galaxies selected from the NearbyGalaxies Catalog. CO emission is detected from 78% of the samplegalaxies. We find that the molecular gas is almost always located insidethe central few kiloparsecs of a lenticular galaxy, meaning that ingeneral it is more centrally concentrated than in spirals. We combineour data with H I observations from the literature to determine thetotal masses of cool and cold gas. Curiously, we find that, across awide range of luminosity, the most gas-rich galaxies have ~10% of thetotal amount of gas ever returned by their stars. That result isdifficult to understand within the context of either monolithic orhierarchical models of evolution of the interstellar medium.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Core Radio and Optical Emission in the Nuclei of nearby FR I Radio Galaxies
In this paper we analyze the relation between radio, optical continuumand Hα+[N II] emission from the cores of a sample of 21 nearbyFanaroff and Riley type I galaxies as observed with the VLBA and HST.The emission arises inside the inner tens of parsecs of the galaxies.Core radio emission is observed in 19/20 galaxies, optical corecontinuum emission is detected in 12/21 galaxies and Hα+[N II]core emission is detected in 20/21 galaxies. We confirm the recentlydetected linear correlation between radio and optical core emission inFR I galaxies and show that both core emissions also correlate withcentral Hα+[N II] emission. The tight correlations between radio,optical, and Hα+[N II] core emission constrain the bulk Lorentzfactor to γ~2-5 and γ<~2 for a continuous jet and a jetconsisting of discrete blobs, respectively, assuming jet-viewing anglesin the range 30°-90°. Radio and optical core emissions arelikely to be synchrotron radiation from the inner jet, possibly with asignificant contribution from emission by an accretion disk and/or flow.Elliptical galaxies with LINER nuclei without large-scale radio jetsseem to follow the core emission correlations found in FR I galaxies.This suggests that the central engines could be very similar for the twoclasses of active galactic nuclei. Based on observations with theNASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

X-Ray Properties of LINERs and Low-Luminosity Seyfert Galaxies Observed with ASCA. I. Observations and Results
This paper presents a comprehensive study of the X-ray properties oflow-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) and low-luminositySeyfert galaxies based on observations obtained with the ASCA satellite.We analyzed data of 53 observations of 21 LINERs and 17 low-luminositySeyferts. X-ray emission has been detected in all but one object. TheX-ray luminosities in the 2-10 keV band range from4×1039 to 5×1041 ergs s-1,which are 1-3 orders of magnitude smaller than in classical Seyfertgalaxies. The X-ray spectra of most objects are well described by acanonical model which consists of (1) a soft component from a thermalplasma with kT<1 keV and (2) a hard component represented by a powerlaw with a photon index of Γ~1.8 or thermal bremsstrahlungemission with kT~10 keV. Several objects do not require the soft thermalcomponent, and their continua are well fitted by a single power-lawmodel. Some objects show heavy absorption with column densities inexcess of 1023 cm-2. We detect in several objectsFe K line emission with equivalent widths ranging from 50 eV to 2 keV.Variability on timescales less than a day is uncommon in our sample. Bycomparing multiple observations made with ASCA or with published 2-10keV observations from other satellites, we show that at least eightobjects are variable on timescales of a week to several years. We findthat the morphologies of many objects, both in the soft and hard bands,are consistent with being pointlike relative to the telescopepoint-spread function; a few are clearly extended in either or bothenergy bands. The second paper of this series will discuss the physicalinterpretation of the X-ray emission and its implications forlow-luminosity active galactic nuclei.

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

Detailed Structural Decomposition of Galaxy Images
We present a two-dimensional fitting algorithm (GALFIT) designed toextract structural components from galaxy images, with emphasis onclosely modeling light profiles of spatially well-resolved, nearbygalaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our algorithmimproves on previous techniques in two areas: by being able tosimultaneously fit a galaxy with an arbitrary number of components andwith optimization in computation speed, suited for working on largegalaxy images. We use two-dimensional models such as the ``Nuker'' law,the Sérsic (de Vaucouleurs) profile, an exponential disk, andGaussian or Moffat functions. The azimuthal shapes are generalizedellipses that can fit disky and boxy components. Some potentialapplications of our program include: standard modeling of global galaxyprofiles; extracting bars, stellar disks, double nuclei, and compactnuclear sources; and measuring absolute dust extinction or surfacebrightness fluctuations after removing the galaxy model. When examinedin detail, we find that even simple looking galaxies generally requireat least three components to be modeled accurately, rather than the oneor two components more often employed. Many galaxies with complexisophotes, ellipticity changes, and position angle twists can be modeledaccurately in two dimensions. We illustrate this by way of 11 casestudies, which include regular and barred spiral galaxies, highly diskylenticular galaxies, and elliptical galaxies displaying various levelsof complexities. A useful extension of this algorithm is to accuratelyextract nuclear point sources in galaxies. We compare two-dimensionaland one-dimensional extraction techniques on simulated images ofgalaxies having nuclear slopes with different degrees of cuspiness, andwe then illustrate the application of the program to several examples ofnearby galaxies with weak nuclei. Based on observations with theNASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Neutral hydrogen and optical observations of edge-on galaxies: Hunting for warps
We present 21-cm HI line and optical R-band observations for a sample of26 edge-on galaxies. The HI observations were obtained with theWesterbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and are part of the WHISP database(Westerbork HI Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies). We present HImaps, optical images, and radial HI density profiles. We have alsoderived the rotation curves and studied the warping and lopsidedness ofthe HI disks. 20 out of the 26 galaxies of our sample are warped,confirming that warping of the HI disks is a very common phenomenon indisk galaxies. Indeed, we find that all galaxies that have an extendedHI disk with respect to the optical are warped. The warping usuallystarts around the edge of the optical disk. The degree of warping variesconsiderably from galaxy to galaxy. Furthermore, many warps areasymmetric, as they show up in only one side of the disk or exhibitlarge differences in amplitude in the approaching and receding sides ofthe galaxy. These asymmetries are more pronounced in rich environments,which may indicate that tidal interactions are a source of warpasymmetry. A rich environment tends to produce larger warps as well. Thepresence of lopsidedness seems to be related to the presence of nearbycompanions. Full Fig. 13 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

BeppoSAX observations of LINER-2 galaxies
We present BeppoSAX observations of 6 ``type-2'' LINER and``transition'' galaxies (NGC 3379, NGC 3627, NGC 4125, NGC 4374, NGC5195 and NGC 5879) from the Ho et al. (\cite{Ho1997}) spectroscopicsample of nearby galaxies. All objects are detected in the 2-10 keVband, having luminosities in the range L2-10 keV ~1*E39-1*E40 erg s-1. The PDS upperlimits above 10 keV place constraints on the presence of a heavilyobscured AGN in the case of NGC 3379 and NGC 4125. No significantvariability is detected in any of the objects. The spectra are describedin most cases by a simple power-law model with a spectral slope of Gamma~ 1.7-2.5 while there is evidence neither for a significant absorptionabove the Galactic nor for an FeKalpha emission line.Therefore, based on the spectral properties alone, it is difficult todifferentiate between a low-luminosity AGN or a star-forming galaxyscenario. However, imaging observations of NGC 3627 and NGC 5195 withChandra ACIS-S reveal very weak nuclear sources while most of the X-rayflux originates either in off-nuclear point sources or in diffuseemission. The above clearly argue in favour of a star-forming origin forthe bulk of the X-ray emission, at least in the above two sources.

A synthesis of data from fundamental plane and surface brightness fluctuation surveys
We perform a series of comparisons between distance-independentphotometric and spectroscopic properties used in the surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) and fundamental plane (FP) methods of early-typegalaxy distance estimation. The data are taken from two recent surveys:the SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances and the Streaming Motions of AbellClusters (SMAC) FP survey. We derive a relation between(V-I)0 colour and Mg2 index using nearly 200galaxies and discuss implications for Galactic extinction estimates andearly-type galaxy stellar populations. We find that the reddenings fromSchlegel et al. for galaxies with E(B-V)>~0.2mag appear to beoverestimated by 5-10 per cent, but we do not find significant evidencefor large-scale dipole errors in the extinction map. In comparison withstellar population models having solar elemental abundance ratios, thegalaxies in our sample are generally too blue at a given Mg2;we ascribe this to the well-known enhancement of the α-elements inluminous early-type galaxies. We confirm a tight relation betweenstellar velocity dispersion σ and the SBF `fluctuation count'parameter N, which is a luminosity-weighted measure of the total numberof stars in a galaxy. The correlation between N and σ is eventighter than that between Mg2 and σ. Finally, we deriveFP photometric parameters for 280 galaxies from the SBF survey data set.Comparisons with external sources allow us to estimate the errors onthese parameters and derive the correction necessary to bring them on tothe SMAC system. The data are used in a forthcoming paper, whichcompares the distances derived from the FP and SBF methods.

The Ursa Major cluster of galaxies - III. Optical observations of dwarf galaxies and the luminosity function down to MR=-11
Results are presented of a deep optical survey of the Ursa Majorcluster, a spiral-rich cluster of galaxies at a distance of 18.6Mpcwhich contains about 30 per cent of the light but only 5 per cent of themass of the nearby Virgo cluster. Fields around known cluster membersand a pattern of blind fields along the major and minor axes of thecluster were studied with mosaic CCD cameras on the Canada-France-HawaiiTelescope. The dynamical crossing time for the Ursa Major cluster isonly slightly less than a Hubble time. Most galaxies in the localUniverse exist in similar moderate-density environments. The Ursa Majorcluster is therefore a good place to study the statistical properties ofdwarf galaxies, since this structure is at an evolutionary stagerepresentative of typical environments, yet has enough galaxies thatreasonable counting statistics can be accumulated. The mainobservational results of our survey are as follows. (i) The galaxyluminosity function is flat, with a logarithmic slope α=-1.1 for-17

The Ursa Major Cluster of Galaxies. V. H I Rotation Curve Shapes and the Tully-Fisher Relations
This paper investigates the statistical properties of the Tully-Fisher(TF) relations for a volume-limited complete sample of spiral galaxiesin the nearby Ursa Major Cluster. The merits of B, R, I, and K' surfacephotometry and the availability of detailed kinematic information from HI synthesis imaging have been exploited. In addition to the corrected HI global profile widths WiR,I, the available H Irotation curves allow direct measurements of the observed maximumrotational velocities Vmax and the amplitudesVflat of the outer flat parts. The dynamical state of the gasdisks could also be determined in detail from the radio observations.The four luminosity and three kinematic measures allowed theconstruction of 12 correlations for various subsamples. For large galaxysamples, the Mb,iR-logWiR,Icorrelation in conjunction with strict selection criteria is preferredfor distance determinations with a 7% accuracy. Galaxies with rotationcurves that are still rising at the last measured point liesystematically on the low-velocity side of the TF relation. Galaxieswith a partly declining rotation curve(Vmax>Vflat) tend to lie systematically on thehigh-velocity side of the relation when usingWiR,I or Vmax. However, systematicoffsets are eliminated when Vflat is used. Residuals of theMb,iB-log(2Vflat) relation correlateconsistently with global galaxy properties along the Hubble sequencelike morphological type, color, surface brightness, and gas massfraction. These correlations are absent for the near-infraredMb,iK'-log(2Vflat)residuals. The tightest correlation(χ2red=1.1) is found for theMb,iK'-log(2Vflat) relation,which has a slope of -11.3+/-0.5 and a total observed scatter of 0.26mag with a most likely intrinsic scatter of zero. The tightness of thenear-infrared correlation is preserved when converting it into abaryonic TF relation that has a slope of -10.0 in the case(Mgas/LK')=1.6 while a zerointrinsic scatter remains most likely. Based on the tightness of thenear-infrared and baryonic correlations, it is concluded that the TFrelation reflects a fundamental correlation between the mass of the darkmatter halo, measured through its induced maximum rotational velocityVflat, and the total baryonic mass Mbar of agalaxy where Mbar~V4flat. Althoughthe actual distribution of the baryonic matter inside halos of similarmass can vary significantly, it does not affect this relation.

The SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances. IV. SBF Magnitudes, Colors, and Distances
We report data for I-band surface brightness fluctuation (SBF)magnitudes, (V-I) colors, and distance moduli for 300 galaxies. Thesurvey contains E, S0, and early-type spiral galaxies in the proportionsof 49:42:9 and is essentially complete for E galaxies to Hubblevelocities of 2000 km s-1, with a substantial sampling of Egalaxies out to 4000 km s-1. The median error in distancemodulus is 0.22 mag. We also present two new results from the survey.(1) We compare the mean peculiar flow velocity (bulk flow) implied byour distances with predictions of typical cold dark matter transferfunctions as a function of scale, and we find very good agreement withcold, dark matter cosmologies if the transfer function scale parameterΓ and the power spectrum normalization σ8 arerelated by σ8Γ-0.5~2+/-0.5. Deriveddirectly from velocities, this result is independent of the distributionof galaxies or models for biasing. This modest bulk flow contradictsreports of large-scale, large-amplitude flows in the ~200 Mpc diametervolume surrounding our survey volume. (2) We present adistance-independent measure of absolute galaxy luminosity, N and showhow it correlates with galaxy properties such as color and velocitydispersion, demonstrating its utility for measuring galaxy distancesthrough large and unknown extinction. Observations in part from theMichigan-Dartmouth-MIT (MDM) Observatory.

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Constellation:Canes Venatici
Right ascension:12h07m03.00s
Aparent dimensions:4.571′ × 0.871′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 4111

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