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 Completing H I observations of galaxies in the Virgo clusterHigh sensitivity (rms noise  0.5 mJy) 21-cm H I line observationswere made of 33 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, using the refurbishedArecibo telescope, which resulted in the detection of 12 objects. Thesedata, combined with the measurements available from the literature,provide the first set of H I data that is complete for all 355 late-type(Sa-Im-BCD) galaxies in the Virgo cluster with mp ≤ 18.0mag. The Virgo cluster H I mass function (HIMF) that was derived forthis optically selected galaxy sample is in agreement with the HIMFderived for the Virgo cluster from the blind HIJASS H I survey and isinconsistent with the Field HIMF. This indicates that both in this richcluster and in the general field, neutral hydrogen is primarilyassociated with late-type galaxies, with marginal contributions fromearly-type galaxies and isolated H I clouds. The inconsistency betweenthe cluster and the field HIMF derives primarily from the difference inthe optical luminosity function of late-type galaxies in the twoenvironments, combined with the HI deficiency that is known to occur ingalaxies in rich clusters.Tables \ref{t1, \ref{sample_dat} and Appendix A are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org A multibeam HI survey of the Virgo cluster - two isolated HI clouds?We have carried out a fully sampled large area (4°× 8°)21-cm HI line survey of part of the Virgo cluster using the Jodrell Bankmultibeam instrument. The survey has a sensitivity some three timesbetter than the standard HIJASS (HI Jodrell All Sky Survey) and HIPASS(HI Parkes All Sky Survey) surveys. We detect 31 galaxies, 27 of whichare well-known cluster members. The four new detections have beenconfirmed in the HIPASS data and by follow-up Jodrell Bank pointedobservations. One object lies behind M86, but the other three have noobvious optical counterparts upon inspection of the digital sky surveyfields. These three objects were mapped at Arecibo with a smaller3.6-arcmin half power beam width (HPBW) and a four times bettersensitivity than the Jodrell Bank data, which allow an improveddetermination of the dimensions and location of two of the objects, butsurprisingly failed to detect the third. The two objects are resolved bythe Arecibo beam, giving them a size far larger than any optical imagesin the nearby field. To our mass limit of 5 ×107(Δv/50 km s-1) Msolar andcolumn density limit of 3 × 1018(Δv/50 kms-1) atom cm-2, these new detections representonly about 2 per cent of the cluster atomic hydrogen mass. Ourobservations indicate that the HI mass function of the cluster turnsdown at the low-mass end, making it very different to the field galaxyHI mass function. This is quite different to the Virgo cluster opticalluminosity function, which is much steeper than that in the generalfield. Many of the sample galaxies are relatively gas-poor compared withHI selected samples of field galaxies, confirming the anaemic spirals'view of Virgo cluster late-type galaxies. The velocity distribution ofthe HI detected galaxies is also very different to that of the clusteras a whole. There are relatively more high-velocity galaxies in the HIsample, suggesting that they form part of a currently infallingpopulation. The HI sample with optical identifications has a minimum HIcolumn density cut-off more than an order of magnitude above thatexpected from the sensitivity of the survey. This observed columndensity is above the normally expected level for star formation tooccur. The two detections with no optical counterparts have very muchlower column densities than that of the rest of the sample, below thestar formation threshold. Radio and Far-Infrared Emission as Tracers of Star Formation and Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Cluster GalaxiesWe have studied the radio and far-infrared (FIR) emission from 114galaxies in the seven nearest clusters (<100 Mpc) with prominentX-ray emission to investigate the impact of the cluster environment onthe star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in themember galaxies. The X-ray selection criterion is adopted to focus onthe most massive and dynamically relaxed clusters. A large majority ofcluster galaxies show an excess in radio emission over that predictedfrom the radio-FIR correlation, the fraction of sources with radioexcess increases toward cluster cores, and the radial gradient in theFIR/radio flux ratio is a result of radio enhancement. Of theradio-excess sources, 70% are early-type galaxies, and the same fractionhost an AGN. The galaxy density drops by a factor of 10 from thecomposite cluster center out to 1.5 Mpc, yet galaxies show no change inFIR properties over this region and show no indication of masssegregation. We have examined in detail the physical mechanisms thatmight impact the FIR and radio emission of cluster galaxies. Whilecollisional heating of dust may be important for galaxies in clustercenters, it appears to have a negligible effect on the observed FIRemission for our sample galaxies. The correlations between radio and FIRluminosity and radius could be explained by magnetic compression fromthermal intracluster medium pressure. We also find that simple delayedharassment cannot fully account for the observed radio, FIR, and mid-IRproperties of cluster galaxies. Radio continuum spectra of galaxies in the Virgo cluster regionNew radio continuum observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster regionat 4.85, 8.6, and 10.55 GHz are presented. These observations arecombined with existing measurements at 1.4 and 0.325 GHz. The sampleincludes 81 galaxies where spectra with more than two frequencies couldbe derived. Galaxies that show a radio-FIR excess exhibit centralactivity (HII, LINER, AGN). The four Virgo galaxies with the highestabsolute radio excess are found within 2° of the centerof the cluster. Galaxies showing flat radio spectra also host activecenters. There is no clear trend between the spectral index and thegalaxy's distance to the cluster center.Figure 3 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.orgTable 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/1 A search for Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the near-infrared. I. Selection of the sampleA sample of about 3800 Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies wasselected using the all-sky near-infrared (J, H and Ks-band)2MASS survey. The selected objects have a mean central surfacebrightness within a 5'' radius around their centre fainter than 18 magarcsec-2 in the Ks band, making them the lowestsurface brightness galaxies detected by 2MASS. A description is given ofthe relevant properties of the 2MASS survey and the LSB galaxy selectionprocedure, as well as of basic photometric properties of the selectedobjects. The latter properties are compared to those of other samples ofgalaxies, of both LSBs and classical'' high surface brightness (HSB)objects, which were selected in the optical. The 2MASS LSBs have aBT_c-KT colour which is on average 0.9 mag bluerthan that of HSBs from the NGC. The 2MASS sample does not appear tocontain a significant population of red objects.All tables and Figs. 2a-c are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org The Three-dimensional Structure of the Virgo Cluster Region from Tully-Fisher and H I DataThe distances and H I contents of 161 spiral galaxies in the region ofthe Virgo cluster are used to gain insight into the complicatedstructure of this galaxy system. Special attention has been paid to theinvestigation of the suggestion presented in an earlier work that someperipheral Virgo groups may contain strongly gas-deficient spiralgalaxies. The three-dimensional galaxy distribution has been inferredfrom quality distance estimates obtained by averaging distance modulibased on the Tully-Fisher relationship taken from eight published datasets previously homogenized, resulting in a relation with a dispersionof 0.41 mag. Previous findings that the spiral distribution issubstantially more elongated along the line of sight than in the planeof the sky are confirmed by the current data. In addition, an importanteast-west disparity in this effect has been detected. The overallwidth-to-depth ratio of the Virgo cluster region is about 1:4, with themost distant objects concentrated in the western half. The filamentarystructure of the spiral population and its orientation are alsoreflected by the H I-deficient objects alone. The H I deficiency patternshows a central enhancement extending from ~16 to 22 Mpc inline-of-sight distance; most of this enhancement arises from galaxiesthat belong to the Virgo cluster proper. However, significant gasdeficiencies are also detected outside the main body of the cluster in aprobable group of galaxies at line-of-sight distances ~25-30 Mpc, lyingin the region dominated by the southern edge of the M49 subcluster andclouds W' and W, as well as in various foreground galaxies. In the Virgoregion, the H I content of the galaxies then is not a straightforwardindicator of cluster membership. The UZC-SSRS2 Group CatalogWe apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers. Structure, mass and distance of the Virgo cluster from a Tolman-Bondi modelWe have applied a relativistic Tolman-Bondi model of the Virgo clusterto a sample of 183 galaxies with measured distances within a radius of 8degrees from M 87. We find that the sample is significantly contaminatedby background galaxies which lead to too large a cluster mean distanceif not excluded. The Tolman-Bondi model predictions, together with theHI deficiency of spiral galaxies, allows one to identify thesebackground galaxies. One such galaxy is clearly identified among the 6calibrating galaxies with Cepheid distances. As the Tolman-Bondi modelpredicts the expected distance ratio to the Virgo distance, this galaxycan still be used to estimate the Virgo distance, and the average valueover the 6 galaxies is 15.4 +/- 0.5 Mpc. Well-known background groups ofgalaxies are clearly recovered, together with filaments of galaxieswhich link these groups to the main cluster, and are falling into it. Noforeground galaxy is clearly detected in our sample. Applying the B-bandTully-Fisher method to a sample of 51 true members of the Virgo clusteraccording to our classification gives a cluster distance of 18.0 +/- 1.2Mpc, larger than the mean Cepheid distance. Finally, the same model isused to estimate the Virgo cluster mass, which is M = 1.2x1015 Msun within 8 degrees from the cluster center(2.2 Mpc radius), and amounts to 1.7 virial mass. A list of peculiar velocities of RFGC galaxiesA list of radial velocities, HI line widths and peculiar velocities of1327 galaxies from the RFGC catalogue has been compiled using actualobservations and literature data. The list can be used for studying bulkmotions of galaxies, construction of the field of peculiar velocitiesand other tasks. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. The Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue.We present a new improved and completed version of the Flat GalaxyCatalogue (FGC) named the Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue (RFGC)containing 4236 thin edge-on spiral galaxies and covering the whole sky.The Catalogue is intended to study large-scale cosmic streamings as wellas other problems of observational cosmology. The dipole moment ofdistribution of the RFGC galaxies (l = 273 degr; b =+19 degr) lieswithin statistical errors (+/-10 degr) in the direction of the LocalGroup motion towards the Microwave Background Radiation (MBR). Arcsecond Positions of UGC GalaxiesWe present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only. On the local radio luminosity function of galaxies. I. The Virgo clusterWe cross-correlate the galaxies brighter than m_B=18 in the Virgocluster with the radio sources in the NVSS survey (1.4 GHz), resultingin 180 radio-optical identifications. We determine the radio luminosityfunction of the Virgo galaxies, separately for the early- andlate-types. Late-type galaxies develop radio sources with a probabilityproportional to their optical luminosity. In fact their radio/optical(R_B) distribution is gaussian, centered at log R_B ~ -0.5, i.e. theradio luminosity is ~ 0.3 of the optical one. The probability oflate-type galaxies to develop radio sources is almost independent oftheir detailed Hubble type, except for Sa (and S0+S0a) which are afactor of ~ 5 less frequent than later types at any R_B. Giantelliptical galaxies feed `monster" radio sources with a probabilitystrongly increasing with mass. However the frequency of fainter radiosources is progressively less sensitive on the system mass. The faintestgiant E galaxies (M_B=-17) have a probability of feeding low power radiosources similar to that of dwarf E galaxies as faint as M_B=-13. Table~1is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Infrared Observations of Galaxies in the Local Universe. I. The Survey and Some Representative ResultsThis paper introduces a continuing survey of galaxies in the localuniverse. Consistent deep images are being acquired for a representativesample of 321 galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalogue down to 21.7 magarcsec-2 at Ks (2.16 mu m) and 22.4 mag arcsec-2 at J (1.25 mu m) usinga NICMOS camera with a 3.'8 x 3.'8 field of view attached to the 61 inch(1.5 m) telescope on Mount Bigelow. We provide some examples of theresults being obtained by employing 64 deep images of a subset of 44galaxies. Bulge-to-disk ratios are tabulated for 30 galaxies. Thebrightness of the central region of 44 galaxies declines approximately 5mag from Hubble type S0 to Sm. An exponential vertical scale height atKs is found to be 500 pc for the disk of UGC 5173. Arm amplitudes offour nearly face-on spiral galaxies are found to range between 11% and88% compared to the interarm region. There is some evidence that the armamplitude is larger at Ks than it is at J. Color gradients are measuredfor 15 galaxies with only one showing a significant nonzero result. Ameasurement of galactic symmetry applied to 64 deep images reveals anaverage asymmetry of 7.6% ( sigma = 4.6%) for these galaxies. The Virgo Cluster Distance from 21 Centimeter Line WidthsThe distance of the Virgo cluster is derived in the B band from the 21cm line width-absolute magnitude relation. This relation is calibratedusing 18 spirals with Cepheid distances, mainly from the Hubble SpaceTelescope. The calibration is applied to a complete sample ofnonpeculiar spirals with i > 45 deg lying within the optical (n = 49)or X-ray (n = 35) contour of the cluster, resulting in a mean clusterdistance of (m - M)0 = 31.58 +/- 0.24 mag (external error), or 20.7 +/-2.4 Mpc. The mean distance of subcluster A is 0.46 +/- 0.18 mag smallerthan that of subcluster B, but the individual distances of the membersof the two substructures show considerable overlap. Cluster spirals with30 deg < i < 45 deg yield distances almost as good as those ofmore inclined galaxies. H I-truncated galaxies are overluminous by 0.8mag at a given line width. The distance modulus is corrected by -0.07mag for the fact that cluster members have lower H I surface fluxes andare redder in (B-I) at a given line width than the (field) calibrators.Different sources for the B magnitudes and line widths have littleeffect on the resulting distance. Different precepts for the internalabsorption correction change the result by no more than +/-0.17 mag. Theindividual distances of the cluster members do not show any dependenceon recession velocity, inclination, Hubble type, or line width. Thedependence on apparent magnitude reflects the considerable depth effectof the cluster. The adopted distance is in good agreement withindependent distance determinations of the cluster. Combining thecluster distance with the corrected cluster velocity of 1142 +/- 61 kms-1 gives H0 = 55 +/- 7 km s-1 Mpc-1 (external error). If the Virgocluster distance is inserted into the tight Hubble diagram of clustersout to 11,000 km s-1 using relative distances to the Virgo cluster, oneobtains a global value of H0 = 57 +/- 7 km s-1 Mpc-1. Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxiesWe present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory. Study of the Virgo Cluster Using the B-Band Tully-Fisher RelationThe distances to spiral galaxies of the Virgo cluster are estimatedusing the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relation, and the three-dimensionalstructure of the cluster is studied. The analysis is made for a completespiral sample taken from the Virgo Cluster catalog of Binggeli, Sandage,& Tammann. The sample contains virtually all spiral galaxies down toM_{BT}=-15 mag at 40 Mpc. A careful examination is made ofthe selection effect and errors of the data. We estimate distance to 181galaxies, among which distances to 89 galaxies are reasonably accurate.We compare these distances to those obtained by other authors on agalaxy-by-galaxy basis. We find reasonable consistency of theTully-Fisher distance among various authors. In particular, it is foundthat the discrepancy in the distance among the different analyses withdifferent data is about 15%, when good H I and photometric data areavailable. We clarify that the different results on the Virgo distanceamong authors arise from the choice of the sample and interpretation ofthe data. We confirm that the Tully-Fisher relation for the Virgocluster shows an unusually large scatter sigma = 0.67 mag, compared tothat for other clusters. We conclude that this scatter is not due to theintrinsic dispersion of the Tully-Fisher relation, but due to a largedepth effect of the Virgo cluster, which we estimate to be extended from12 Mpc to 30 Mpc. The distribution of H I--deficient galaxies isconcentrated at around 14--20 Mpc, indicating the presence of a core atthis distance, and this agrees with the distance estimated for M87 andother elliptical galaxies with other methods. We show also that thespatial number density of spiral galaxies takes a peak at this distance,while a simple average of all spiral galaxy distances gives 20 Mpc. Thefact that the velocity dispersion of galaxies takes a maximum at 14--18Mpc lends an additional support for the distance to the core. Thesefeatures cannot be understood if the large scatter of the TF relation ismerely due to the intrinsic dispersion. The structure of the VirgoCluster we infer from the Tully-Fisher analysis looks like a filamentwhich is familiar to us in a late phase of structure formation in thepancake collapse in hierarchical clustering simulations. This Virgofilament lies almost along the line of sight, and this is the originthat has led a number of authors to much confusion in the Virgo distancedeterminations. We show that the M87 subcluster is located around 15--18Mpc, and it consists mainly of early-type type spiral galaxies inaddition to elliptical and S0 galaxies. There are very few late-typespiral galaxies in this subcluster. The spiral rich M49 subclusterconsists of a mixture of all types of spiral galaxies and is located atabout 22 Mpc. The two other known clouds, W and M, are located at about30--40 Mpc and undergo infall toward the core. The M cloud contains fewearly type spirals. We cannot discriminate, however, whether thesesubclusters or clouds are isolated aggregates or merely parts offilamentary structure. Finally, we infer the Hubble constant to be 82+/- 10 km s-1 Mpc-1. A Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner Catalog of Galaxies behind the Virgo Cluster and toward Its AntipodeWe present a catalog of 1268 galaxies, essentially complete to B <=17.0, found by scanning glass copies of several fields of the originalPalomar Sky Survey using the Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner in itsisodensitometric mode (as opposed to the threshold densitometric modeused in the APS Catalog of the POSS I). In addition to the differentscanning mode, we have employed a different star-galaxy separationmethod and have visually inspected POSS prints to verify that each imageremaining in the catalog is nonstellar. The scanned fields aredistributed generally in two areas, one around the outskirts of theVirgo Cluster, the other toward the antipode of the cluster (but stillin the northern celestial hemisphere). The catalog gives the position ofthe center of each galaxy; estimates of the blue and red magnitudeswithin the outermost threshold crossing and of the blue magnitudeextrapolated to zero surface brightness; and the blue and red diametersof four ellipses fitted to the four threshold crossings (approximately23.8,23.6,23.2, and 22.7 mag arcsec 2 in blue, and 22.5,22.4,21.5, and21.2 mag arcsec^-2^ in red), and the ellipticities of those fourellipses. The catalog has served as a base from which to draw targetsfor a Tully-Fisher study of the Virgocentric infall velocity of theLocal Group. New aperture photometry for 217 galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters.We present photo electric multi-aperture photometry in UBVRI of 171 and46 galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters, respectively. Many of thegalaxies have not been observed in at least one of these passbandsbefore. We discuss the reduction and transformation into the Cousinsphotometric system as well as the extinction coefficients obtainedbetween 1990 and 1993. Surface photometry of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster regionPhotographic surface photometry is carried out for 246 spiral galaxiesin the Virgo cluster region north of declination + 5 deg. The samplecontains all spiral galaxies of 'certain' and 'possible' Virgo membersin the Virgo Cluster Catalogue of Binggeli, Sandage, & Tammann. Thesample also includes those galaxies which were used in the Tully-Fisheranalyses of the Virgo cluster given in the literature. A catalog ispresented for positions, B-band total magnitudes and inclinations forthese galaxies, and they are compared with the data given in previousstudies. Distribution of the spin vectors of the disk galaxies of the Virgo cluster. I. The catalogue of 310 disk galaxies in the Virgo area.Not Available Flat galaxy catalogueA systematic search for disklike edge-on-galaxies with a diameter largerthan a = 40 arcsec and a major-to-minor axis ratio a/b greater than 7was carried out by means of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey and theESO/SERC survey. As a result, we present a new catalog of flat galaxies(FGC) containing 4455 objects and covering about 56 percent of the wholesky for the first time. The catalogue is assigned to study large-scalecosmic streamings and other problems of observational cosmology. General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groupsWe present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog. Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group membersThis paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent. Investigations of the Local Supercluster velocity field. I - Observations close to Virgo, using Tully-Fisher distances and the Tolman-Bondi expanding sphereResults are presented of an investigation of the velocity-distancerelation close to the direction of the Virgo cluster, with distancesfrom the Tully-Fisher relation, and with attention to the Malmquistbias. For Theta greater than 8 deg, a behavior is revealed which is asexpected Tolman-Bondi solutions for an expanding spherical massdistribution. Various density distributions, constrained by the massinside the Local Group distance, agree with the observations, but onlyif the mass within the Virgo 6 deg region is close to or larger than thestandard Virgo virial mass values. It is inferred that the central6-degree mass has the standard M (virial) as a rough lower limit. Fromthis it follows, together with the light ratios within the localsupercluster and the light enhancement relative to the general field,that light does not trace mass. Background contamination produces anasymmetrical distribution of velocities behind r(Vir). Flat edge-on galaxies on the Tully-Fischer diagram.For a sample of 114 northern galaxies with angular diameters greaterthan 2 arcmin and apparent axial ratios greater than 7, relations arediscussed between their global parameters: the inner motion amplitude W,the blue luminosity, the linear diameter, and the neutral hydrogen mass.Taken as a distance indicator for the given W, these parameters exhibitnearly the same efficiency. Outside the Local Supercluster the lineardiameter of the flat edge-on galaxy produces a standard deviation about25 percent as a distance estimate. The total mass-to-luminosity ratio offlat galaxies increases when their mean surface brightness decreases. An Effelsberg/VLA radio continuum survey of an optically selected sample of edge-on spiral galaxiesThe results of an extensive radio continuum survey at 5 GHz with the 100m Effelsberg telescope and the Very Large Array of a large sample ofedge-on spiral galaxies (181 galaxies) are presented. The aim of thissurvey was to find candidates for more extensive studies on radio halosand on outflow phenomena from the nuclei of these galaxies. The Virgo cluster as a test for quantization of extragalactic redshiftsTifft's (1972, 1977) hypothesis that redshifts are partially quantizedwith a periodicity in the range 70-75 km/s is tested for samples ofbright spiral and dwarf irregular galaxies with accurate H I redshiftsin the region of the Virgo cluster. The heliocentric redshifts arecorrected for solar motion, first by adopting an estimate of the sun'smotion with respect to the centroid of the Local Group, and then byallowing the solar velocity vector to vary in direction over the wholesky. Power spectrum analyses of the corrected redshifts are used tosearch for a significant periodicity in the prescribed range 70-75 km/s.No such periodicity is found for the dwarf irregulars, but there is apossible periodicity of about 71.1 km/s for the bright spirals. In afurther exploratory study, the sample of 112 spirals is divided upaccording to environment. The spirals in high-density regions of thecluster show no quantization, whereas those in low-density regionsappear to be partially quantized in intervals of about 71.0 km/s. The extragalactic distance scale. II - The unbiased distance to the Virgo Cluster from the B-band Tully-Fisher relationThe behavior of the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relation with respect tothe observational biases and parameter uncertainties is studied from analmost complete sample of spiral galaxies belonging to the VirgoCluster. The strong influence of the limiting apparent magnitude whenusing the direct TF relation is confirmed. A distance modulus of 31.4 +or - 0.2 is found along with a corresponding H(0) = 68 + or - 8km/s/Mpc, assuming a cosmological velocity of the cluster V = 1300 + or- 100 km/s. The Virgo S and S-prime clouds are shown to lie atsignificantly different distances. Different distance moduli found byother authors are explained. HI-observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster of galaxies. I - The dataNew H I-data for a large number of bright galaxies inside the 10 degradius area of the Virgo cluster of galaxies have been obtained with the100 m radiotelescope at Effelsberg. A total of 234 galaxies was observedfor the first time. Among them, 53 have been detected providing newaccurate radial velocities. Data from the literature have been compiled.Together with the new data, they form a (nearly homogeneous) set of H Iobservations for more than 450 galaxies.
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