WIKISKY.ORG
 Home Getting Started To Survive in the Universe News@Sky Astro Photo The Collection Forum Blog New! FAQ Press Login

# NGC 4507

Contents

### Images

DSS Images   Other Images

### Related articles

 Revisiting the infrared spectra of active galactic nuclei with a new torus emission modelWe describe improved modelling of the emission by dust in atoroidal-like structure heated by a central illuminating source withinactive galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have chosen a simple but realistictorus geometry, a flared disc, and a dust grain distribution functionincluding a full range of grain sizes. The optical depth within thetorus is computed in detail taking into account the differentsublimation temperatures of the silicate and graphite grains, whichsolves previously reported inconsistencies in the silicate emissionfeature in type 1 AGNs. We exploit this model to study the spectralenergy distributions (SEDs) of 58 extragalactic (both type 1 and type 2)sources using archival optical and infrared data. We find that both AGNand starburst contributions are often required to reproduce the observedSEDs, although in a few cases they are very well fitted by a pure AGNcomponent. The AGN contribution to the far-infrared luminosity is foundto be higher in type 1 sources, with all the type 2 requiring asubstantial contribution from a circumnuclear starburst. Our resultsappear in agreement with the AGN unified scheme, because thedistributions of key parameters of the torus models turn out to becompatible for type 1 and type 2 AGNs. Further support to theunification concept comes from comparison with medium-resolutioninfrared spectra of type 1 AGNs by the Spitzer observatory, showingevidence for a moderate silicate emission around 10 μm, which ourcode reproduces. From our analysis we infer accretion flows in the innernucleus of local AGNs characterized by high equatorial optical depths(AV~= 100), moderate sizes (Rmax < 100 pc) andvery high covering factors (f~= 80 per cent) on average. On the Fraction of X-Ray-obscured Quasars in the Local UniverseRecent wide-area hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray surveys have shown thatthe fraction of X-ray-obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in thelocal universe significantly decreases with intrinsic luminosity. Inthis Letter we point out that two corrections have to be made to thesamples: (1) radio-loud AGNs have to be excluded, since their X-rayemission might be dominated by the jet component, and (2) Compton-thicksources have to be excluded too, since their hard X-ray and softgamma-ray emission are also strongly attenuated by Compton scattering.The soft gamma-ray-selected AGN samples obtained by Swift and INTEGRALprovide the best opportunity to study the fraction of obscured AGNs inthe local universe in the least biased way. We choose these samples tocheck if the corrections could alter the above result on the fraction ofobscured AGNs. We find that before the corrections both samples showsignificant anticorrelation between LX and NH,indicating an obvious decrease in the fraction of obscured AGNs withluminosity. However, after the corrections, we find only marginalevidence of anticorrelation (at the 98% confidence level) in the Swiftsample and no evidence at all in the INTEGRAL sample, which consists ofa comparable number of objects. We conclude that current samples onlyshow a marginal decrease in the fraction of obscured AGNs in the localuniverse and that much larger samples are required in order to reach amore robust conclusion. A Comprehensive Search for Gamma-Ray Lines in the First Year of Data from the INTEGRAL SpectrometerWe have carried out an extensive search for gamma-ray lines in the firstyear of public data from the spectrometer (SPI) on the INTEGRAL mission.INTEGRAL has spent a large fraction of its observing time in theGalactic plane with particular concentration in the Galactic center (GC)region (~3 Ms in the first year). Hence the most sensitive searchregions are in the Galactic plane and center. The phase space of thesearch spans the energy range 20-8000 keV and line widths from 0 to 1000keV (FWHM). It includes both diffuse and pointlike emission. We havesearched for variable emission on timescales down to ~1000 s. Diffuseemission has been searched for on a range of different spatial scalesfrom ~20° (the approximate field of view of the spectrometer) up tothe entire Galactic plane. Our search procedures were verified by therecovery of the known gamma-ray lines at 511 and 1809 keV at theappropriate intensities and significances. We find no evidence for anypreviously unknown gamma-ray lines. The upper limits range from afew×10-5 to a few×10-2 cm-2s-1 depending on line width, energy, and exposure; regions ofstrong instrumental background lines were excluded from the search.Comparison is made between our results and various prior predictions ofastrophysical lines. Variability Study of Seyfert 2 Galaxies with XMM-NewtonWe present the results of timing analysis of XMM-Newton observations ofSeyfert 2 galaxies in order to search for differences in the meanproperties of Seyfert 1 galaxies and Seyfert 2 galaxies. We selected 13Seyfert 2 galaxies from the XMM-Newton archive that have hard X-raycomponents in their spectra and calculated the excess variance(σ2rms) in the 2-10 keV band. We found thatsix Seyfert 2 galaxies (3C 98, IRAS 05189-2524, MCG -5-23-16, NGC 6300,UGC 4203, and PKS 1814-637) have buried luminous nuclei and that thenuclei have timing properties similar to those of Seyfert 1 nuclei. Thisindicates that these galaxies are candidates for having buried Seyfert 1nuclei as expected by the unified Seyfert model. The first five galaxiesshow significant time variability. The amplitude of the time variabilityof IRAS 05189-2524 is similar to that of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.In contrast, the amplitude of variability of the seven other galaxies isquite small, much smaller than that of Seyfert 1 galaxies with similarX-ray luminosity. The lack of short time variability in these objects isexplained by the dominance of the reflection component in three galaxies(Mrk 3, Mrk 463, and NGC 7582), and by the presence of very massiveblack holes and an inferred low accretion rate in the other threegalaxies (NGC 1052, NGC 4507, and NGC 7172). For Mrk 348, thesignificant time variability that is expected based on the estimate ofthe central black hole mass was not detected. INTEGRAL and RXTE Observations of Centaurus AINTEGRAL and RXTE performed three simultaneous observations of thenearby radio galaxy Centaurus A in 2003 March, 2004 January, and 2004February with the goals of investigating the geometry and emissionprocesses via the spectral/temporal variability of the X-ray/low-energygamma-ray flux, and intercalibration of the INTEGRAL instruments withrespect to those on RXTE. Cen A was detected by both sets of instrumentsfrom 3 to 240 keV. When combined with earlier archival RXTE results, wefind the power-law continuum flux and the line-of-sight column depthvaried independently by 60% between 2000 January and 2003 March.Including the three archival RXTE observations, the iron-line flux wasessentially unchanging, and from this we conclude that theiron-line-emitting material is distant from the site of the continuumemission, and that the origin of the iron-line flux is still an openquestion. Taking X-ray spectral measurements from satellite missionssince 1970 into account, we discover a variability in the column depthbetween 1.0×1023 and 1.5×1023cm-2 separated by approximately 20 yr, and suggest thatvariations in the edge of a warped accretion disk viewed nearly edge-onmight be the cause. The INTEGRAL OSA 4.2 calibration of JEM-X, ISGRI,and SPI yields power-law indices consistent with the RXTE PCA and HEXTEvalues, but the indices derived from ISGRI alone are about 0.2 greater.Significant systematics are the limiting factor for INTEGRAL spectralparameter determination. The First INTEGRAL AGN CatalogWe present the first INTEGRAL AGN catalog, based on observationsperformed from launch of the mission in 2002 October until 2004 January.The catalog includes 42 AGNs, of which 10 are Seyfert 1, 17 are Seyfert2, and 9 are intermediate Seyfert 1.5. The fraction of blazars is rathersmall, with five detected objects, and only one galaxy cluster and nostarburst galaxies have been detected so far. A complete subset consistsof 32 AGNs with a significance limit of 7 σ in the INTEGRAL ISGRI20-40 keV data. Although the sample is not flux limited, thedistribution of sources shows a ratio of obscured to unobscured AGNs of1.5-2.0, consistent with luminosity-dependent unified models for AGNs.Only four Compton-thick AGNs are found in the sample. Based on theINTEGRAL data presented here, the Seyfert 2 spectra are slightly harder(Γ=1.95+/-0.01) than Seyfert 1.5 (Γ=2.10+/-0.02) and Seyfert1 (Γ=2.11+/-0.05). INTEGRAL IBIS Extragalactic Survey: Active Galactic Nuclei Selected at 20-100 keVAnalysis of International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL)Core Programme and public open-time observations performed up to 2005April provides a sample of 62 active galactic nuclei in the 20-100 keVband above a flux limit of ~1.5×10-11 ergscm-2 s-1. Most (42) of the sources in the sampleare Seyfert galaxies, almost equally divided between type 1 and type 2objects; six are blazars, and 14 are still unclassified. Excluding theblazars, the average redshift of our sample is 0.021, while the meanluminosity is logL=43.45. We find that absorption is present in 65% ofthe objects, with 14% of the total sample due to Compton-thick activegalaxies. In agreement with both Swift BAT team results and 2-10 keVstudies, the fraction of absorbed objects decreases with the 20-100 keVluminosity. All Seyfert 2's in our sample are absorbed, as are 33% ofSeyfert 1's. The present data highlight the capability of INTEGRAL toprobe the extragalactic gamma-ray sky and to find new and/or absorbedactive galaxies.Based on observations obtained with INTEGRAL, an ESA project withinstruments and science data center funded by ESA member states(especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy,Switzerland, Spain), the Czech Republic, and Poland and with theparticipation of Russia and the US. Seyfert Galaxies and the Hard X-Ray Background: Artificial Chandra Observations of z=0.3 Active GalaxiesDeep X-ray surveys have resolved much of the X-ray background radiationbelow 2 keV into discrete sources, but the background above 8 keVremains largely unresolved. The obscured (type 2) active galactic nuclei(AGNs) that are expected to dominate the hard X-ray background have notyet been detected in sufficient numbers to account for the observedbackground flux. However, deep X-ray surveys have revealed large numbersof faint quiescent and starburst galaxies at moderate redshifts. Inhopes of recovering the missing AGN population, it has been suggestedthat the defining optical spectral features of low-luminosity Seyfertnuclei at large distances may be overwhelmed by their host galaxies,causing them to appear optically quiescent in deep surveys. We test thispossibility by artificially redshifting a sample of 23 nearby,well-studied active galaxies to z=0.3, testing them for X-ray AGNsignatures, and comparing them to the objects detected in deep X-raysurveys. We find that these redshifted galaxies have propertiesconsistent with the deep-field normal and optically bright, X-ray-faintgalaxy (OBXF) populations, supporting the hypothesis that the numbers ofAGNs in deep X-ray surveys are being underestimated and suggesting thatOBXFs should not be ruled out as candidate AGN hosts that couldcontribute to the hard X-ray background source population. The K-band properties of Seyfert 2 galaxiesAims. It is well known that the [O iii]λ5007 emission line andhard X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosities are good indicators of AGN activitiesand that the near and mid-infrared emission of AGN originates fromre-radiation of dusty clouds heated by the UV/optical radiation from theaccretion disk. In this paper we present a study of the near-infraredK-band (2.2 μm) properties for a sample of 65 Seyfert 2 galaxies. Methods: .By using the AGN/Bulge/Disk decomposition technique, weanalyzed the 2MASS K_S-band images for Seyfert 2 galaxies in order toderive the K_S-band magnitudes for the central engine, bulge, and diskcomponents. Results: .We find that the K_S-band magnitudes of thecentral AGN component in Seyfert 2 galaxies are tightly correlated withthe [O iii]λ5007 and the hard X-ray luminosities, which suggeststhat the AGN K-band emission is also an excellent indicator of thenuclear activities at least for Seyfert 2 galaxies. We also confirm thegood relation between the central black hole masses and bulge's K-bandmagnitudes for Seyfert 2s. Modeling the warm absorber in active galactic nucleiWe present a wide grid of models for the structure and transmissionproperties of warm absorbers in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Contraryto commonly used constant density models, our absorbing cloud is assumedto be under constant total (gas plus radiation) pressure. Thisassumption implies the coexistence of material at different temperaturesand ionization states, which is a natural consequence of pressure andthermal equilibrium. Our photoionization code allows us to compute theprofiles of the density, the temperature, the gas pressure, theradiation pressure and the ionization state across the cloud, and tocalculate the radiative transfer of continuum and lines includingCompton scattering. Therefore, equivalent widths of both saturated andunsaturated lines are properly modeled. For each pair of the incidentspectrum slope and the ionization parameter at the cloud surface thereis a natural upper limit to the total column densities of the cloud dueto thermal instabilities. These maximum values are comparable to theobservational constraints on the column density of warm absorbers whichmay give support to constant total pressure models. In all models wenote considerable absorption around 6.4 keV which modifies the intrinsicrelativistically broadened iron line profile originating in an accretiondisk illuminated atmosphere. Our models can be applied to fitting thespectroscopic data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites. The soft X-ray/NLR connection: a single photoionized medium?We present a sample of 8 nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies observed by HST andChandra. All of the sources present soft X-ray emission which iscoincident in extension and overall morphology with the [O iii]emission. The spectral analysis reveals that the soft X-ray emission ofall the objects is likely to be dominated by a photoionized gas. This isstrongly supported by the 190 ks combined XMM-Newton/RGS spectrum of Mrk3, which different diagnostic tools confirm as being produced in a gasin photoionization equilibrium with an important contribution fromresonant scattering. We tested with the code cloudy a simple scenariowhere the same gas photoionized by the nuclear continuum produces boththe soft X-ray and the [O iii] emission. Solutions satisfying theobserved ratio between the two components exist, and require the densityto decrease with radius roughly like r-2, similarly to whatoften found for the Narrow Line Region. Gas metallicity in the narrow-line regions of high-redshift active galactic nucleiWe analyze optical (UV rest-frame) spectra of X-ray selected narrow-lineQSOs at redshift 1.5  z  3.7 found in the Chandra Deep FieldSouth and of narrow-line radio galaxies at redshift 1.2  z 3.8 to investigate the gas metallicity of the narrow-line regions andtheir evolution in this redshift range. Such spectra are also comparedwith UV spectra of local Seyfert 2 galaxies. The observational data areinconsistent with the predictions of shock models, suggesting that thenarrow-line regions are mainly photoionized. The photoionization modelswith dust grains predict line flux ratios which are also in disagreementwith most of the observed values, suggesting that the high-ionizationpart of the narrow-line regions (which is sampled by the availablespectra) is dust-free. The photoionization dust-free models provide twopossible scenarios which are consistent with the observed data:low-density gas clouds (nH  103cm-3) with a sub-solar metallicity (0.2  Z_gas/Z_ȯ 1.0), or high-density gas clouds (nH 105 cm-3) with a wide range of gas metallicity(0.2  Z_gas/Z_ȯ  5.0). Regardless of the specificinterpretation, the observational data do not show any evidence for asignificant evolution of the gas metallicity in the narrow-line regionswithin the redshift range 1.2  z  3.8. Instead, we find atrend for more luminous active galactic nuclei to have more metal-richgas clouds (luminosity-metallicity relation), which is in agreement withthe same finding in the studies of the broad-line regions. The lack ofevolution for the gas metallicity of the narrow-line regions impliesthat the major epoch of star formation in the host galaxies of theseactive galactic nuclei is at z  4. An atlas of calcium triplet spectra of active galaxiesWe present a spectroscopic atlas of active galactic nuclei covering theregion around the λλ8498, 8542, 8662 calcium triplet(CaT). The sample comprises 78 objects, divided into 43 Seyfert 2s, 26Seyfert 1s, three starburst and six normal galaxies. The spectra pertainto the inner ~300 pc in radius, and thus sample the central kinematicsand stellar populations of active galaxies. The data are used to measurestellar velocity dispersions (σ*) with bothcross-correlation and direct fitting methods. These measurements arefound to be in good agreement with each other and with those in previousstudies for objects in common. The CaT equivalent width is alsomeasured. We find average values and sample dispersions ofWCaT of 4.6 +/- 2.0, 7.0 +/- 1.0 and 7.7 +/- 1.0 Å forSeyfert 1s, Seyfert 2s and normal galaxies, respectively. We furtherpresent an atlas of [SIII]λ9069 emission-line profiles for asubset of 40 galaxies. These data are analysed in a companion paperwhich addresses the connection between stellar and narrow-line regionkinematics, the behaviour of the CaT equivalent width as a function ofσ*, activity type and stellar population properties. FeXXV and FeXXVI lines from low-velocity, photoionized gas in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nucleiWe have calculated the equivalent widths of the absorption linesproduced by FeXXV and FeXXVI in a Compton-thin, low-velocityphotoionized material illuminated by the nuclear continuum in activegalactic nuclei. The results, plotted against the ionization parameterand the column density of the gas, are a complement to those presentedby Bianchi & Matt for the emission lines from the same ionicspecies. As an extension to the work by Bianchi & Matt, we alsopresent a qualitative discussion on the different contributions to theHe-like iron emission line complex in the regimes where recombination orresonant scattering dominates, providing a useful diagnostic tool tomeasure the column density of the gas. Future high-resolution missions(e.g. Astro-E2) will allow us to fully take advantage of these plasmadiagnostics. In the meantime, we compare our results with an up-to-datelist of Compton-thick and unobscured (at least at the iron line energy)Seyfert galaxies with emission and/or absorption lines from H- andHe-like iron observed with Chandra and XMM-Newton. The Relationship of Hard X-Ray and Optical Line Emission in Low-Redshift Active Galactic NucleiIn this paper we assess the relationship of the population of activegalactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by hard X-rays to the traditionalpopulation of AGNs with strong optical emission lines. First, we studythe emission-line properties of a new hard-X-ray-selected sample of 47local AGNs (classified optically as Type 1 and 2 AGNs). We find that thehard X-ray (3-20 keV) and [O III] λ5007 optical emission-lineluminosities are well-correlated over a range of about 4 orders ofmagnitude in luminosity (mean luminosity ratio 2.15 dex with a standarddeviation of σ=0.51 dex). Second, we study the hard X-rayproperties of a sample of 55 local AGNs selected from the literature onthe basis of the flux in the [O III] line. The correlation between thehard X-ray (2-10 keV) and [O III] luminosity for the Type 1 AGNs isconsistent with what is seen in the hard-X-ray-selected sample. However,the Type 2 AGNs have a much larger range in the luminosity ratio, andmany are very weak in hard X-rays (as expected for heavily absorbedAGNs). We then compare the hard X-ray (3-20 keV) and [O III] luminosityfunctions of AGNs in the local universe. These have similar faint-endslopes, with a luminosity ratio of 1.60 dex (0.55 dex smaller than themean value for individual hard-X-ray-selected AGNs). We conclude that atlow redshift, selection by narrow optical emission lines will recovermost AGNs selected by hard X-rays (with the exception of BL Lacobjects). However, selection by hard X-rays misses a significantfraction of the local AGN population with strong emission lines. The Swift/BAT High-Latitude Survey: First ResultsWe present preliminary results from the first 3 months of the SwiftBurst Alert Telescope (BAT) high Galactic latitude survey in the 14-195keV band. The survey reaches a flux of ~10-11 ergscm-2 s-1 and has ~2.7 arcmin (90% confidence)positional uncertainties for the faintest sources. This represents themost sensitive survey to date in this energy band. These data confirmthe conjectures that a high-energy-selected active galactic nucleus(AGN) sample would have very different properties from those selected inother bands and that it represents a true'' sample of the AGNpopulation. We have identified 86% of the 66 high-latitude sources.Twelve are Galactic-type sources, and 44 can be identified withpreviously known AGNs. All but five of the AGNs have archival X-rayspectra, enabling us to estimate the line-of-sight column densities andother spectral properties. Both of the z>0.11 objects are blazars.The median redshift of the others (excluding radio-loud objects) is0.012. We find that the column density distribution of these AGNs isbimodal, with 64% of the nonblazar sources having column densitiesNH>=1022 cm-2. None of the sourceswith logLX>43.5 (cgs units) show high column densities,and very few of the lower LX sources have low columndensities. Based on these data, we expect the final BAT catalog to have>200 AGNs and reach fluxes of less than ~10-11 ergscm-2 s-1 over the entire sky. Simulating the Spitzer Mid-Infrared Color-Color DiagramsWe use a simple parameterization of the mid-IR spectra of a wide rangeof galaxy types in order to predict their distribution in the InfraredArray Camera (IRAC) 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm and MultibandPhotometer for Spitzer 24 μm color-color diagrams. We distinguishthree basic spectral types by the energetically dominant component inthe 3-12 μm regime: stellar-dominated, polycyclic aromatichydrocarbon (PAH)-dominated, and continuum-dominated. We use a Markovchain Monte Carlo approach to arrive at a more systematic and robustrepresentation of the mid-IR spectra of galaxies than do moretraditional approaches. We find that IRAC color-color plots are wellsuited to distinguishing the above spectral types, while the addition of24 μm data allows us to suggest practical three-color cuts thatpreferentially select higher redshift sources of a specific type. Wecompare our simulations with the color-color plot obtained by theSpitzer First Look Survey and find reasonable agreement. Lastly, wediscuss other applications as well as future directions for this work. The star formation history of Seyfert 2 nucleiWe present a study of the stellar populations in the central ~200 pc ofa large and homogeneous sample comprising 79 nearby galaxies, most ofwhich are Seyfert 2s. The star formation history of these nuclei isreconstructed by means of state-of-the-art population synthesismodelling of their spectra in the 3500-5200 Åinterval. Aquasar-like featureless continuum (FC) is added to the models to accountfor possible scattered light from a hidden active galactic nucleus(AGN).We find the following. (1) The star formation history of Seyfert 2nuclei is remarkably heterogeneous: young starbursts, intermediate-ageand old stellar populations all appear in significant and widely varyingproportions. (2) A significant fraction of the nuclei show a strong FCcomponent, but this FC is not always an indication of a hidden AGN: itcan also betray the presence of a young, dusty starburst. (3) We detectweak broad Hβ emission in several Seyfert 2s after cleaning theobserved spectrum by subtracting the synthesis model. These are mostlikely the weak scattered lines from the hidden broad-line regionenvisaged in the unified model, given that in most of these casesindependent spectropolarimetry data find a hidden Seyfert 1. (4) The FCstrengths obtained by the spectral decomposition are substantiallylarger for the Seyfert 2s which present evidence of broad lines,implying that the scattered non-stellar continuum is also detected. (5)There is no correlation between the star formation in the nucleus andeither the central or overall morphology of the parent galaxies. Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S DatabaseWe have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Markarian 1239: A Highly Polarized Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy with a Steep X-Ray Spectrum and Strong Ne IX EmissionWe report the results of an XMM-Newton observation of the narrow-lineSeyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 1239. This optically highly polarized AGN has oneof the steepest X-ray spectra found in AGNs, withαX=+3.0 based on ROSAT PSPC data. The XMM-Newton EPICpn and MOS data confirm this steep X-ray spectrum. The pn data are bestfitted by a power law with a partial-covering absorption modelsuggesting two light paths between the continuum source and theobserver, one indirect scattered one, which is less absorbed, and ahighly absorbed direct light path. This result agrees with thewavelength-dependent degree of polarization in the optical/UV band.Residuals in the X-ray spectra of all three XMM-Newton EPIC detectorsaround 0.9 keV suggest the presence of an emission-line feature, mostlikely the Ne IX triplet. The detection of Ne IX and the nondetection ofO VII/O VIII suggest a supersolar Ne/O ratio.Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science missionwith instruments and contribution directly funded by ESA member statesand NASA. Statistical properties of local active galactic nuclei inferred from the RXTE 3-20 keV all-sky surveyWe compiled a sample of 95 AGNs serendipitously detected in the 3-20 keVband at Galactic latitude |b|>10o during the RXTE slewsurvey (XSS, Revnivtsev et al. 2004), and utilize it to study thestatistical properties of the local population of AGNs, including theX-ray luminosity function and absorption distribution. We find thatamong low X-ray luminosity (L3-20< 1043.5 ergs-1) AGNs, the ratio of absorbed (characterized by intrinsicabsorption in the range 1022cm-21041 erg s-1 estimated here issmaller than the earlier estimated total X-ray volume emissivity in thelocal Universe, suggesting that a comparable X-ray flux may be producedtogether by lower luminosity AGNs, non-active galaxies and clusters ofgalaxies. Finally, we present a sample of 35 AGN candidates, composed ofunidentified XSS sources.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/469 The complex X-ray spectrum of NGC 4507XMM-Newton and Chandra/HETG spectra of the Compton-thin(NH4×1023 cm-2) Seyfert 2galaxy, NGC 4507, are analyzed and discussed. The main results are: a)the soft X-ray emission is rich in emission lines; an (at least)two-zone photoionization region is required to explain the large rangeof ionization states; b) the 6.4 keV iron line is likely emitted fromCompton-thick matter, implying the presence of two circumnuclear coldregions, one Compton-thick (the emitter), one Compton-thin (the coldabsorber); c) evidence of an Fe XXV absorption line is found in theChandra/HETG spectrum. The column density of the ionized absorber isestimated to be a few ×1022 cm-2. RXTE all-sky slew survey. Catalog of X-ray sources at |b|>10oWe report results of a serendipitous hard X-ray (3-20 keV), nearlyall-sky (|b|>10o) survey based on RXTE/PCA observationsperformed during satellite reorientations in 1996-2002. The survey is80% (90%) complete to a 4σ limiting flux of ≈ 1.8 (2.5) ×10-11 erg s-1 cm-2 in the 3-20 keVband. The achieved sensitivity in the 3-8 keV and 8-20 keV subbands issimilar to and an order of magnitude higher than that of the previouslyrecord HEAO-1 A1 and HEAO-1 A4 all-sky surveys, respectively. A combined7× 103 sq deg area of the sky is sampled to flux levelsbelow 10-11 erg s-1 cm-2 (3-20 keV). Intotal 294 sources are detected and localized to better than 1 deg. 236(80%) of these can be confidently associated with a known astrophysicalobject; another 22 likely result from the superposition of 2 or 3closely located known sources. 35 detected sources remain unidentified,although for 12 of these we report a likely soft X-ray counterpart fromthe ROSAT all-sky survey bright source catalog. Of the reliablyidentified sources, 63 have local origin (Milky Way, LMC or SMC), 64 areclusters of galaxies and 100 are active galactic nuclei (AGN). The factthat the unidentified X-ray sources have hard spectra suggests that themajority of them are AGN, including highly obscured ones(NH>1023 cm-2). For the first timewe present a log N-log S diagram for extragalactic sources above4× 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 at 8-20keV.Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/927 The relation between AGN hard X-ray emission and mid-infrared continuum from ISO spectra: Scatter and unification aspectsWe use mid-infrared spectral decomposition to separate the 6 μmmid-infrared AGN continuum from the host emission in the ISO lowresolution spectra of 71 active galaxies and compare the results toobserved and intrinsic 2-10 keV hard X-ray fluxes from the literature.We find a correlation between mid-infrared luminosity and absorptioncorrected hard X-ray luminosity, but the scatter is about an order ofmagnitude, significantly larger than previously found with smallerstatistics. Main contributors to this scatter are likely variations inthe geometry of absorbing dust, and AGN variability in combination withnon-simultaneous observations. There is no significant differencebetween type 1 and type 2 objects in the average ratio of mid-infraredand hard X-ray emission, a result which is not consistent with the mostsimple version of a unified scheme in which an optically andgeometrically thick torus dominates the mid-infrared AGN continuum. Mostprobably, significant non-torus contributions to the AGN mid-IRcontinuum are masking the expected difference between the two types ofAGN.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/465Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands, and the UK) with the participation of ISAS and NASA. Long slit spectroscopy of a sample of isolated spirals with and without an AGNWe present the kinematical data obtained for a sample of active(Seyfert) and non active isolated spiral galaxies, based on long slitspectra along several position angles in the Hα line region and,in some cases, in the Ca triplet region as well. Gas velocitydistributions are presented, together with a simple circular rotationmodel that allows us to determine the kinematical major axes. Stellarvelocity distributions are also shown. The main result is that activeand control galaxies seem to be equivalent in all kinematical aspects.For both subsamples, the departure from pure circular rotation in somegalaxies can be explained by the presence of a bar and/or of a spiralarm. They also present the same kind of peculiarities, in particular,S-shape structures are quite common near the nuclear regions. Theydefine very similar Tully-Fisher relations. Emission line ratios aregiven for all the detected HII regions; the analysis of the[NII]/Hα metallicity indicator shows that active and non-activegalaxies have indistinguishable disk metallicities. These results arguein favour of active and non-active isolated spiral galaxies havingessentially the same properties, in agreement with our previous resultsbased on the analysis of near infrared images. It appears now necessaryto confirm these results on a larger sample.Based on observations made with WHT operated on the island of La Palmaby ING in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of theInstituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, the European SouthernObservatory (La Silla), Calar Alto Observatory (Almería, Spain)and Las Campanas Observatories (Chile).Table 3 and Figs. \ref{res_cen_u1395}, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21,23, 25, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50 and 52 are onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.orgTable 5 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/475 Investigating the central engine of Seyfert 2 galaxies with and without Polarized Broad LinesWe study the hard X-ray emission of two samples of Seyfert 2 galaxieswith and without Polarized Broad Lines (PBL). In the hard X-ray domain,absorption effects do not significantly modify the intrinsic emissionallowing us a direct access to the central engine. The purpose of thisstudy is to compare the primary emission of the two Seyfert 2 subclassesin order to investigate the nature of their central engine and to testunified models according to which they both have a hidden Seyfert 1nucleus. We compute the average hard X-ray spectra of Seyfert 2 galaxieswith and without PBL observed with BeppoSAX/PDS (15-136 keV). The twospectra have a common general behavior at first sight, but investigatingdeeper we find differences in the intrinsic properties of the twocategories of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Sy 2 with polarized broad lines havephysical conditions close to those of Sy 1 galaxies whereas Sy 2 withoutPBL differ substantially, suggesting that they may have a particularplace in the scheme of Seyfert galaxies.Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org The evolution of stars and gas in starburst galaxiesIn systems undergoing starbursts the evolution of the young stellarpopulation is expected to drive changes in the emission-line properties.This evolution is usually studied theoretically, with a combination ofevolutionary synthesis models for the spectral energy distribution ofstarbursts and photoionization calculations. In this paper we present amore empirical approach to this issue. We apply empirical populationsynthesis techniques to samples of starburst and HII galaxies in orderto measure their evolutionary state and correlate the results with theiremission-line properties. A couple of useful tools are introduced thatgreatly facilitate the interpretation of the synthesis: (1) anevolutionary diagram, the axes of which are the strengths of the young,intermediate age and old components of the stellar population mix; and(2) the mean age of stars associated with the starburst, . These toolsare tested with grids of theoretical galaxy spectra and found to workvery well even when only a small number of observed properties(absorption-line equivalent widths and continuum colours) is used in thesynthesis.Starburst nuclei and HII galaxies are found to lie on a well-definedsequence in the evolutionary diagram. Using the empirically defined meanstarburst age in conjunction with emission-line data, we have verifiedthat the equivalent widths of Hβ and [OIII] decrease for increasing. The same evolutionary trend was identified for line ratios indicativeof the gas excitation, although no clear trend was identified formetal-rich systems. All these results are in excellent agreement withlong-known, but little tested, theoretical expectations. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of Extended [O III] λ5007 Emission in a Far-Infrared Selected Sample of Seyfert Galaxies: ObservationsWe present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) survey of extended [O III]emission for a sample of 60 Seyfert galaxies (22 Seyfert 1 galaxies and38 Seyfert 2 galaxies), selected based on their far-infrared properties.The observations for 42 of these galaxies were done in a snapshot surveywith WFPC2. The remaining 18 were obtained from the HST archive, most ofwhich were observed with the same configuration. These observationscover 68% of the objects in the sample defined by Kinney et al. andcreate a valuable data set for the study of the narrow-line region (NLR)properties of Seyfert galaxies. In this paper, we present the details ofthe observations, reductions, and measurements. We also discuss theextended structure of individual sources, and the relation of thisemission to the radio and host galaxy morphology. We also address howrepresentative the subsample of [O III]-imaged galaxies is of the entiresample, and possible selection effects that may affect this comparisonof the properties of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. The Lack of Broad-Line Regions in Low Accretion Rate Active Galactic Nuclei as Evidence of Their Origin in the Accretion DiskIn this Letter, we present evidence suggesting that the absence orpresence of hidden broad-line regions (HBLRs) in Seyfert 2 galaxies isregulated by the rate at which matter accretes onto a centralsupermassive black hole, in units of the Eddington rate. Evidence isbased on data from a subsample of type 2 active galactic nucleiextracted from the Tran spectropolarimetric sample and made up of allthose sources that also have good-quality X-ray spectra available andfor which a bulge luminosity can be estimated. We use the intrinsic(i.e., unabsorbed) X-ray luminosities of these sources and their blackhole masses (estimated by using the well-known relationship betweennuclear mass and bulge luminosity in galaxies) to derive the nuclearaccretion rate in Eddington units. We find that virtually all HBLRsources have accretion rates larger than a threshold value ofmthres~=10-3 (in Eddington units), while non-HBLRsources lie at m<~mthres. These data nicely fitpredictions from a model proposed by Nicastro in which the broad-lineregions (BLRs) are formed by accretion disk instabilities occurring inproximity of the critical radius at which the disk changes from gaspressure dominated to radiation pressure dominated. This radiusdiminishes with decreasing m for low enough accretion rates (andtherefore luminosities), the critical radius becomes smaller than theinnermost stable orbit and BLRs cannot form.
Submit a new article