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Star Formation Histories of Early-Type Galaxies. I. Higher Order Balmer Lines as Age Indicators
We have obtained blue integrated spectra of 175 nearby early-typegalaxies, covering a wide range in galaxy velocity dispersion andemphasizing those with σ<100 km s-1. Galaxies havebeen observed both in the Virgo Cluster and in lower densityenvironments. The main goals are the evaluation of higher order Balmerlines as age indicators and differences in stellar populations as afunction of mass, environment, and morphology. In this first paper, ouremphasis is on presenting the methods used to characterize the behaviorof the Balmer lines through evolutionary population synthesis models.Lower σ galaxies exhibit a substantially greater intrinsicscatter, in a variety of line-strength indicators, than do higherσ galaxies, with the large intrinsic scatter setting in below aσ of 100 km s-1. Moreover, a greater contrast inscatter is present in the Balmer lines than in the lines of metalfeatures. Evolutionary synthesis modeling of the observed spectralindexes indicates that the strong Balmer lines found primarily among thelow-σ galaxies are caused by young age, rather than by lowmetallicity. Thus we find a trend between the population age and thecentral velocity dispersion, such that low-σ galaxies have youngerluminosity-weighted mean ages. We have repeated this analysis usingseveral different Balmer lines and find consistent results from onespectral indicator to another.

The luminosity function of the Virgo Cluster from MB=-22 to -11
We measure the galaxy luminosity function (LF) for the Virgo Clusterbetween blue magnitudes MB=-22 and -11 from wide-fieldcharge-coupled device (CCD) imaging data. The LF is only graduallyrising for -22

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

The Colors of Globular Clusters
A compilation has been made of available data on the ratio of the numberof metal-rich ([Fe/H]>-1.0) to metal-poor ([Fe/H]<-1.0) clustersin various globular cluster systems. Among early-type galaxies of typesE, E/S0, and S0, the ratio of blue to red globular clusters is found tovary by almost 2 orders of magnitude. The data suggest that cD galaxieshave the widest range of evolutionary histories. The fraction ofmetal-rich red clusters is largest among early-type galaxies and appearsto decrease toward later Hubble types.

Total Magnitudes of Virgo Galaxies. I. Construction of a Self-Consistent Reference Dataset Spanning 8th to 18th Magnitude
The main objectives of this series of papers are: (1) to demonstrate theexistence of serious mutual disagreements between established total (andother integrated) magnitude scales for Virgo galaxies; (2) to attempt toquantify both the systematic and random errors present within thesemagnitude scales; (3) to investigate the origins of any large erroruncovered; and thereby (4) to encourage the general adoption of rigoroustotal-magnitude measurement procedures by the astronomical community.The ramifications of the findings presented in this series of paperswill be discussed in detail at a later date. In this paper, the first inthe series, a self-consistent dataset of trustworthy total-magnitudemeasurements is compiled for a sample of Virgo galaxies spanning a rangeof 10 000 in apparent brightness, based on only the most reliablemeasurements and photometry currently available. This reference dataset,which includes luminosity profile shape information, will be used insubsequent papers as one of the bases for assessing existing magnitudescales for Virgo galaxies. As most published magnitudes are based onB-band observations, this series of papers will also focus primarily onB-band measurements.

New Insights from Hubble Space Telescope Studies of Globular Cluster Systems. II. Analysis of 29 S0 Systems
We examine the globular cluster systems (GCSs) of a sample of 34 S0galaxies from a WFPC2 snapshot survey in the V and I bands. Of these 34galaxies, 29 have measurable globular cluster systems. The mean color ofthe GCSs of individual galaxies vary from V-I=0.85 mag to V-I=1.17 mag.The average color of GCSs in all 29 S0 galaxies, V-I=1.00+/-0.07 mag, issimilar to the value of V-I=1.04+/-0.04 derived for ellipticals in acompanion paper. The mean metallicity of a cluster system is correlatedto the luminosity (or mass) of the host galaxy, but it is not dependenton the Hubble type. Our measurements of the local specific frequency, onthe other hand, confirm that the cluster formation efficiency is afunction of Hubble type. The mean local specific frequency of our samplewithin the WFPC2 field of view is 1.0+/-0.6, lower thanSN(Local)=2.4+/-1.8 derived for ellipticals in a similaranalysis. Although we are able to confirm a bimodal color distributionin only one galaxy from the shallow ``snapshot'' images analyzed in thispaper, statistical tests suggest that 10%-20% of S0s are bimodal at thepresent level of photometric accuracy. There are no significant trendsin GCS properties with membership or location of the S0 host in a galaxycluster. We have measured the turnover luminosity of the globularcluster luminosity function (GCLF) for the richest few GCSs and find theGCLF distances to be in agreement with other estimates. The globularclusters in S0 galaxies have average half-light radii of ~2.6 pc, whichis similar to that of other galaxies, including our own. Based onobservations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at theSpace Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

The Nature of Accreting Black Holes in Nearby Galaxy Nuclei
We have found compact X-ray sources in the center of 21 (54%) of 39nearby face-on spiral and elliptical galaxies with available ROSAT HRIdata. ROSAT X-ray luminosities (0.2-2.4 keV) of these compact X-raysources are ~10^37-10^40 ergs s^-1 (with a mean of 3x10^39 ergs s^-1).The mean displacement between the location of the compact X-ray sourceand the optical photometric center of the galaxy is ~390 pc. The factthat compact nuclear sources were found in nearly all (five of six)galaxies with previous evidence for a black hole or an active galacticnucleus (AGN) indicates that at least some of the X-ray sources areaccreting supermassive black holes. ASCA spectra of six of the 21galaxies show the presence of a hard component with relatively steep(Gamma~2.5) spectral slope. A multicolor disk blackbody model fits thedata from the spiral galaxies well, suggesting that the X-ray object inthese galaxies may be similar to a black hole candidate in its soft(high) state. ASCA data from the elliptical galaxies indicate that hot(kT~0.7 keV) gas dominates the emission. The fact that (for both spiraland elliptical galaxies) the spectral slope is steeper than in normaltype 1 AGNs and that relatively low absorbing columns (N_H~10^21 cm^-2)were found to the power-law component indicates that these objects aresomehow geometrically and/or physically different from AGNs in normalactive galaxies. The X-ray sources in the spiral and elliptical galaxiesmay be black hole X-ray binaries, low-luminosity AGNs, or possibly youngX-ray luminous supernovae. Assuming the sources in the spiral galaxiesare accreting black holes in their soft state, we estimate black holemasses ~10^2-10^4 M_solar.

On the local radio luminosity function of galaxies. I. The Virgo cluster
We cross-correlate the galaxies brighter than m_B=18 in the Virgocluster with the radio sources in the NVSS survey (1.4 GHz), resultingin 180 radio-optical identifications. We determine the radio luminosityfunction of the Virgo galaxies, separately for the early- andlate-types. Late-type galaxies develop radio sources with a probabilityproportional to their optical luminosity. In fact their radio/optical(R_B) distribution is gaussian, centered at log R_B ~ -0.5, i.e. theradio luminosity is ~ 0.3 of the optical one. The probability oflate-type galaxies to develop radio sources is almost independent oftheir detailed Hubble type, except for Sa (and S0+S0a) which are afactor of ~ 5 less frequent than later types at any R_B. Giantelliptical galaxies feed ``monster" radio sources with a probabilitystrongly increasing with mass. However the frequency of fainter radiosources is progressively less sensitive on the system mass. The faintestgiant E galaxies (M_B=-17) have a probability of feeding low power radiosources similar to that of dwarf E galaxies as faint as M_B=-13. Table~1is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

The ``Virgo photometry catalogue''; a catalogue of 1180 galaxies in the direction of the Virgo Cluster's core
We present a new catalogue of galaxies in the direction of the VirgoCluster's core: the Virgo Photometry Catalogue (VPC)*. This cataloguecontains 1180 galaxies (including background objects) within a 23square-degree area of the sky centred on R.A._{1950.0} = 12h 26m anddec._{1950.0} = 13(deg) 08'. The VPC galaxy sample comprises ofnon-stellar objects brighter than B_J25 = 19.0; thecompleteness limits being B_J25 ~18.5 for the northern halfof the survey area and B_J25 ~18.0 for the southern half.Independently-calibrated photographic surface photometry is presentedfor over 1000 galaxies in the U, B_J and R_C bands. Parameters listedfor catalogued galaxies include: equatorial coordinates, morphologicaltypes, surface-brightness profile parameters (which preserve themajority of the original surface photometry information), U, B_J &R_C isophotal magnitudes, B_J and [transformed] B total magnitudes,(U-B_J) and (B_J-R_C) equal-area and total colours, apparent angularradii, ellipticities, position angles, heliocentric radial velocitiesand alternative designations. All total magnitudes and total colours areextrapolated according to a new system denoted t in order to distinguishit from the T system already in use. The VPC is based primarily on four(one U, two B_J and one R_C) UK-Schmidt plates, all of which weredigitised using the Royal Observatory Edinburgh's (ROE) COSMOS measuringmachine. All magnitudes, colours and surface-brightness parameters arederived from numerical integrations of segmented plate-scan data, exceptfor (in 109 cases) saturated or (in 51 cases) inextricably-mergedimages; our segmentation software being able to cope with the vastmajority of image mergers. * Appendices B, C and E, which contain thesurface photometry, the main catalogue and the summary cataloguerespectively, are only available in electronic form. They can beobtained from La Centre des Donees astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Morphological segregation of early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster
We present evidence for a morphological segregation of early-typegalaxies with different isophote shapes in the Virgo cluster. Comparinglocal projected densities around galaxies, we find that, independentlyof their classification as elliptical or lenticular, galaxies with boxyisophotes are located in local density enhancements, while galaxies withdiscy isophotes lie in regions of lower local densities. Thissegregation is therefore not just the reflection of ordinarymorphological segregation between elliptical and lenticular galaxies,and it shows that the property of galaxies that is more sensitive to theenvironment is the presence or not of a stellar disc, rather than thebulge-to-disco ratio (and therefore the classification as an E or an S0galaxy).

On the Shape of the Light Profiles of Early Type Galaxies
We have obtained the best fit to the light profiles of a luminosity-limited sample of elliptical and S0 galaxies with a power law r^1/n^,letting the exponent remain free rather than keeping it fixed at 1/n =1/4 as in the well-known de Vaucouleurs formula. The introduction of afree parameter in the fitting formula (ranging from n = 0.5 for (r_e_) =0.3 kpc to n = 16 for (r_e_) = 25 kpc) is justified by the existence ofa good correlation between n and the global galaxian parameters, such astotal luminosity and scale-radius. This result seems to be in line withthe segregation of properties between the `ordinary' and `bright'families of early-type galaxies, and has consequences for the claimedindependence of the shape of galaxy profiles with respect to theFundamental Plane parameters.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II - Photometric techniques and basic data
Results are presented of photographic surface photometry carried out for305 (mostly dwarf) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, in which the galaxyimages were digitized on 14 of the 67 du Pont plates used for the Virgocluster survey. Azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles areshown for all galaxies. The following model-free photometric parametersare derived and listed for each galaxy: total apparent blue magnitude,mean effective radius and surface brightness, and various isophotalradii, ellipticity, and position angle. Most galaxies were fitted by anexponential form and/or a King model profile. The best-fittingparameters, including the 'nuclear' (central residual) magnitudes fordE+dS0 galaxies, are listed.

On the lack of a simple relation between RE and mu-e for early-type galaxies
The direct correlation between effective radius Re and correspondingsurface brightness mu-e, found for early-type galaxies by Kormendy(1977) and later confirmed by several studies, is reexamined using ahomogeneous photometric data base relative to a luminosity-limitedsample of 33 E and SO Virgo cluster galaxies. Contrary to previousbelief, but in line with the existence of a tight fundamental plane forE galaxies and bulges of SOs, it is found that Re and mu-e are notsimply correlated objects with the same total luminosity L(T)proportional to Ie Re-squared, but possess surface brightness and sizeswhich spread over wide ranges. It is suspected that the correlationsbetween mu-e and Re reported in the literature are due to samplesconsisting mainly of luminous galaxies.

Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster. I - The systematic photometric properties of early-type dwarfs
The azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles of 200 faintearly-type Virgo cluster galaxies have been analyzed. Faint dwarfs arevery well described by an exponential or a King model. The magnitudes ofthe nuclei vary greatly at a given galaxian magnitude, but the maximumnuclear luminosity is a strong function of M(T). In the 0.1-1 kpc radiusrange, the logarithmically plotted profiles of all early-type galaxiescome in two well-defined classes identified with classical types versusdwarf types. The former are all classified E or S0, while the lattercomprise all galaxies classified dE or dS0, all morphologically'intermediate' types, and even two classified 'E'. The mean SB profilesof dS0 galaxies are indistinguishable from bright dE profiles. In 2D,the dS0s appear highly flattened and/or show asymmetric and irregularfeatures which may indicate their disk nature.

Further evidence of continuity between elliptical and disc galaxies
The behavior of the isophotes of the E galaxies in a new photometricsample of 33 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgo cluster (Caon)is compared to that of the S0 galaxies. Almost all objects flatter thanb/a = 0.2 are found to exhibit 'pointed' (or 'lemon-shaped') isophotesirrespective of their Hubble class, while almost none do if rounder thanthe same limit. This observation is used to support the incipientscenario in which a large fraction (about 1/2) of E galaxies - theso-called 'disky ellipticals' - populates one end of a disk-to-bulgesequence including S0 and spiral galaxies.

The influence of environment on gas and dust in S0 galaxies
Consideration is given to the effect of local environemnt on the gas anddust content of S0 galaxies relative to other spiral systems in theLocal Supercluster. The optical properties, H I content, and FIRcontinuum properties of a complete sample of Local Supercluster S0galaxies are analyzed. The characteristics of S0 galaxies are comparedwith those of Sa and Sc galaxies. It is concluded that, like otherspiral galaxies, S0's undergo continuing gas removal when they passthrough high-density regions.

Photographic and CCD surface photometry of 33 early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster
Detailed photographic mappings are presented for 33 early-type E and S0galaxies in the Virgo cluster which are brighter than 14 mag. Themappings are based on B-band CCD and large-field photographic material.Attention is given to the geometrical characteristics of the isophotesin order to establish whether a faint disk is present, and thecontribution of the bulge in isolation is separated from thecontribution of the entire galaxy. Comparisons are made with the resultsof previous studies.

Continuum radio emission from Virgo galaxies
The paper presents single-antenna measurements of radio emission from120 galaxies in the Virgo cluster at 2380 MHz using a 2.6 arc min beam(half-power beam width). It also presents interferometric measurementsat the same frequency for 48 galaxies with less than or equal to 1 arcsec resolution. The relative concentration of the radio emission forthese galaxies, particularly the emission from the galactic diskcompared with that from the nucleus is discussed. It is found that thedisk emission dominates in most cases. Some indications that the fluxconcentration is greater in elliptical and lenticular galaxies than itis in spirals are also found.

HI-observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster of galaxies. I - The data
New H I-data for a large number of bright galaxies inside the 10 degradius area of the Virgo cluster of galaxies have been obtained with the100 m radiotelescope at Effelsberg. A total of 234 galaxies was observedfor the first time. Among them, 53 have been detected providing newaccurate radial velocities. Data from the literature have been compiled.Together with the new data, they form a (nearly homogeneous) set of H Iobservations for more than 450 galaxies.

HI-observations of galaxies in the Kraan-Korteweg - Tammann catalogue of nearby galaxies. I - The data
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1986A&AS...63..323H&db_key=AST

Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.

Studies of the Virgo cluster. III - A classification system and an illustrated atlas of Virgo cluster dwarf galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89..919S&db_key=AST

Accurate Optical Positions of Arakelian Galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1981AJ.....86..820K&db_key=AST

Galaxies of high surface brightness
Two lists are presented which contain 621 galaxies whose surfacebrightness, as derived from their apparent magnitudes, is at least 22.0magnitudes from an area of 1 sq arcsec. The lists were compiled in anattempt to verify observationally a possible correlation between surfacebrightness and nuclear activity. Four percent of all the galaxies in anarea of 4.5 sr at declinations higher than -3 deg and galactic latitudesgreater than 20 deg are listed, including 30 Markarian, 29 Zwicky, and 7blue Haro galaxies. A morphological study of 130 of the galaxiesindicates that about half are elliptical or lenticular, 50 are compactor peculiar, and that there is an excess of elliptical and lenticularobjects in comparison with a random sample. Notes on the morphologicaltypes and colors of the galaxies are provided along with identificationcharts.

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Right ascension:12h35m27.20s
Aparent dimensions:0.692′ × 0.603′

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ICIC 3540
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 1614

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