Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

PGC 41845



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. On the Possible Disk Nature of Bright Early-Type Dwarfs
We present a systematic search for disk features in 476 Virgo Clusterearly-type dwarf (dE) galaxies. This is the first such study of analmost-complete, statistically significant dE sample, which includes allcertain or possible cluster members with mB<=18 that arecovered by the optical imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DataRelease 4. Disk features (spiral arms, edge-on disks, or bars) wereidentified by applying unsharp masks to a combined image from threebands (g, r, and i), as well as by subtracting the axisymmetric lightdistribution of each galaxy from that image. Fourteen objects areunambiguous identifications of disks, 10 objects show ``probable disk''features, and 17 objects show ``possible disk'' features. The numberfraction of these galaxies, for which we introduce the term ``dEdi,''reaches more than 50% at the bright end of the dE population anddecreases to less than 5% for magnitudes mB>16. Althoughpart of this observed decline might be due to the lower signal-to-noiseratio at fainter magnitudes, we show that it cannot be caused solely bythe limitations of our detection method. The luminosity function of ourfull dE sample can be explained by a superposition of dEdis and ordinarydEs, strongly suggesting that dEdis are a distinct type of galaxy. Thisis supported by the projected spatial distribution: dEdis show basicallyno clustering and roughly follow the spatial distribution of spirals andirregulars, whereas ordinary dEs are distributed similarly to thestrongly clustered E/S0 galaxies. While the flattening distribution ofordinary dEs is typical for spheroidal objects, the distribution ofdEdis is significantly different and agrees with their being flat oblateobjects. We therefore conclude that the dEdis are not spheroidalgalaxies that just have an embedded disk component but are instead apopulation of genuine disk galaxies. Several dEdis display well-definedspiral arms with grand-design features that clearly differ from theflocculent, open arms typical for late-type spirals that have frequentlybeen proposed as progenitors of dEs. This raises the question of whatprocess is able to create such spiral arms-with pitch angles like thoseof Sab/Sb galaxies-in bulgeless dwarf galaxies.

The Colors of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy Globular Cluster Systems, Nuclei, and Stellar Halos
We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 F555W and F814Wsurvey of 69 dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo and FornaxClusters and Leo Group. The V-I colors of the dE globular clusters,nuclei, and underlying field-star populations are used to trace the dEstar formation histories. We find that the dE globular clustercandidates are as blue as the metal-poor globular clusters of the MilkyWay. The observed correlation of the dE globular cluster systems' V-Icolor with the luminosity of the host dE is strong evidence that theglobular clusters were formed within the halos of dEs and do not have apregalactic origin. Assuming that the majority of dE clusters are old,the mean globular cluster color-host galaxy luminosity correlationimplies a cluster metallicity-galaxy luminosity relation of~L0.22+/-0.05B, which issignificantly shallower than the field-star metallicity-host galaxyluminosity relationship observed in Local Group dwarfs(~L0.4). The dE stellar envelopes are0.1-0.2 mag redder in V-I than their globular clusters and nuclei. Thiscolor offset implies separate star formation episodes within the dEs forthe clusters and field stars, while the very blue colors of two dEnuclei trace a third star formation event in those dEs less than 1 Gyrago.

Internal Dynamics, Structure, and Formation of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies. II. Rotating versus Nonrotating Dwarfs
We present spatially resolved internal kinematics and stellar chemicalabundances for a sample of dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in the VirgoCluster observed with the Keck telescope and Echelle Spectrograph andImager. In combination with previous measurements, we find that four outof 17 dE's have major-axis rotation velocities consistent withrotational flattening, while the remaining dE's have no detectablemajor-axis rotation. Despite this difference in internal kinematics,rotating and nonrotating dE's are remarkably similar in terms of theirposition in the fundamental plane, morphological details, stellarpopulations, and local environment. We present evidence for (or confirmthe presence of) faint underlying disks and/or weak substructure in afraction of both rotating and nonrotating dE's, but a comparable numberof counterexamples exist for both types that show no evidence of suchstructure. Absorption line strengths were determined based on theLick/IDS system (Hβ, Mg b, Fe5270, and Fe5335) for the centralregion of each galaxy. We find no difference in the line-strengthindices, and hence stellar populations, between rotating and nonrotatingdE galaxies. The best-fitting mean age and metallicity for our same of17 dE's are 5 Gyr and [Fe/H]=-0.3 dex, respectively, with rms spreads of3 Gyr and 0.1 dex. The majority of dE's are consistent with solar[α/Fe] abundance ratios. By contrast, the stellar populations ofclassical elliptical galaxies are, on average, older, more metal-rich,and α-enhanced relative to our dE sample. The line strengths ofour dE's are consistent with the extrapolation of the line strengthversus velocity dispersion trend seen in classical elliptical galaxies.Finally, the local environments of both rotating and nonrotating dE'sappear to be diverse in terms of their proximity to larger galaxies inreal or velocity space within the Virgo Cluster. Thus, rotating andnonrotating dE's are remarkably similar in terms of their structure,stellar content, and local environments, presenting a significantchallenge to theoretical models of their formation.Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, whichis operated as a scientific partnership among the California Instituteof Technology, the University of California, and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possibleby the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Spectrophotometry of Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. I. The Star Formation History
As a result of an extensive observational campaign targeting the VirgoCluster, we obtained integrated (drift-scan mode) optical spectra andmultiwavelength (UV, U, B, V, H) photometry for 124 and 330 galaxies,respectively, spanning the whole Hubble sequence, and withmp<=16(Mp<=-15). These data were combined toobtain galaxy Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) extending from 2000to 22000 Å. By fitting these SEDs with synthetic ones derivedusing Bruzual & Charlot population synthesis models we try toconstrain observationally the star formation history (SFH) of galaxiesin the rich cluster of galaxies nearest to us. Assuming a Salpeter IMFand an analytical form for the SFH, the fit free parameters are the age(T) of the star formation event, its characteristic timescale (τ),and the initial metallicity (Z). In this work we test the (simplistic)case in which all galaxies have a common age T=13 Gyr, exploring a SFHwith ``delayed'' exponential form (which we call ``a la Sandage''), thusallowing for an increasing SFR with time. This SFH is consistent withthe full range of observed SEDs, provided that the characteristictimescale τ is let free to vary between 0.1 (quasi-instantaneousburst) and 25 Gyr (increasing SFR) and Z between 1/50 and 2.5 Zsolar.Elliptical galaxies (including dEs) are best fitted with shorttimescales (τ~3 Gyr) and metallicity varying between 1/5 and Zsolar.The model metallicity is found to increase as a function of H-bandluminosity. Spiral galaxies require that both τ and metallicitycorrelate with H-band luminosity: low-mass Im+BCD have subsolar Z andτ>=10 Gyr, whereas giant spirals have solar metallicities andτ~3 Gyr, consistent with elliptical galaxies. Moreover, we find thatthe SFH of spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster depends upon thepresence at their interior of fresh gas capable of sustaining the starformation. In fact, the residuals of the τ vs. LHrelation depend significantly on the H I content. H I deficient galaxieshave shorter (up to a factor of 4) τ (truncated SFH) than spiralswith normal H I content. Based on observations collected at theObservatoire de Haute Provence (OHP) (France), operated by the CNRS,France, and at the European Southern Observatory (Chile) (programme66.B-0026).

Internal Dynamics, Structure, and Formation of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies. I. A Keck/Hubble Space Telescope Study of Six Virgo Cluster Dwarf Galaxies
Spectroscopy with the Keck II 10 m telescope and Echelle Spectrographand Imager is presented for six Virgo Cluster dwarf elliptical (dE)galaxies in the absolute magnitude range-15.7<=MV<=-17.2. The mean line-of-sight velocity andvelocity dispersion are resolved as a function of radius along the majoraxis of each galaxy, nearly doubling the total number of dEs withspatially resolved stellar kinematics. None of the observed objectsshows evidence of strong rotation; upper limits onvrot/σ, the ratio of the maximum rotational velocity tothe mean velocity dispersion, are well below those expected forrotationally flattened objects. Such limits place strong constraints ondE galaxy formation models. Although these galaxies continue the trendof low rotation velocities observed in Local Group dEs, they are incontrast to recent observations of large rotation velocities in slightlybrighter cluster dEs. Using surface photometry from Hubble SpaceTelescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images and spherically symmetricdynamical models, we determine global mass-to-light ratios3<=ΥV<=6. These ratios are comparable to thoseexpected for an old to intermediate-age stellar population and arebroadly consistent with the observed V-I colors of the galaxies. ThesedE galaxies therefore do not require a significant dark matter componentinside an effective radius. We are able to rule out central black holesmore massive than ~107 Msolar. For the fivenucleated dEs in our sample, kinematic and photometric properties weredetermined for the central nucleus separately from the underlying hostdE galaxy. These nuclei are as bright or brighter than the most luminousGalactic globular clusters and lie near the region of fundamental planespace occupied by globular clusters. In this space, the Virgo dEgalaxies lie in the same general region as Local Group and other nearbydEs, although nonrotating dEs appear to have a slightly higher mean massand mass-to-light ratio than rotating dEs; the dE galaxies occupy aplane parallel to, but offset from, that occupied by normal ellipticalgalaxies. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. KeckObservatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among theCalifornia Institute of Technology, the University of California, andthe National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory wasmade possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. KeckFoundation.

Dynamical Friction in DE Globular Cluster Systems
The dynamical friction timescale for globular clusters to sink to thecenter of a dwarf elliptical galaxy (dE) is significantly less than aHubble time if the halos have King-model or isothermal profiles and theglobular clusters formed with the same radial density profile as theunderlying stellar population. We examine the summed radial distributionof the entire globular cluster systems and the bright globular clustercandidates in 51 Virgo and Fornax Cluster dE's for evidence of dynamicalfriction processes. We find that the summed distribution of the entireglobular cluster population closely follows the exponential profile ofthe underlying stellar population. However, there is a deficit of brightclusters within the central regions of dE's (excluding the nuclei),perhaps due to the orbital decay of these massive clusters into the dEcores. We also predict the nuclear magnitude of each dE assuming thatthe nuclei form via dynamical friction. The observed trend of decreasingnuclear luminosity with decreasing dE luminosity is much stronger thanpredicted if the nuclei formed via simple dynamical friction processes.We find that the bright dE nuclei could have been formed from the mergerof orbitally decayed massive clusters, but the faint nuclei are severalmagnitudes fainter than expected. These faint nuclei are found primarilyin MV>-14 dE's, which have high globular cluster specificfrequencies and extended globular cluster systems. In these galaxies,supernova-driven winds, high central dark matter densities, extendeddark matter halos, the formation of new star clusters, or tidalinteractions may act to prevent dynamical friction from collapsing theentire globular cluster population into a single bright nucleus.

The Nuclear Cusp Slopes of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies
We derive the light profiles for a sample of 25 dwarf ellipticalgalaxies observed by us with Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field andPlanetary Camera 2 in F555W and F814W. These profiles are fitted withNuker, R1/4, exponential, and Sersic laws and are also usedto derive the nuclear cusp slopes γ. We discuss the correlation ofnuclear cusp slope with galactic luminosity, the presence of a nucleus,and the type of light profile. The results are compared with those foundin the literature for elliptical galaxies and the bulges of spiralgalaxies. We find that, as a class, the nuclear regions of dwarfellipticals are very similar to those of the exponential bulges ofspiral galaxies and have nuclear cusp slopes shallower than those ofbulges with the same luminosity that were well fitted by a deVaucouleurs R1/4 profile. For the 14 nucleated galaxies inour sample, this conclusion is less certain than for the 11 nonnucleatedobjects, since it relies on an extrapolation of galaxy light under thenucleus. In terms of their light profiles and nuclear properties, mostspheroidal stellar systems can be broadly divided into two subclasses:the exponential shallow cusp objects and the R1/4 steep cuspobjects. Membership of a class does not appear to correlate with thepresence of a massive stellar disk. Based on observations with theNASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

1.65 ^mum (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. IV. observations of 170 galaxies with the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope
We present near-infrared (H band) surface photometry of 170 galaxies,obtained in 1997 using the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope equipped with theNICMOS3 camera MAGIC. The majority of our targets are selected amongbright members of the Virgo cluster, however galaxies in the A262 andCancer clusters and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster are also included.This data set is aimed at complementing the NIR survey in the Virgocluster discussed in \cite[Boselli et al. (1997)]{B97} and in the ComaSupercluster, presented in Papers I, II and III of this series.Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii andlight concentration indices are derivedTables 1 and 2 (full version) are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.Based on observations taken at the Calar Alto Observatory, operated bythe Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly withthe Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.

1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxies
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) surface brightness profiledecomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies:Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma andA1367 in the ``Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg≤16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD,except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning fromisolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surfacebrightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), withan exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D).From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surfacebrightness (μe) and radius (re) of each component, theasymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration indexC31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Ellipticalgalaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is bestrepresented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pureexponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong functionof the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubbleclassification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositionsdecreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases withluminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 L\odot and become dominantabove 1011 L\odot . Based on observations taken atTIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Detailed Surface Photometry of Dwarf Elliptical and Dwarf S0 Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
We analyze new V-band images of 14 dwarf S0 galaxies and 10 dwarfelliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, in combination with R-bandimages of 70 dwarf elliptical galaxies from an earlier paper. We computethe intensity-weighted mean ellipticity, the mean deviations fromelliptical isophotes, and a newly defined parameter to measure isophotaltwists. We also fit each major-axis profile to a power lawSigma(a)~exp[-(a/a_s)^n], where n is allowed to vary. Consistent withother studies of the Virgo dwarf ellipticals, we find that the profileshapes for the entire sample is strongly peaked near n=1 (exponentialprofiles) and that no galaxies have n=1/4 (de Vaucouleurs profile). Thefaintest galaxies all have nearly exponential profiles, while thebrighter ones on average have n<1. The correlation betweenellipticity and the boxy/disky parameter is similar to that of largeelliptical galaxies, suggesting that dwarfs may also be divided into twogroups with differing internal dynamics. The Virgo dEs also show agreater degree of isophotal twisting than more luminous ellipticalgalaxies. There does not seem to be any combination of parameters fromthe surface photometry that statistically correlates with the dE/dS0designation: in particular, the dS0 galaxies do not, on average, havemore pointed (disky) isophotes than the dEs.

The Specific Globular Cluster Frequencies of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxiesfrom the Hubble Space Telescope
The specific globular cluster frequencies (S_N) for 24 dwarf elliptical(dE) galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters and the Leo Group thatwere imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope are presented. Combining allavailable data, we find that for nucleated dE (dE, N) galaxies, whichare spatially distributed like giant elliptical galaxies in galaxyclusters, S_N(dE, N)=6.5+/-1.2 and S_N increases with M_V, while fornonnucleated dE (dE, noN) galaxies, which are distributed like late-typegalaxies, S_N(dE, noN)=3.1+/-0.5 and there is little or no trend withM_V. Thus, the S_N values for dE galaxies are, on average, significantlyhigher than those for late-type galaxies, which have S_N<~1. Thissuggests that dE galaxies are more akin to giant elliptical galaxiesthan to late-type galaxies. If there are dormant or stripped irregulargalaxies hiding among the dE population, they are likely to be among thenonnucleated dE galaxies. Furthermore, the similarities in theproperties of the globular clusters (GCs) and in the spatialdistributions of dE, N galaxies and giant elliptical galaxies suggestthat neither galaxy mass nor galaxy metallicity is responsible for thehigh values of S_N. Instead, most metal-poor GCs may have formed indwarf-sized fragments that merged into larger galaxies.

Is the shape of the luminosity profile of dwarf elliptical galaxies an useful distance indicator?
The shape of the surface brightness profile of dE galaxies, quantifiedby parameter n of Sersic's generalized profile law, has recently beenput forward as new extragalactic distance indicator (Young & Currie1994). Its application to the Virgo cluster has subsequently led to theclaim that the Virgo dEs are not lying in the cluster core but aredistributed in a prolate structure stretching from 8 to 20 Mpc distance(Young & Currie 1995). This claim is refuted here. We have fitted aSersic law to the surface brightness profiles of 128 Virgo cluster dEsand dS0s from the photometry of Binggeli & Cameron (1991). Thedispersion of the n - M relation is indeed large (sigma_rms ~ 0.9 mag).However, we argue that this scatter is not due to the depth of the Virgocluster, but is essentially intrinsic. Contrary to what one would expectfrom the cluster depth hypothesis, there is no clearvelocity-``distance'' relation for a sample of 43 Virgo dEs and dS0swith known redshifts. The analysis of Young & Currie (1995) ishampered by the use of low-resolution photometry and flawed by theassumption that the n - M and n - R relations can be used independently.By combining different Sersic law parameters, the scatter of the scalingrelations can be reduced somewhat, but never below sigma_rms ~ 0.7 mag,at least for the Virgo cluster. For the purpose of distancemeasurements, this falls short of the well-established Tully-Fisher andD_n - sigma methods, and it is comparable to what one can get alreadyfrom the < mu >_eff - M relation for dEs, which does not requireany profile modelling.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

The flattening distribution of dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
We have obtained R-band surface photometry of 70 dwarf ellipticalgalaxies in the Virgo Cluster. We find, in contrast to the results ofearlier studies, that the dwarfs have a markedly flatter distribution ofellipticities than either 'normal' elliptical galaxies or brightestcluster ellipticals. The ensemble of nucleated dwarfs is rounder thanthe non-nucleated galaxies. Neither the nucleated nor the nonnucleateddwarfs, however, have distributions as round as giant ellipticals.

Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II - Photometric techniques and basic data
Results are presented of photographic surface photometry carried out for305 (mostly dwarf) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, in which the galaxyimages were digitized on 14 of the 67 du Pont plates used for the Virgocluster survey. Azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles areshown for all galaxies. The following model-free photometric parametersare derived and listed for each galaxy: total apparent blue magnitude,mean effective radius and surface brightness, and various isophotalradii, ellipticity, and position angle. Most galaxies were fitted by anexponential form and/or a King model profile. The best-fittingparameters, including the 'nuclear' (central residual) magnitudes fordE+dS0 galaxies, are listed.

Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster. I - The systematic photometric properties of early-type dwarfs
The azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles of 200 faintearly-type Virgo cluster galaxies have been analyzed. Faint dwarfs arevery well described by an exponential or a King model. The magnitudes ofthe nuclei vary greatly at a given galaxian magnitude, but the maximumnuclear luminosity is a strong function of M(T). In the 0.1-1 kpc radiusrange, the logarithmically plotted profiles of all early-type galaxiescome in two well-defined classes identified with classical types versusdwarf types. The former are all classified E or S0, while the lattercomprise all galaxies classified dE or dS0, all morphologically'intermediate' types, and even two classified 'E'. The mean SB profilesof dS0 galaxies are indistinguishable from bright dE profiles. In 2D,the dS0s appear highly flattened and/or show asymmetric and irregularfeatures which may indicate their disk nature.

Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.

A catalog of dwarf galaxies in Virgo
A catalog listing the location, apparent angular diameter, type,estimated central light concentration, and estimated brightness of 846dwarf galaxies in a 200-deg-sq region in Virgo is presented. Thegalaxies comprise 634 ellipticals, 137 IC-3475-type galaxies, 73 dwarfspirals and irregulars, and two objects which are jets of normalgalaxies, and were found on nine long-exposure IIIa-J-emulsion platesmade with the 1.2-m-Schmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory from 1971to 1976. Concordances to other catalogs, tables of additionalparameters, maps, graphs, and photographs are provided. The projecteddistributions of normal and dwarf galaxies and the dependence ofapparent luminosity on central light concentration are discussed. It isfound that dwarf ellipticals and IC-3475-type galaxies are probablemembers of the Virgo cluster, while dwarf spirals and possibly dwarfirregulars are not.

An atlas of H II regions in 125 galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1983AJ.....88..296H&db_key=AST

Optical surveys of H II regions in galaxies
Optical surveys of individual galaxies now include many hundreds of H IIregions per galaxy. The present investigation is concerned with a reviewof the present status of the field. Early optical surveys areconsidered, taking into account studies conducted by Hubble,investigations of the Magellanic Clouds, a catalog of H II regions inM31, and a survey of M101. Surveys carried out in recent years usingmore refined techniques have resulted in present knowledge ofsignificant numbers of H II regions in over 150 galaxies. Thecharacteristics of some large-scale surveys of H II regions whichinclude many galaxies studied by uniform techniques are discussed. It ispointed out that optical searches for H II regions in galaxies have beenalmost overwhelmingly successful. A total of 233 searched galaxies forwhich 16,293 H II regions have been mapped is presented in a table.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Coma Berenices
Right ascension:12h34m38.30s
Aparent dimensions:0.631′ × 0.457′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 1577

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR