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|The dwarf low surface brightness galaxy population of the Virgo Cluster - II. Colours and HI line observations|
In order to investigate the nature of dwarf low surface brightness (LSB)galaxies we have undertaken a deep B- and I-band CCD survey of a14-deg2 strip in the Virgo Cluster and applied a Fourierconvolution technique to explore its dwarf galaxy population down to acentral surface brightness of ~26 B magarcsec-2 and a totalabsolute B mag of ~-10. In this paper we carry out an analysis of theirmorphology, (B-I) colours and atomic hydrogen content. We compare theseproperties with those of dwarf galaxies in other environments to try andassess how the cluster environment has influenced their evolution. Fielddwarfs are generally of a more irregular morphology, are bluer andcontain relatively more gas. We assess the importance that variousphysical processes have on the evolution of cluster dwarf galaxies(ram-pressure stripping, tidal interactions, supernova-driven gas loss).We suggest that enhanced star formation triggered by tidal interactionsis the major reason for the very different general properties of clusterdwarfs: they have undergone accelerated evolution.
|Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II - Photometric techniques and basic data|
Results are presented of photographic surface photometry carried out for305 (mostly dwarf) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, in which the galaxyimages were digitized on 14 of the 67 du Pont plates used for the Virgocluster survey. Azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles areshown for all galaxies. The following model-free photometric parametersare derived and listed for each galaxy: total apparent blue magnitude,mean effective radius and surface brightness, and various isophotalradii, ellipticity, and position angle. Most galaxies were fitted by anexponential form and/or a King model profile. The best-fittingparameters, including the 'nuclear' (central residual) magnitudes fordE+dS0 galaxies, are listed.
|Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster. I - The systematic photometric properties of early-type dwarfs|
The azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles of 200 faintearly-type Virgo cluster galaxies have been analyzed. Faint dwarfs arevery well described by an exponential or a King model. The magnitudes ofthe nuclei vary greatly at a given galaxian magnitude, but the maximumnuclear luminosity is a strong function of M(T). In the 0.1-1 kpc radiusrange, the logarithmically plotted profiles of all early-type galaxiescome in two well-defined classes identified with classical types versusdwarf types. The former are all classified E or S0, while the lattercomprise all galaxies classified dE or dS0, all morphologically'intermediate' types, and even two classified 'E'. The mean SB profilesof dS0 galaxies are indistinguishable from bright dE profiles. In 2D,the dS0s appear highly flattened and/or show asymmetric and irregularfeatures which may indicate their disk nature.
|Virgo dwarfs - New light on faint galaxies|
Photographically amplified UK Schmidt plates have been used to define anew sample of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in the VirgoCluster. One of these galaxies is the largest, most gas-rich spiralgalaxy known, located well beyond the Virgo Cluster. The rest of the 137galaxies appear to be dwarf ellipticals. CCD photometry shows that thefaint galaxies are well modeled by an exponential radial profile. Thecolors of very LSB galaxies in Virgo are unusually blue in B-V, bluerthan the metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. If these galaxies do notviolate the mass-metallicity relation, then they must have smaller meanages than Galactic globulars. It is confirmed that any faint galaxysurvey tends to choose objects of a luminosity and surface brightnessthat give them the maximum angular size on the discovery material.
|Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.|
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.
|A catalog of dwarf galaxies in Virgo|
A catalog listing the location, apparent angular diameter, type,estimated central light concentration, and estimated brightness of 846dwarf galaxies in a 200-deg-sq region in Virgo is presented. Thegalaxies comprise 634 ellipticals, 137 IC-3475-type galaxies, 73 dwarfspirals and irregulars, and two objects which are jets of normalgalaxies, and were found on nine long-exposure IIIa-J-emulsion platesmade with the 1.2-m-Schmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory from 1971to 1976. Concordances to other catalogs, tables of additionalparameters, maps, graphs, and photographs are provided. The projecteddistributions of normal and dwarf galaxies and the dependence ofapparent luminosity on central light concentration are discussed. It isfound that dwarf ellipticals and IC-3475-type galaxies are probablemembers of the Virgo cluster, while dwarf spirals and possibly dwarfirregulars are not.
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