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|The evolution of actively star-forming galaxies in the mid-infrared|
In this paper we analyze the evolution of actively star-forming galaxiesin the mid-infrared (MIR). This spectral region, characterized bycontinuum emission by hot dust and by the presence of strong emissionfeatures generally ascribed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)molecules, is the most strongly affected by the heating processesassociated with star formation and/or active galactic nuclei (AGNs).Following the detailed observational characterization of galaxies in theMIR by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have updated themodelling of this spectral region in our spectrophotometric modelGRASIL. In the diffuse component we have updated the treatment of PAHsaccording to the model by Li & Draine. As for the dense phase of theinterstellar medium associated with the star-forming regions, themolecular clouds, we strongly decrease the abundance of PAHs as comparedto that in the cirrus, based on the observational evidence of the lackor weakness of PAH bands close to the newly formed stars, possibly dueto the destruction of the molecules in strong ultraviolet fields. Therobustness of the model is checked by fitting near-infrared to radiobroad-band spectra and the corresponding detailed MIR spectra of a largesample of galaxies, at once. With this model, we have analyzed thelarger sample of actively star-forming galaxies by Dale et al. We showthat the observed trends of galaxies in the ISO-IRAS-radio colour-colourplots can be interpreted in terms of the different evolutionary phasesof star formation activity, and the consequent different dominance inthe spectral energy distribution of the diffuse or dense phase of theISM. We find that the observed colours indicate a surprising homogeneityof the starburst phenomenon, allowing only a limited variation of themost important physical parameters, such as the optical depth of themolecular clouds, the time-scale of the escape of young stars from theirfor mation sites, and the gas consumption time-scale. In this paper wedo not attempt to reproduce the far-infrared coolest region in thecolour-colour plots, as we concentrate on models meant to reproduceactive star-forming galaxies, but we discuss possible requirements of amore complex modelling for the coldest objects.
|The ISOPHOT 170 μm Serendipity Survey II. The catalog of optically identified galaxies%|
The ISOPHOT Serendipity Sky Survey strip-scanning measurements covering≈15% of the far-infrared (FIR) sky at 170 μm were searched forcompact sources associated with optically identified galaxies. CompactSerendipity Survey sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in at leasttwo ISOPHOT C200 detector pixels were selected that have a positionalassociation with a galaxy identification in the NED and/or Simbaddatabases and a galaxy counterpart visible on the Digitized Sky Surveyplates. A catalog with 170 μm fluxes for more than 1900 galaxies hasbeen established, 200 of which were measured several times. The faintest170 μm fluxes reach values just below 0.5 Jy, while the brightest,already somewhat extended galaxies have fluxes up to ≈600 Jy. For thevast majority of listed galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes were measured forthe first time. While most of the galaxies are spirals, about 70 of thesources are classified as ellipticals or lenticulars. This is the onlycurrently available large-scale galaxy catalog containing a sufficientnumber of sources with 170 μm fluxes to allow further statisticalstudies of various FIR properties.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (CISS) areMPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca, AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena,Imperial College London.Full Table 4 and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/39
|ISO Mid-Infrared Observations of Normal Star-Forming Galaxies: The Key Project Sample|
We present mid-infrared maps and preliminary analysis for 61 galaxiesobserved with the ISOCAM instrument aboard the Infrared SpaceObservatory. Many of the general features of galaxies observed atoptical wavelengths-spiral arms, disks, rings, and bright knots ofemission-are also seen in the mid-infrared, except the prominent opticalbulges are absent at 6.75 and 15 μm. In addition, the maps are quitesimilar at 6.75 and 15 μm, except for a few cases where a centralstarburst leads to lower Iν(6.75μm)/Iν(15 μm) ratios in the inner region. We alsopresent infrared flux densities and mid-infrared sizes for thesegalaxies. The mid-infrared color Iν(6.75μm)/Iν(15 μm) shows a distinct trend with thefar-infrared color Iν(60 μm)/Iν(100μm). The quiescent galaxies in our sample [Iν(60μm)/Iν(100 μm)<~0.6] show Iν(6.75μm)/Iν(15 μm) near unity, whereas this ratio dropssignificantly for galaxies with higher global heating intensity levels.Azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles indicate the extent towhich the mid-infrared flux is centrally concentrated, and provideinformation on the radial dependence of mid-infrared colors. Thegalaxies are mostly well resolved in these maps: almost half of themhave <10% of their flux in the central resolution element. Acomparison of optical and mid-infrared isophotal profiles indicates thatthe flux at 4400 Å near the optical outskirts of the galaxies isapproximately 8 (7) times that at 6.75 μm (15 μm), comparable toobservations of the diffuse quiescent regions of the Milky Way. Thispaper is based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory(ISO). ISO is an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA memberstates (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands,and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.
|Mean galaxy luminosity classifications|
To prepare a catalog of weighted means on the classification system ofvan den Bergh, we have combined eight independent lists of luminosityclass estimates, L. Luminosity class values from each set weretransformed to the standard system and weighted according to the errorsderived through a statistical comparison of L differences betweencatalog pairs. Relations were derived for predicting accidental errorsassociated with galaxy diameter and inclination. In addition, we presentformulas for correcting systematic errors associated with diameter andinclination. Finally, we tabulate a high weight subsample of the meanluminosity classes usable as standards. Most values are tabulated in theThird Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies.
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