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Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. On the Possible Disk Nature of Bright Early-Type Dwarfs
We present a systematic search for disk features in 476 Virgo Clusterearly-type dwarf (dE) galaxies. This is the first such study of analmost-complete, statistically significant dE sample, which includes allcertain or possible cluster members with mB<=18 that arecovered by the optical imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DataRelease 4. Disk features (spiral arms, edge-on disks, or bars) wereidentified by applying unsharp masks to a combined image from threebands (g, r, and i), as well as by subtracting the axisymmetric lightdistribution of each galaxy from that image. Fourteen objects areunambiguous identifications of disks, 10 objects show ``probable disk''features, and 17 objects show ``possible disk'' features. The numberfraction of these galaxies, for which we introduce the term ``dEdi,''reaches more than 50% at the bright end of the dE population anddecreases to less than 5% for magnitudes mB>16. Althoughpart of this observed decline might be due to the lower signal-to-noiseratio at fainter magnitudes, we show that it cannot be caused solely bythe limitations of our detection method. The luminosity function of ourfull dE sample can be explained by a superposition of dEdis and ordinarydEs, strongly suggesting that dEdis are a distinct type of galaxy. Thisis supported by the projected spatial distribution: dEdis show basicallyno clustering and roughly follow the spatial distribution of spirals andirregulars, whereas ordinary dEs are distributed similarly to thestrongly clustered E/S0 galaxies. While the flattening distribution ofordinary dEs is typical for spheroidal objects, the distribution ofdEdis is significantly different and agrees with their being flat oblateobjects. We therefore conclude that the dEdis are not spheroidalgalaxies that just have an embedded disk component but are instead apopulation of genuine disk galaxies. Several dEdis display well-definedspiral arms with grand-design features that clearly differ from theflocculent, open arms typical for late-type spirals that have frequentlybeen proposed as progenitors of dEs. This raises the question of whatprocess is able to create such spiral arms-with pitch angles like thoseof Sab/Sb galaxies-in bulgeless dwarf galaxies.

The Colors of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy Globular Cluster Systems, Nuclei, and Stellar Halos
We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 F555W and F814Wsurvey of 69 dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo and FornaxClusters and Leo Group. The V-I colors of the dE globular clusters,nuclei, and underlying field-star populations are used to trace the dEstar formation histories. We find that the dE globular clustercandidates are as blue as the metal-poor globular clusters of the MilkyWay. The observed correlation of the dE globular cluster systems' V-Icolor with the luminosity of the host dE is strong evidence that theglobular clusters were formed within the halos of dEs and do not have apregalactic origin. Assuming that the majority of dE clusters are old,the mean globular cluster color-host galaxy luminosity correlationimplies a cluster metallicity-galaxy luminosity relation of~L0.22+/-0.05B, which issignificantly shallower than the field-star metallicity-host galaxyluminosity relationship observed in Local Group dwarfs(~L0.4). The dE stellar envelopes are0.1-0.2 mag redder in V-I than their globular clusters and nuclei. Thiscolor offset implies separate star formation episodes within the dEs forthe clusters and field stars, while the very blue colors of two dEnuclei trace a third star formation event in those dEs less than 1 Gyrago.

Spectrophotometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. The data
Drift-scan mode (3600-6800 Å) spectra with 500

The Nature of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies: An Observing Project for OSIRIS
Although dwarf elliptical galaxies are the dominant galaxy population innearby clusters, their origin and nature remain a mystery. The main aimof this project is to compare the dynamical properties and starformation histories of a sample of dwarf ellipticals in the Virgocluster with those of the classical elliptical galaxies. In particular,deep long slit spectroscopic data to be obtained with OSIRIS will allowus to: i) measure the degree at which these spheroids are rotationallysupported to check if they could represent the low luminosity extensionof the classical ellipticals; and ii) analyze their stellar populationsgradients in terms of mean age, metallicity, initial mass function, andstar formation histories. These data will provide important clues tounderstanding whether the dwarf ellipticals are primordial clustermembers or, on the contrary, whether they are the result ofenvironmental effects.

Internal Dynamics, Structure, and Formation of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies. II. Rotating versus Nonrotating Dwarfs
We present spatially resolved internal kinematics and stellar chemicalabundances for a sample of dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in the VirgoCluster observed with the Keck telescope and Echelle Spectrograph andImager. In combination with previous measurements, we find that four outof 17 dE's have major-axis rotation velocities consistent withrotational flattening, while the remaining dE's have no detectablemajor-axis rotation. Despite this difference in internal kinematics,rotating and nonrotating dE's are remarkably similar in terms of theirposition in the fundamental plane, morphological details, stellarpopulations, and local environment. We present evidence for (or confirmthe presence of) faint underlying disks and/or weak substructure in afraction of both rotating and nonrotating dE's, but a comparable numberof counterexamples exist for both types that show no evidence of suchstructure. Absorption line strengths were determined based on theLick/IDS system (Hβ, Mg b, Fe5270, and Fe5335) for the centralregion of each galaxy. We find no difference in the line-strengthindices, and hence stellar populations, between rotating and nonrotatingdE galaxies. The best-fitting mean age and metallicity for our same of17 dE's are 5 Gyr and [Fe/H]=-0.3 dex, respectively, with rms spreads of3 Gyr and 0.1 dex. The majority of dE's are consistent with solar[α/Fe] abundance ratios. By contrast, the stellar populations ofclassical elliptical galaxies are, on average, older, more metal-rich,and α-enhanced relative to our dE sample. The line strengths ofour dE's are consistent with the extrapolation of the line strengthversus velocity dispersion trend seen in classical elliptical galaxies.Finally, the local environments of both rotating and nonrotating dE'sappear to be diverse in terms of their proximity to larger galaxies inreal or velocity space within the Virgo Cluster. Thus, rotating andnonrotating dE's are remarkably similar in terms of their structure,stellar content, and local environments, presenting a significantchallenge to theoretical models of their formation.Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, whichis operated as a scientific partnership among the California Instituteof Technology, the University of California, and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possibleby the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Star Formation Histories of Early-Type Galaxies. I. Higher Order Balmer Lines as Age Indicators
We have obtained blue integrated spectra of 175 nearby early-typegalaxies, covering a wide range in galaxy velocity dispersion andemphasizing those with σ<100 km s-1. Galaxies havebeen observed both in the Virgo Cluster and in lower densityenvironments. The main goals are the evaluation of higher order Balmerlines as age indicators and differences in stellar populations as afunction of mass, environment, and morphology. In this first paper, ouremphasis is on presenting the methods used to characterize the behaviorof the Balmer lines through evolutionary population synthesis models.Lower σ galaxies exhibit a substantially greater intrinsicscatter, in a variety of line-strength indicators, than do higherσ galaxies, with the large intrinsic scatter setting in below aσ of 100 km s-1. Moreover, a greater contrast inscatter is present in the Balmer lines than in the lines of metalfeatures. Evolutionary synthesis modeling of the observed spectralindexes indicates that the strong Balmer lines found primarily among thelow-σ galaxies are caused by young age, rather than by lowmetallicity. Thus we find a trend between the population age and thecentral velocity dispersion, such that low-σ galaxies have youngerluminosity-weighted mean ages. We have repeated this analysis usingseveral different Balmer lines and find consistent results from onespectral indicator to another.

Evidence of fast rotation in dwarf elliptical galaxies
In this letter we investigate the kinematical properties of early-typedwarfs by significantly enlarging the scarce observational sample so faravailable. We present rotation curves and mean velocity dispersions forfour bright dwarf ellipticals and two dwarf lenticular galaxies in theVirgo cluster. Most of these galaxies exhibit conspicuous rotationcurves. In particular, five out of the six new galaxies are found to beclose to the predictions for oblate spheroids flattened by rotation.Therefore, and contrary to the previous observational hints, the presentdata suggest that an important fraction of dwarf early-type galaxies maybe rotationally supported.

New clues to the evolution of dwarf early-type galaxies
Surface photometry of 18 Virgo cluster dwarf elliptical (dE) and dwarflenticular (dS0) galaxies, made by Gavazzi et al. in the H band(1.65μm) and in the B band (0.44μm), shows that the ratio of theeffective radii of these stellar systems in the B and H bands, r eB /r eH , ranges between 0.7 and 2.2. In particular,dwarf ellipticals and lenticulars with a red total colour index B -H(i.e. with 3.2

Internal Dynamics, Structure, and Formation of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies. I. A Keck/Hubble Space Telescope Study of Six Virgo Cluster Dwarf Galaxies
Spectroscopy with the Keck II 10 m telescope and Echelle Spectrographand Imager is presented for six Virgo Cluster dwarf elliptical (dE)galaxies in the absolute magnitude range-15.7<=MV<=-17.2. The mean line-of-sight velocity andvelocity dispersion are resolved as a function of radius along the majoraxis of each galaxy, nearly doubling the total number of dEs withspatially resolved stellar kinematics. None of the observed objectsshows evidence of strong rotation; upper limits onvrot/σ, the ratio of the maximum rotational velocity tothe mean velocity dispersion, are well below those expected forrotationally flattened objects. Such limits place strong constraints ondE galaxy formation models. Although these galaxies continue the trendof low rotation velocities observed in Local Group dEs, they are incontrast to recent observations of large rotation velocities in slightlybrighter cluster dEs. Using surface photometry from Hubble SpaceTelescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images and spherically symmetricdynamical models, we determine global mass-to-light ratios3<=ΥV<=6. These ratios are comparable to thoseexpected for an old to intermediate-age stellar population and arebroadly consistent with the observed V-I colors of the galaxies. ThesedE galaxies therefore do not require a significant dark matter componentinside an effective radius. We are able to rule out central black holesmore massive than ~107 Msolar. For the fivenucleated dEs in our sample, kinematic and photometric properties weredetermined for the central nucleus separately from the underlying hostdE galaxy. These nuclei are as bright or brighter than the most luminousGalactic globular clusters and lie near the region of fundamental planespace occupied by globular clusters. In this space, the Virgo dEgalaxies lie in the same general region as Local Group and other nearbydEs, although nonrotating dEs appear to have a slightly higher mean massand mass-to-light ratio than rotating dEs; the dE galaxies occupy aplane parallel to, but offset from, that occupied by normal ellipticalgalaxies. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. KeckObservatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among theCalifornia Institute of Technology, the University of California, andthe National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory wasmade possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. KeckFoundation.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

The Dynamics of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy FS 76: Bridging the Kinematic Dichotomy between Elliptical and Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies
We present major- and minor-axis kinematics out to ~2 half-light radiifor the bright (MB=-16.7) dwarf elliptical galaxy (dE) FS 76,a member of the NGC 5044 group. Its velocity dispersion is 46+/-2 kms-1 in the center and rises to 70+/-10 km s-1 athalf-light radius. Beyond 1Re, the dispersion starts to fallagain. The maximum rotation velocity is 15+/-6 km s-1, aboutthe value expected for an oblate isotropic rotator with the sameflattening as FS 76 (i.e., E1). Hence, FS 76 is the first dE discoveredso far that is not flattened predominantly by anisotropy. There is adiscontinuity in the radial velocity profile at +/-1", corresponding toa kinematically peculiar core with a radial extent of 0.25 kpc. Thereversed outward trend of the velocity dispersion is interpreted asevidence for a truncated dark halo and hence for the occurrence of tidalstripping. Using dynamical models, we estimate the total mass within asphere of 1 kpc (~1.5Re) to be between 1.2 and3.4×109 Msolar at the 90% confidence level,corresponding to 3.2<=(M/L)B<=9.1. These values areconsistent with predictions based on cold dark matter cosmologicalscenarios for galaxy formation. Based on observations collected at theEuropean Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO Large Programme 165.N 0115).

Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters. I. Dynamics and the Origin of Low-Mass Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
Early-type dwarfs are the most common galaxy in the local universe, yettheir origin and evolution remain a mystery. Various cosmologicalscenarios predict that dwarf-like galaxies in dense areas are the firstto form and hence should be the oldest stellar systems in clusters. Byusing radial velocities of early-type dwarfs in the Virgo cluster wedemonstrate that these galaxies are not an old cluster population buthave signatures of production from the infall of field galaxies.Evidence of this includes the combined large dispersions andsubstructure in spatial and kinematic distributions for Virgo early-typedwarfs and a velocity dispersion ratio with giant ellipticals expectedfor virialized and accreted populations. We also argue that thesegalaxies cannot originate from accreted field dwarfs, but must havephysically evolved from a precursor population, of different morphology,that fell into Virgo some time in the past.

Dynamical Friction in DE Globular Cluster Systems
The dynamical friction timescale for globular clusters to sink to thecenter of a dwarf elliptical galaxy (dE) is significantly less than aHubble time if the halos have King-model or isothermal profiles and theglobular clusters formed with the same radial density profile as theunderlying stellar population. We examine the summed radial distributionof the entire globular cluster systems and the bright globular clustercandidates in 51 Virgo and Fornax Cluster dE's for evidence of dynamicalfriction processes. We find that the summed distribution of the entireglobular cluster population closely follows the exponential profile ofthe underlying stellar population. However, there is a deficit of brightclusters within the central regions of dE's (excluding the nuclei),perhaps due to the orbital decay of these massive clusters into the dEcores. We also predict the nuclear magnitude of each dE assuming thatthe nuclei form via dynamical friction. The observed trend of decreasingnuclear luminosity with decreasing dE luminosity is much stronger thanpredicted if the nuclei formed via simple dynamical friction processes.We find that the bright dE nuclei could have been formed from the mergerof orbitally decayed massive clusters, but the faint nuclei are severalmagnitudes fainter than expected. These faint nuclei are found primarilyin MV>-14 dE's, which have high globular cluster specificfrequencies and extended globular cluster systems. In these galaxies,supernova-driven winds, high central dark matter densities, extendeddark matter halos, the formation of new star clusters, or tidalinteractions may act to prevent dynamical friction from collapsing theentire globular cluster population into a single bright nucleus.

The Nuclear Cusp Slopes of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies
We derive the light profiles for a sample of 25 dwarf ellipticalgalaxies observed by us with Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field andPlanetary Camera 2 in F555W and F814W. These profiles are fitted withNuker, R1/4, exponential, and Sersic laws and are also usedto derive the nuclear cusp slopes γ. We discuss the correlation ofnuclear cusp slope with galactic luminosity, the presence of a nucleus,and the type of light profile. The results are compared with those foundin the literature for elliptical galaxies and the bulges of spiralgalaxies. We find that, as a class, the nuclear regions of dwarfellipticals are very similar to those of the exponential bulges ofspiral galaxies and have nuclear cusp slopes shallower than those ofbulges with the same luminosity that were well fitted by a deVaucouleurs R1/4 profile. For the 14 nucleated galaxies inour sample, this conclusion is less certain than for the 11 nonnucleatedobjects, since it relies on an extrapolation of galaxy light under thenucleus. In terms of their light profiles and nuclear properties, mostspheroidal stellar systems can be broadly divided into two subclasses:the exponential shallow cusp objects and the R1/4 steep cuspobjects. Membership of a class does not appear to correlate with thepresence of a massive stellar disk. Based on observations with theNASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. VII. Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) observations and surfacebrightness profile decompositions for 75 faint (13.5 <~ mp<~ 18.5) galaxies, primarily taken among dwarf Ellipticals members ofthe Virgo cluster, with some Centaurus Cluster members, a BCD and twopeculiar galaxies taken as fillers. We model their surface brightnessprofiles with a de Vaucouleurs (D), exponential (E), mixed (bulge+diskor M) or truncated (T) law, and we derive for each galaxy the H bandeffective surface brightness (μe) and effective radius(re), the asymptotic total magnitude HT and thelight concentration index C31, defined as the ratio betweenthe radii that enclose 75% and 25% of the total light HT. Fora subsample we compare the NIR surface photometry with similar datataken in the B and V bands, and we give the B-H and B-V color profiles.Combining the present data with those previously obtained by our group(1157 objects) we analyze the NIR properties of a nearly completesample, representative of galaxies of all morphological types, spanning4 decades in luminosity. We confirm our earlier claim that the presenceof cusps and extended haloes in the light profiles (C31>5)is a strong, non-linear function of the total luminosity. We also findthat: i) among dE and dS0 galaxies D profiles are absent; 50% of thedecompositions are of type M, the remaining being of type E or T. ii)Less than 50% of the giant elliptical galaxies have pure D profiles, themajority being represented by M profiles. iii) Most giant galaxies (fromelliptical to Sb) have M profiles. iv) Most of late type spirals (Scd toBCD) have either E or T profiles. v) The type of decomposition is astrong function of the total H band luminosity, independent of theHubble classification: the fraction of type E decompositions decreaseswith increasing luminosity, while those of type M increase withluminosity. Pure D profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 Lsolar and become dominantabove 1011 Lsolar, while T profiles are presentonly among low luminosity galaxies. vi) We find that dE-peculiargalaxies have structural parameters indistinguishable from those oflate-type dwarfs, thus they might represent the missing link between dEsand dIs. Based on observations taken with the ESO/NTT (ESO program64.N-0288), with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on theisland of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the CNAA at theSpanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC, with the SanPedro Martir 2.1~m telescope of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional(OAN, Mexico), and with the OHP 1.2~m telescope, operated by the FrenchCNRS.

Nucleation of Dwarf Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
Many dwarf galaxies are observed to be nucleated. But some dwarfgalaxies, primarily those that are located beyond the core radius ofclusters of galaxies, do not appear to be nucleated. We revisit thescenario that the formation of dwarf galaxies' nuclei is due to theorbital decay of globular clusters within them and suggest that theobserved dichotomy and spatial dependence of dwarf galaxy morphology isdue to the nature and the relative strength of the extragalactic tidalperturbation. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that indwarf galaxies with a relatively weak external tidal perturbationdynamical friction can lead to significant orbital decays of globularclusters and the formation of compact nuclei within a Hubble timescale.Similar tendencies also occur in those dwarf galaxies near the center ofclusters of galaxies where the extragalactic tidal perturbation tends topreserve the integrity of dwarf galaxies. Based on these numericalsimulations, we show that the observed central structures of fournucleated dwarf galaxies in the Virgo Cluster are well modeled bysuperimposing a small number of globular clusters onto the backgroundstellar distribution. We also deduce a flat mass-weightedvelocity-dispersion distribution that is consistent with some recentobservations and suggest that the cores of nucleated dwarfs may beslightly off center within ~1 Gyr after each globular cluster mergerevent. In the outskirts of clusters of galaxies external tidalperturbation tends to disrupt dwarf galaxies and prevent thesedimentation of the globular clusters within them. We speculate thatthe residual nucleated dwarf galaxies near the central regions of theVirgo Cluster of galaxies may be the first entities to have congregatedand remained there. Such a scenario is consistent with the cold darkmatter hypothesis for galaxy formation.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Detailed Surface Photometry of Dwarf Elliptical and Dwarf S0 Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
We analyze new V-band images of 14 dwarf S0 galaxies and 10 dwarfelliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, in combination with R-bandimages of 70 dwarf elliptical galaxies from an earlier paper. We computethe intensity-weighted mean ellipticity, the mean deviations fromelliptical isophotes, and a newly defined parameter to measure isophotaltwists. We also fit each major-axis profile to a power lawSigma(a)~exp[-(a/a_s)^n], where n is allowed to vary. Consistent withother studies of the Virgo dwarf ellipticals, we find that the profileshapes for the entire sample is strongly peaked near n=1 (exponentialprofiles) and that no galaxies have n=1/4 (de Vaucouleurs profile). Thefaintest galaxies all have nearly exponential profiles, while thebrighter ones on average have n<1. The correlation betweenellipticity and the boxy/disky parameter is similar to that of largeelliptical galaxies, suggesting that dwarfs may also be divided into twogroups with differing internal dynamics. The Virgo dEs also show agreater degree of isophotal twisting than more luminous ellipticalgalaxies. There does not seem to be any combination of parameters fromthe surface photometry that statistically correlates with the dE/dS0designation: in particular, the dS0 galaxies do not, on average, havemore pointed (disky) isophotes than the dEs.

Stellar populations in dwarf elliptical galaxies.
Not Available

The Specific Globular Cluster Frequencies of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxiesfrom the Hubble Space Telescope
The specific globular cluster frequencies (S_N) for 24 dwarf elliptical(dE) galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters and the Leo Group thatwere imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope are presented. Combining allavailable data, we find that for nucleated dE (dE, N) galaxies, whichare spatially distributed like giant elliptical galaxies in galaxyclusters, S_N(dE, N)=6.5+/-1.2 and S_N increases with M_V, while fornonnucleated dE (dE, noN) galaxies, which are distributed like late-typegalaxies, S_N(dE, noN)=3.1+/-0.5 and there is little or no trend withM_V. Thus, the S_N values for dE galaxies are, on average, significantlyhigher than those for late-type galaxies, which have S_N<~1. Thissuggests that dE galaxies are more akin to giant elliptical galaxiesthan to late-type galaxies. If there are dormant or stripped irregulargalaxies hiding among the dE population, they are likely to be among thenonnucleated dE galaxies. Furthermore, the similarities in theproperties of the globular clusters (GCs) and in the spatialdistributions of dE, N galaxies and giant elliptical galaxies suggestthat neither galaxy mass nor galaxy metallicity is responsible for thehigh values of S_N. Instead, most metal-poor GCs may have formed indwarf-sized fragments that merged into larger galaxies.

One Arc Degree Core Substructure of the Virgo Cluster
Not Available

Neutral Gas Distributions and Kinematics of Five Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies
We present the results of high spatial resolution H i observations offive intrinsically compact dwarf galaxies that are currentlyexperiencing a strong burst of star formation. The H i maps indicatethat these systems have a complex and clumpy interstellar medium. Unliketypical dwarf irregular galaxies, these blue compact dwarf galaxies(BCDs) exhibit strong central concentrations in their neutral gasdistributions that may provide a clue to the origin of their strongstarburst activity. Furthermore, while all of the systems appear to berotating, based on observed velocity gradients, the kinematics arecomplex. All systems have nonordered kinematic structure at some level;some of the extended gas is not necessarily kinematically connected tothe main system. The observed gas distributions and kinematics placeconstraints on evolutionary scenarios for BCDs. Evolutionary linksbetween BCDs, dwarf irregular galaxies, and dwarf elliptical galaxieshave been postulated to explain their high star formation rates andlow-luminosity, low-metallicity nature. The BCDs appear to have highercentral mass concentrations in both gas and stellar content than thedwarf irregulars, indicating that evolutionary scenarios connectingthese two classes will require mass redistribution. In addition, thefact that BCDs are rotationally supported systems indicates that theyare unlikely to evolve into dwarf ellipticals without substantial lossof angular momentum. Thus, while such evolutionary scenarios may stillbe possible with the aid of mergers or tidal interactions, the isolatednature of BCDs suggests that the majority of BCDs will not fade tobecome objects similar to the present-day dwarf ellipticals.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

The ``Virgo photometry catalogue''; a catalogue of 1180 galaxies in the direction of the Virgo Cluster's core
We present a new catalogue of galaxies in the direction of the VirgoCluster's core: the Virgo Photometry Catalogue (VPC)*. This cataloguecontains 1180 galaxies (including background objects) within a 23square-degree area of the sky centred on R.A._{1950.0} = 12h 26m anddec._{1950.0} = 13(deg) 08'. The VPC galaxy sample comprises ofnon-stellar objects brighter than B_J25 = 19.0; thecompleteness limits being B_J25 ~18.5 for the northern halfof the survey area and B_J25 ~18.0 for the southern half.Independently-calibrated photographic surface photometry is presentedfor over 1000 galaxies in the U, B_J and R_C bands. Parameters listedfor catalogued galaxies include: equatorial coordinates, morphologicaltypes, surface-brightness profile parameters (which preserve themajority of the original surface photometry information), U, B_J &R_C isophotal magnitudes, B_J and [transformed] B total magnitudes,(U-B_J) and (B_J-R_C) equal-area and total colours, apparent angularradii, ellipticities, position angles, heliocentric radial velocitiesand alternative designations. All total magnitudes and total colours areextrapolated according to a new system denoted t in order to distinguishit from the T system already in use. The VPC is based primarily on four(one U, two B_J and one R_C) UK-Schmidt plates, all of which weredigitised using the Royal Observatory Edinburgh's (ROE) COSMOS measuringmachine. All magnitudes, colours and surface-brightness parameters arederived from numerical integrations of segmented plate-scan data, exceptfor (in 109 cases) saturated or (in 51 cases) inextricably-mergedimages; our segmentation software being able to cope with the vastmajority of image mergers. * Appendices B, C and E, which contain thesurface photometry, the main catalogue and the summary cataloguerespectively, are only available in electronic form. They can beobtained from La Centre des Donees astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Line-Strength Indices in Bright Spheroidal Galaxies: Evidence for a Stellar Population Dichotomy between Spheroidal and Elliptical Galaxies
We present new measurements of central line-strength indices (namely,Mg2, , and H beta ) and gradients for a sample of six brightspheroidal (Sph) galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. Comparison with similarmeasurements for elliptical (E) galaxies, galactic globular clusters(GGCs), and stellar population models yield the following results: (1)in contrast with bright E galaxies, bright Sph galaxies are consistentwith solar abundance [Mg/Fe] ratios; (2) bright Sph galaxies exhibitmetallicities ranging from values typical for metal-rich GGCs to thosefor E galaxies; (3) although absolute mean ages are quite modeldependent, we find evidence that the stellar populations of some (if notall) Sph galaxies look significantly younger than GGCs; and (4) Mg2gradients of bright Sph galaxies are significantly shallower than thoseof E galaxies. We conclude that the dichotomy found in the structuralproperties of Sph and E galaxies is also observed in their stellarpopulations. A tentative interpretation in terms of differences in starformation histories is suggested.

Extragalactic Globular Clusters. IV. The Data
We have explored the use of absorption line strength indices, measuredfrom integrated globular cluster spectra, to predict mean metallicity inlate-type stellar systems. In previous papers we identified the bestindices for such metallicity calibrations out of ~13 measured in a largesample of galactic and M31 cluster spectra. In this paper we present theindividual measurements of 13 indices and averages of multiplemeasurements, where appropriate. Data are given for 151 M31 globularclusters, 88 galaxies, 22 M33 cluster candidates, 10 M87 clusters, eightM81 globular clusters, three Fornax dwarf galaxy clusters, "standard"stars from the lists of Faber et al., stars in the open cluster NGC 188and, for completeness, other stars observed as candidate globularclusters.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:12h28m08.70s
Aparent dimensions:1.318′ × 0.955′

Catalogs and designations:
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ICIC 794
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 1073

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