|On the current status of open-cluster parameters|
We aim to characterize the current status of knowledge on the accuracyof open-cluster parameters such as the age, reddening and distance.These astrophysical quantities are often used to study the globalcharacteristics of the Milky Way down to the very local stellarphenomena. In general, the errors of these quantities are neglected orset to some kind of heuristic standard value. We attempt to give somerealistic estimates for the accuracy of available cluster parameters byusing the independently derived values published in the literature. Intotal, 6437 individual estimates for 395 open clusters were used in ourstatistical analysis. We discuss the error sources depending ontheoretical as well as observational methods and compare our resultswith those parameters listed in the widely used catalogue by Dias et al.In addition, we establish a list of 72 open clusters with the mostaccurate known parameters which should serve as a standard table in thefuture for testing isochrones and stellar models.
|Astrophysical parameters of Galactic open clusters|
We present a catalogue of astrophysical data for 520 Galactic openclusters. These are the clusters for which at least three most probablemembers (18 on average) could be identified in the ASCC-2.5, a catalogueof stars based on the Tycho-2 observations from the Hipparcos mission.We applied homogeneous methods and algorithms to determine angular sizesof cluster cores and coronae, heliocentric distances, mean propermotions, mean radial velocities, and ages. For the first time we derivedistances for 200 clusters, radial velocities for 94 clusters, and agesof 196 clusters. This homogeneous new parameter set is compared withearlier determinations, where we find, in particular, that the angularsizes were systematically underestimated in the literature.
|Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy|
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.
|Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data|
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The STACC Open Cluster Target List|
Observations of variable stars offer a potential to test stellarstructure and evolution. The observations can be either of single,isolated stars, or of variable stars in clusters. The STACC group(Frandsen 1992) has for the last several years searched for openclusters with a population of delta Scuti stars. To make this searchmore efficient, we have produced a target list with a number ofpromising open clusters. The list includes parameters, finding charts,Colour-Magnitude diagrams (CM diagrams) and references for the clusters.This target list is presented here, and is thus made available toobservers interested in participating in the search for variable starsin open clusters. In this paper we describe the motivation, contents anduse of the STACC Open Cluster Target List. We also give some guidelineson how to make CCD observations of open clusters in order to search forvariable stars.
|Thirty years of research with the Baldone Schmidt Telescope|
We describe the research done with the Baldone Schmidt telescope(80/120/240 cm) of the Radioastrophysical Observatory. The telescope hastwo objective prisms with reciprocal dispersions of 600 and 1130 A/mm atH-gamma. One of the main research projects is the search for andphotometric study of galactic carbon stars. The telescope has also beenused for novae studies in M 31 and stellar photometry in open clustersand fields of special interest. Comet studies, particularly during theInternational Halley Watch, proved to be another successful applicationof the telescope. The archive of the Baldone Schmidt telescope containsnearly 20,000 direct and 2000 spectral plates and films.
|Absolute proper motions of 181 young open clusters.|
|Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.|
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.
|Liste des étoiles Ap et Am dans les amas ouverts (Edition révisée)|
|A CO survey of regions around 34 open clusters. II - Physical properties of cataloged molecular clouds|
The physical properties of the 148 molecular clouds found in a CO surveyof regions around 34 young open clusters have been examined. Expressionsare given for the cloud size spectrum and the mass spectrum. Themass-radius relation implies that clouds of all size larger than a fewpc have about the same mean volume density. Power laws with slopes of0.6 and 3 describe, respectively, the relations of CO linewidth andcloud mass to cloud size. The clouds are distinctly nonspherical andappear to be randomly oriented with respect to the Galactic plane. Theobservations can be explained by a model for molecular clouds in whichclouds are ensembles of dense clumps of gas. Based on such a model, itis shown that molecular clouds are perturbed on a time scale shortcompared to the time required for them to reestablish virialequilibrium.
|A CO survey of regions around 34 open clusters|
Results are presented from a systematic search for CO emission fromregions around 34 young open clusters in the outer Galaxy. The clustershave well-determined distances ranging from about 1 to 5 kpc and agesnot greater than about 100 Myr. It was found that some moderately youngclusters have no associated CO emission. All the surveyed clustersyounger than about 5 Myr have associated with them at least onemolecular cloud more massive than 10,000 solar mass, while the molecularclouds associated with clusters older than about 10 Myr are not moremassive than a few thousands solar masses. It was also found thatmolecular clouds are receding from young clusters at a rate of about 10km/sec, and that they seem to be destroyed by their interaction with thestars. Sites of ongoing star formation were identified in a number ofclouds associated with young clusters.
|Component Analysis of Open Clusters|
|Catalog of AP and AM stars in open clusters|
The previous results of Raab (1922), Markarian (1951), and Collinder(1931) have been used to catalog Ap and Am stars that are in the fieldof open clusters. Tabular data are presented for the clusterdesignation, the HD or HDE number, the right ascension (1900), thedeclination (1900), and the magnitude. Also listed are the spectraltypes and, for certain stars, the probability of cluster membership.
|Young stellar-gas complexes in the Galaxy|
It is found that about 90 percent of OB-associations and o-b2 clusterssituated within 3 kpc of the sun can be united into complexes withdiameters of 150-700 pc. Almost all of these clusters contain giantmolecular clouds with a mass greater than about 100,000 solar masses. Anumber of complexes are associated with giant H I clouds; a few of thesmall complexes are situated in the HI caverns. The concentration ofOB-associations and young clusters in star complexes attests to theircommon origin in the supergiant gaseous clouds.
|The Guide Star Photometric Catalog.|
This paper presents data and finding charts for the Guide StarPhotometric Catalog (GSPC), which is an all-sky set of 1477pohotoelectrically determined BV sequences covering the magnitude rangefrom 9 to 15. The GSPC was created to provide photometric calibratorsfor the Guide Star Catalog, which is a catalog of approximately 2 x 10to the 7th objects needed to support the pointing of the Hubble SpaceTelescope. For declinations greater than +3 deg, the sequences generallylie near the centers of the original (Palomar Observatory-NationalGeographic Society) Sky Atlas, while for smaller declinations they lienear the centers for the ESO/SERC Southern Sky Atlas. The sequencesnominally contain (at least) six stars, each with a photometricprecision of 0.05 mag. In practice, a small number of sequences containsfewer stars, and the precisions achieved for the faintest stars are morenearly 0.1 mag.
|The classification of open clusters by the centroid method of cluster analysis|
The distribution of open clusters in the Galaxy are considered, withspace coordinates including mass, absolute magnitude, integrated colorindex, diameter, metallicity, and age. It is shown that the majority ofclusters belong to several classes which have parameter values in asufficiently narrow range. The classes form a linear sequence by age andmonotonic sequence on a color-magnitude diagram. They are not isolated,but move into each other continuously. This suggests that the process ofcluster formation contains no significant gaps. The bifurcation of theage sequence of classes depending on the mass and diameter values isfound. This bifucation makes an evolutionary interpretation possible.
|Slow brightness variations of the peculiar object M1-2 = VV8 during 1971-1987|
Slow variations of the brightness and color indices of a starlike objectwith M1-2 = VV8 emission lines were found on the basis of photoelectricUBV observations carried out in 1971-1987. The amplitude in the V bandis determined to be about 0.2 m. It is suggested that these brightnessvariations may be due to the reflection effect in a wide binary system.
|A cluster analysis of open clusters|
The Galactic distribution of 361 open clusters is studied using acluster analysis method. It is shown that more than half of the clustersenter groups with characteristic dimensions of several hundred parsecs.To distinguish physical clusters from random condensations, criteriabased on age similarity, the color of the main-sequence blue end, andthe integrated color and radial velocity of the clusters are used. Theproximity of these values suggests a physical unity and common origin ofclusters in a group.
|Catalog of open clusters and associated interstellar matter.|
|Multifrequency Radio Observations of Supernova Remnants in the Range Between l= 85DEG and l= 135DEG|
|Catalogue of UBV Photometry and MK Spectral Types in Open Clusters (Third Edition)|
|Star Count Integral Characteristics for 22 Open Star Clusters|
|Investigation of the initial mass spectrum of open star clusters|
The mass spectra of 228 open star clusters were derived by comparison ofcolor-magnitude diagrams with evolutionary tracks. The application tobinary stars showed the reliability of the mass determination. Thederived mass spectra were fitted by power laws as well as exponentiallaws. It could be shown that both approximate the mass spectra of openstar clusters on the same average significance level. The presentinvestigation revealed a correlation of the slope of the mass spectrawith the cluster age, whereas a detected correlation of the slope withgalactocentric distance is slight. The results suggest that the slope ofthe mass spectrum increases with increasing cluster and galactocentricdistance. These findings are discussed with respect to their reasons andprevious results concerning open clusters and field stars.
|The absolute masses of 72 galactic clusters and 12 OB associations|
The Reddish (1978) relative masses for 72 open clusters and 12 OBassociations are presently converted to absolute masses, within an errormargin of about 25 percent, using three calibration clusters of knownmass whose average mass is 300 solar masses. The Reddish techniqueassumes the initial stellar mass distribution function to be valid forall aggregates, together with a universal relationship between stellarmass and stellar luminosity.
|Open clusters and galactic structure|
A total of 610 references to 434 clusters are employed in thecompilation of a catalog of open clusters with color-magnitude diagramson the UBV or RGU systems. Estimates of reddening, distance modulus, ageand number of cluster members are included. Although the sample isconsidered representative of the discoverable clusters in the galaxy,the observed distribution is nonuniform because of interstellarobscuration. Cluster distribution in the galactic plane is found to bedominated by the locations of dust clouds rather than by spiralstructure. The distributions of clusters as a function of age andrichness class show that the lifetimes of poor clusters are much shorterthan rich ones, and that clusters in the outer disk survive longer thanthose in the inner disk. An outer disk age which is only about 50% theage of the globular clusters is indicated by cluster statistics. Thethickening of the galactic disk with increasing galactocentric distancemay be due to either a younger dynamical age or a lower gravitationalpotential in the outer regions.
|The luminosity function of the zero-age main sequence.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1974AJ.....79.1280T
|First Supplement to the list of transit tables for star numberings in open clusters.|
|A catalogue of galactic star clusters observed in three colours|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1971A&AS....4..241B
|An atlas of open cluster colour-magnitude diagrams|