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Massive young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud: water masers and ESO-VLT 3-4 μm spectroscopy
We investigate the conditions of star formation in the Large MagellanicCloud (LMC). We have conducted a survey for water maser emission arisingfrom massive young stellar objects in the 30 Doradus region (N157) andseveral other HII regions in the LMC (N105A, N113 and N160A). We haveidentified a new maser source in 30Dor at the systemic velocity of theLMC. We have obtained 3-4 μm spectra, with the European SouthernObservatory (ESO)-Very Large Telescope (VLT), of two candidate youngstellar objects. N105AIRS1 shows H recombination line emission, and itsSpectral Energy Distribution (SED) and mid-infrared colours areconsistent with a massive young star ionizing the molecular cloud.N157BIRS1 is identified as an embedded young object, based on its SEDand a tentative detection of water ice. The data on these four HIIregions are combined with mid-infrared archival images from the SpitzerSpace Telescope to study the location and nature of the embedded massiveyoung stellar objects and signatures of stellar feedback. Our analysisof 30Dor, N113 and N160A confirms the picture that the feedback from themassive O- and B-type stars, which creates the HII regions, alsotriggers further star formation on the interfaces of the ionized gas andthe surrounding molecular cloud. Although in the dense cloud N105A starformation seems to occur without evidence of massive star feedback, thegeneral conditions in the LMC seem favourable for sequential starformation as a result of feedback. In an Appendix, we present watermaser observations of the galactic red giants RDoradus and WHydrae.

Australia Telescope Compact Array Survey of Candidate Ultracompact and Buried H II Regions in the Magellanic Clouds
We present a systematic survey for ultracompact (UC) H II regions in theMagellanic Clouds. Understanding the physics of massive star formation(MSF) is a critical astrophysical problem. The study of MSF began in ourGalaxy with surveys of UC H II regions, but before now this has not beendone for other galaxies. We selected candidates on the basis of theirInfrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) colors and imaged them at 3 and 6cm with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Nearly all of theobserved regions contain compact radio sources consistent with thermalemission. Many of the sources are related to optically visible H IIregions, and often the radio emission traces the youngest and densestpart of the H II region. The luminosity function and number distributionof Lyman continuum fluxes of the compact radio sources are consistentwith standard stellar and cluster initial mass functions. This type ofsystematic assessment of IRAS diagnostics is important for interpretingSpitzer Space Telescope data, which will probe similar physical scalesin nearby galaxies as IRAS did in the Magellanic Clouds.

Results of the ESO-SEST Key Programme on CO in the Magellanic Clouds. X. CO emission from star formation regions in LMC and SMC
We present J=1-0 and J=2-1 12CO maps of several star-formingregions in both the Large and the Small Magellanic Cloud, and brieflydiscuss their structure. Many of the detected molecular clouds arerelatively isolated and quite small with dimensions of typically 20 pc.Some larger complexes have been detected, but in all cases the extent ofthe molecular clouds sampled by CO emission is significantly less thanthe extent of the ionized gas of the star-formation region. Very littlediffuse extended CO emission was seen; diffuse CO in between orsurrounding the detected discrete clouds is either very weak or absent.The majority of all LMC lines of sight detected in 13CO hasan isotopic emission ratio I( 12CO)/I( 13CO) ofabout 10, i.e. twice higher than found in Galactic star-formingcomplexes. At the lowest 12CO intensities, the spread ofisotopic emission ratios rapidly increases, low ratios representingrelatively dense and cold molecular gas and high ratios marking COphoto-dissociation at cloud edges.

OB stellar associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Survey of young stellar systems
The method developed by Gouliermis et al. (\cite{Gouliermis00}, PaperI), for the detection and classification of stellar systems in the LMC,was used for the identification of stellar associations and openclusters in the central area of the LMC. This method was applied on thestellar catalog produced from a scanned 1.2 m UK Schmidt Telescope Platein U with a field of view almost 6\fdg5 x 6\fdg5, centered on the Bar ofthis galaxy. The survey of the identified systems is presented herefollowed by the results of the investigation on their spatialdistribution and their structural parameters, as were estimatedaccording to our proposed methodology in Paper I. The detected openclusters and stellar associations show to form large filamentarystructures, which are often connected with the loci of HI shells. Thederived mean size of the stellar associations in this survey was foundto agree with the average size found previously by other authors, forstellar associations in different galaxies. This common size of about 80pc might represent a universal scale for the star formation process,whereas the parameter correlations of the detected loose systems supportthe distinction between open clusters and stellar associations.

The relation between radio flux density and ionising ultra-violet flux for HII regions and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud
We present a comparison between the Parkes radio surveys (Filipovic etal. 1995) and Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) surveys (Smith et al. 1987) ofthe Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC). We have found 72 sources in common inthe LMC which are known HII regions (52) and supernova remnants (SNRs)(19). Some of these radio sources are associated with two or more UVstellar associations. A comparison of the radio flux densities andionising UV flux for HII regions shows a very good correlation, asexpected from theory. Many of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) SNRs areembedded in HII regions, so there is also a relation between radio andUV which we attribute to the surrounding HII regions.

A statistical study of binary and multiple clusters in the LMC
Based on the Bica et al. (\cite{bica}) catalogue, we studied the starcluster system of the LMC and provide a new catalogue of all binary andmultiple cluster candidates found. As a selection criterion we used amaximum separation of 1farcm4 corresponding to 20 pc (assuming adistance modulus of 18.5 mag). We performed Monte Carlo simulations andproduced artificial cluster distributions that we compared with the realone in order to check how many of the found cluster pairs and groups canbe expected statistically due to chance superposition on the plane ofthe sky. We found that, depending on the cluster density, between 56%(bar region) and 12% (outer LMC) of the detected pairs can be explainedstatistically. We studied in detail the properties of the multiplecluster candidates. The binary cluster candidates seem to show atendency to form with components of similar size. When possible, westudied the age structure of the cluster groups and found that themultiple clusters are predominantly young with only a few cluster groupsolder than 300 Myr. The spatial distribution of the cluster pairs andgroups coincides with the distribution of clusters in general; however,old groups or groups with large internal age differences are mainlylocated in the densely populated bar region. Thus, they can easily beexplained as chance superpositions. Our findings show that a formationscenario through tidal capture is not only unlikely due to the lowprobability of close encounters of star clusters, and thus the evenlower probability of tidal capture, but the few groups with largeinternal age differences can easily be explained with projectioneffects. We favour a formation scenario as suggested by Fujimoto &Kumai (\cite{fk}) in which the components of a binary cluster formedtogether and thus should be coeval or have small age differencescompatible with cluster formation time scales. Table 6 is only availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/391/547

The Effects of Dust in Simple Environments: Large Magellanic Cloud H II Regions
We investigate the effects of dust on Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)H II region spectral energy distributions usingarcminute-resolution far-ultraviolet (FUV), Hα, far-infrared(FIR), and radio images. Widely used indicators of the amount of lightlost to dust (attenuation) at Hα and in the FUV correlate witheach other, although often with substantial scatter. There are twointeresting systematic discrepancies: First, Hα attenuationsestimated from the Balmer decrement are lower than those estimated fromthe Hα-to-thermal radio luminosity ratio. Our data, at this stage,cannot unambiguously identify the source of this discrepancy. Second,the attenuation at 1500 Å and the UV spectral slope, β,correlate, although the slope and scatter are substantially differentfrom the correlation first derived for starbursting galaxies by Calzettiet al. Combining our result with those of Meurer et al. forultraluminous infrared galaxies and Calzetti et al. for starburstinggalaxies, we conclude that no single relation between β and 1500Å attenuation is applicable to all star-forming systems.

The Progenitor Masses of Wolf-Rayet Stars and Luminous Blue Variables Determined from Cluster Turnoffs. I. Results from 19 OB Associations in the Magellanic Clouds
We combine new CCD UBV photometry and spectroscopy with those from theliterature to investigate 19 Magellanic Cloud OB associations thatcontain Wolf-Rayet (W-R) and other types of evolved, massive stars. Ourspectroscopy reveals a wealth of newly identified interesting objects,including early O-type supergiants, a high-mass, double-lined binary inthe SMC, and, in the LMC, a newly confirmed luminous blue variable (LBV;R85), a newly discovered W-R star (Sk -69°194), and a newly foundluminous B[e] star (LH 85-10). We use these data to provide precisereddening determinations and construct physical H-R diagrams for theassociations. We find that about half of the associations may be highlycoeval, with the massive stars having formed over a short period(Δτ<1 Myr). The (initial) masses of the highest massunevolved stars in the coeval clusters may be used to estimate themasses of the progenitors of W-R and other evolved stars found in theseclusters. Similarly, the bolometric luminosities of the highest massunevolved stars can be used to determine the bolometric corrections(BCs) for the evolved stars, providing a valuable observational basisfor evaluating recent models of these complicated atmospheres. What wefind is the following: (1) Although their numbers is small, it appearsthat the W-R stars in the SMC come from only the highest mass (greaterthan 70 Msolar) stars. This is in accord with ourexpectations that at low metallicities only the most massive andluminous stars will have sufficient mass loss to become W-R stars. (2)In the LMC, the early-type WN (WNE) stars occur in clusters whoseturnoff masses range from 30 to 100 Msolar or more. Thissuggests that possibly all stars with mass greater than 30Msolar pass through a WNE stage at LMC metallicities. (3) Theone WC star in the SMC is found in a cluster with a turnoff mass of 70Msolar, the same as that for the SMC WN stars. In the LMC,the WC stars are found in clusters with turnoff masses of 45Msolar or higher, similar to what is found for the LMC WNstars. Thus we conclude that WC stars come from essentially the samemass range as do WN stars and indeed are often found in the sameclusters. This has important implications for interpreting therelationship between metallicity and the WC/WN ratio found in LocalGroup galaxies, which we discuss. (4) The LBVs in our sample come fromvery high mass stars (greater than 85 Msolar), similar towhat is known for the Galactic LBV η Car, suggesting that only themost massive stars go through an LBV phase. Recently, Ofpe/WN9 starshave been implicated as LBVs after one such star underwent an LBV-likeoutburst. However, our study includes two Ofpe/WN9 stars, BE 381 and Br18, which we find in clusters with much lower turnoff masses (25-35Msolar). We suggest that Ofpe/WN9 stars are unrelated to``true'' LBVs: not all ``LBV-like outbursts'' may have the same cause.Similarly, the B[e] stars have sometimes been described as LBV-like.Yet, the two stars in our sample appear to come from a large mass range(30-60 Msolar). This is consistent with other studies,suggesting that B[e] stars cover a large range in bolometricluminosities. (5) The bolometric corrections of early WN and WC starsare found to be extreme, with an average BC(WNE) of -6.0 mag and anaverage BC(WC4) of -5.5 mag. These values are considerably more negativethan those of even the hottest O-type stars. However, similar valueshave been found for WNE stars by applying Hillier's ``standard model''for W-R atmospheres. We find more modest BCs for the Ofpe/WN9 stars(BC=-2 to -4 mag), also consistent with recent analysis done with thestandard model. Extension of these studies to the Galactic clusters willprovide insight into how massive stars evolve at differentmetallicities.

The fourth catalogue of Population I Wolf-Rayet stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud
The catalogue provides for each of the 134 W-R stars of Population Ipresently known in the Large Magellanic Cloud, accurate equatorialcoordinates, photometric data, spectral classification, binary status,correlation with OB associations and HII regions. The miscellaneousdesignations of the stars are also listed. Although completeness is notpretended, results published during the last decade are highlighted inthe notes given for each individual star. A uniform set of findingcharts is presented. Figures 2 to 12 only in the electronic version athttp://edpsciences.com

The OB associations LH 101 and LH 104 in the HII region N158 of the LMC
We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of stars in theLarge Magellanic Cloud OB associations LH 101 and LH 104, located in theHII region N158, which we have also imaged. From our observations wehave constructed upper H-R diagrams for these OB associations, which wefind to consist mainly of three populations, one of 2-6 Myr for thestars inside the northern bubble (LH 104), and two populations in thesouthern HII region (LH 101), one of <= 2 Myr and the other one aged3-6 Myr. We have obtained for LH 101 a normal IMF, with a slope of Gamma= -1.29 +/- 0.20 whereas for LH 104 the IMF is flatter with a slope ofGamma = -1.05 +/- 0.12. These IMF slopes are consistent with that ofother OB associations in the LMC. Our observations reveal in the regionof LH 101 the presence of both unevolved and evolved very massive stars,whose ionizing flux is in excess of that derived from our Hβ imagesof the HII region. The north-west nebulosity in the region of LH 101thus appears to be matter bound. Based on observations obtained at ESO,La Silla, Chile.

A radio continuum study of the Magellanic Clouds. VIII. Discrete sources common to radio and infrared surveys of the Magellanic Clouds
We compare Parkes Telescope radio surveys with the IRAS Infrared (IR)surveys of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). We find 130 discrete sources incommon towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with both radio and IRemission. These 130 sources are mainly H Ii regions (89) and supernovaremnants (21). For 12 of the sources we have no identification and eightare background objects. We find 38 sources in common for the SmallMagellanic Cloud (SMC). Most of these sources are intrinsic (31) to theSMC, five sources are previously known background galaxies and twosources remain ambiguous. A flux density comparison of the radio and IRsources shows very good correlation and we note that the strongestsources at both radio and IR frequencies are H Ii regions. From theradio-IR comparison we propose that some 40 new sources in the LMC and10 in the SMC are H Ii regions or SNRs. All these new sources are alsoidentified in optical surveys.

A radio continuum study of the Magellanic Clouds. VII. Discrete radio sources in the Magellanic Clouds
We present a study of discrete radio sources in the Magellanic Clouds(MCs) using the latest large-scale radio surveys made with the Parkesradio telescope between 1.4 and 8.55 GHz. These surveys achieved highersensitivity then previous surveys done with the Parkes telescope and sothe number of discrete radio sources detected towards the MCs hasincreased by factor of five. Also, we have obtained improved positions,flux densities and radio spectral indices for all of these sources. Atotal of 483 sources towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 224towards the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) have been detected at at leastone radio frequency. Most of the MC's sources have been classified inone of three groups: SNRs, H Ii regions or background sources accordingto classification criteria established here. In total, 209 discreteradio sources in the LMC and the 37 sources in the SMC are classifiedhere to be either H Ii regions or SNRs. We investigate their luminosityfunctions as well as the statistics of background sources behind theMCs. Also, we examine the distribution of SNRs and H Ii regions in theMCs. Tables 5 and 6 are only available electronically at the CDS via ftp130.79.128.5 or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Extinction of H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud
The extinction properties of H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloudare investigated using radio continuum data obtained from the MolongloObservatory Synthesis Telescope, digitized and calibrated H-alpha data,and published Balmer decrement measurements. The resultingextinction-color excess diagram suggests that (1) most H II regions inthe Magellanic Clouds have similar extinction properties to the Galacticones, (2) all imaginable gas/dust configurations are possible, and (3)the extinction of some highly reddened H II region cores originatesexternally in cocoon shells. The puzzle of different extinction-colorexcess ratios of Galactic and extragalactic H II regions is explained asbeing due to the different populations of observed samples rather thanany intrinsic differences. The extinction of the observed Galactic H IIregions produced by foreground dust overwhelms the internal extinction,while the situation in the observed extragalactic H II regions is justthe opposite.

Results of the SEST key programme: CO in the Magellanic Clouds. VII. 30 Doradus and its southern H II regions
We have mapped the (12) CO(1-0) emission from the 30 Doradus region inthe Large Magellanic Cloud with the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope(SEST). The regions investigated include the central part of the 30 Dornebula, and the southern Hii regions N 158C, N 159, and N 160. Inaddition, a few prominent CO clouds have been studied in the (2-1) and(3-2) transitions of CO. The southern area shows the strongest (12)CO(1-0) emission, a factor of 3 higher than towards the central part of30 Dor. A non-LTE analysis of the CO emission from a sample of cloudsindicate kinetic temperatures between 10 and 50 K; the highesttemperatures are found close to the 30 Dor nebula. We have estimated theCO-H2 conversion factor for the two areas, separately, underthe assumption that the virial mass, determined from CO parameters,reflects the total molecular mass. We find an unexpectedly smalldifference between the two areas. This is explained as a bias effect.Based on results collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile

Carbon monoxyde in the Magellanic Clouds.
Not Available

Integrated UBV Photometry of 624 Star Clusters and Associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud
We present a catalog of integrated UBV photometry of 504 star clustersand 120 stellar associations in the LMC, part of them still embedded inemitting gas. We study age groups in terms of equivalent SWB typesderived from the (U-B) X (B-V) diagram. The size of the spatialdistributions increases steadily with age (SWB types), whereas adifference of axial ratio exists between the groups younger than 30 Myrand those older, which implies a nearly face-on orientation for theformer and a tilt of ~45^deg^ for the latter groups. Asymmetries arepresent in the spatial distributions, which, together with thenoncoincidence of the centroids for different age groups, suggest thatthe LMC disk was severely perturbed in the past.

Ultraviolet spectral evolution of star clusters in the IUE library.
The ultraviolet integrated spectra of star clusters and H II regions inthe IUE library have been classified into groups based on their spectralappearance, as well as on age and metallicity information from otherstudies. We have coadded the spectra in these groups according to theirS/N ratio, creating a library of template spectra for futureapplications in population syntheses in galaxies. We define spectralwindows for equivalent width measurements and for continuum tracings.These measurements in the spectra of the templates are studied as afunction of age and metallicity. We indicate the windows with a strongmetallicity dependence, at different age stages.

A radio continuum study of the Magellanic Clouds. IV. Catalogues of radio sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.40, 2.45, 4.75, 4.85 and 8.55 GHz.
From observations with the Parkes radio telescope, we present cataloguesof radio sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud at four frequencies:1.40, 2.45, 4.75 and 8.55GHz, and an additional catalogue from a sourceanalysis of the Parkes-MIT-NRAO survey at 4.85GHz. A total of 469sources have been detected at least one of these frequencies, 132 ofwhich are reported here for the first time as radio sources.

A Search for Methanol Masers in the Magellanic Clouds
We report the discovery of a second methanol maser in the LargeMagellanic Cloud and we present the results of synthesis observations ofthis and the methanol maser detected previously. The second discoverywas made using the Australia Telescope National Facility's 64-m Parkesradio telescope during an extensive maser search for 6.6-GHz maseremission from the 5_1_-6_0_ A^+^ transition in both Magellanic Clouds.Spectra were obtained towards 35 HII regions in the Large MagellanicCloud and 13 regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud, and also on a3-arcmin grid over an area 0.3^deg^ square, south of the 30 Doradusnebula. Parkes observations at 12.2 GHz towards the two maser sitesyielded no detectable emission from the 2_0_-3_-1_, E methanoltransition. The results suggest that methanol masers are less abundantin the Magellanic Clouds than in our Galaxy. Observations of the twomasers with the Australia Telescope Compact Array showed one to belocated near the continuum emission peak of the H II region MC18 (N11),while the other appeared to be centred near OH emission on thesouth-eastern boundary of MC23 (N105a).

A comparison of far infrared and H-alpha emission of H-II regions in the Magellanic Clouds
From a comparison of the IRAS and smoothed H-alpha maps of theMagellanic Clouds, it was found that H-II regions with core-halostructure usually have higher F(60 microns)/F(H-alpha) ratios andprobably emit more in the far infrared than do extended low-density H-IIregions. This is consistent with the idea that the far infrared emissionis mainly produced by dust within H-II regions.

Photometry of the LMC H II region N 159 A and of its stellar content. II - Young stars, gas, and dust
This paper presents an analysis of the stellar and nebular photometricobservations of the LMC H II region N 159 A and its surroundings. Wehave identified the probable exciting stars of N 159 A and of itssmaller neighbor H II regions. Fourteen O-B2 stars are present in thisfield of 1.6 arcmin x 2.5 arcsec. N 159 A itself is ionized by a closepair of stars of probable spectral types O5 to O6 V, and O7 to O8 V;these stars are separated by 1.0 arcmin and are affected by a visualextinction of 1.2 to 1.4 mag. The protostar of Jones et al. (1986),lying at the border of N 159 A, corresponds to an H-alpha emissionobject which is possibly a very compact H II region or a Herbig Ae/Bestar. The young stellar population (associated with the H II regions) issuperposed on an older population of giants, aged 10 exp 9 yr or more.The observed stellar content of N 159 A successfully accounts for thelevel of ionization of the gas as well as for this region's radiocontinuum and Balmer line emission.

A Comparison of Far Infrared and Hα Emission of HII Regions in the Magellanic Clouds
Not Available

Flux densities at 8400 MHz for a large sample of radio sources
This paper presents 8400-MHz flux densities for 1194 southern radiosources. The sources were selected from the Parkes 2700-MHz Survey toinclude all those stronger than 0.5 Jy at that survey's findingfrequency of 2700 MHz. The new fluxes have an accuracy of about 8percent, corresponding to 0.05 Jy for a typical source. It isanticipated that the data will be useful in defining the high-frequencyradio spectra of many sources as well as in pinpointing objects withwhich to improve the southern, astrometric absolute reference frame.

X-rays from superbubbles in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Diffuse X-ray emission not associated with known supernova remnants(SNRs) are found in seven Large Magellanic Cloud H II complexesencompassing 10 OB associations: N44, N51D, N57A, N70, N154, N157 (30Dor), and N158. Their X-ray luminosities range from 7 x 10 to the 34thergs/s in N57A to 7 x 10 to the 36th ergs/s in 30 Dor. All, except 30Dor, have simple ring morphologies, indicating shell structures.Modeling these as superbubbles, it is found that the X-ray luminositiesexpected from their hot interiors fall an order of magnitude below theobserved values. SNRs close to the center of a superbubble add verylittle emission, but it is calculated that off-center SNRs hitting theionized shell could explain the observed emission.

Studies at high frequencies ofthe 30 Doradus and RCW 57 regions.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990RMxAA..21..507S

A new radio continuum survey of the Magellanic Clouds at 1.4 GHz. II - The radio morphology, and thermal and nonthermal emission of the LMC
The distribution of the radio continuum emission of the LMC is examined.The distribution of the spectral index and a reliable spectrum of theradio emission of the LMC are derived using radio continuum surveys ofthe LMC at 408, 1400, and 2300 MHz. The distribution of the spectralindex across the LMC shows a close positional agreement between flatspectrum and H-alpha emitting regions. The total nonthermal radioluminosity is derived, giving a total equipartition magnetic fieldstrength of about 6 microG. Accurate thermal radio flux densities of themost prominent LMC H II complexes are determined.

Sequential star formation in the Magellanic Clouds
Joint stellar and nebular studies were carried out for a few adjacentstellar associations in the Magellanic Clouds. The spread in ages of WRstars of different subtypes as deduced from their different environmentsis analyzed. A similar study is briefly sketched for S Dor type stars.It is shown how a starburst propagates in the interstellar medium at ascale of 100-300 pc in about 10 to the 7th yr for three regions of theMagellanic Clouds, using both new observational data and published ones.In view of the results provided by such detailed studies, several trapsin the methods were pointed out based on integrated properties of starclusters and their associated nebulae, or their brightest stars.Finally, the moderately old age found (from their environment) for S Dortype stars and their tendency to enter into multiple systems are pointedout.

Integrated UV magnitudes of the Large Magellanic Cloud associations
UV photographs (2600 A, 350 A passband) of the LMC have been obtained bythe S183 experiment during a Skylab mission. The background is estimatedand a method for deriving the integrated fluxes is presented. Theintegrated magnitudes of about 50 associations and isocontours of theirintensities are given, along with the B and V integrated magnitudes of13 associations.

Superassociations in the Arms of Normal and Active Galaxies
Not Available

Star formation in the Magellanic Clouds. III - IR observations of giant H II regions
The results of far-infrared and near-infrared mapping of several H IIregions in the LMC and SMC are presented together with the results of acontinuing search for protostars using NIR techniques. The FIR map of N159 shows strong 100 and 50 microns emission over the entire 2 x 4arcmin area seen in H-alpha, with two major peaks closely coincidingwith the 843 MHz radio map. A second new IR point source showing noevidence of ionizing radiation (protostar) has been found in N 159. Eachprotostar lies about 30 off-center on the steep gradient of each FIRpeak. N 160 A is nearly as luminous as N 159, but is far more compact.All four LMC H II regions studied in the FIR (N 159, N 160 A, N 59 A, N158) produce more ionizing radiation than expected for their luminosity.This result is most simply explained by a preponderance of early O starsover lower mass stars in comparison with galactic H II regions or anormal IMF, although density and geometric factors can not be ruled out.The LMC H II regions do not have the high surface brightness cores seenin galactic H II regions such as W49, but on the other hand are morecompact than very diffuse galactic H II regions such as DR23.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:05h39m09.20s
Apparent magnitude:99.9

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NGC 2000.0NGC 2081

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