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|Ages and Metallicities of Extragalactic Globular Clusters from Spectral and Photometric Fits of Stellar Population Synthesis Models|
Spectra of galaxies contain an enormous amount of information about therelative mixture of ages and metallicities of constituent stars. Wepresent a comprehensive study designed to extract the maximuminformation from spectra of data quality typical in large galaxysurveys. These techniques are not intended for detailed stellarpopulation studies that use high-quality spectra. We test techniques ona sample of globular clusters, which should consist of single stellarpopulations and provide good test cases, using the Bruzual-Charlothigh-resolution stellar population synthesis models to simultaneouslyestimate the ages and metallicities of 101 globular clusters in M31 andthe Magellanic Clouds. The clusters cover a wide range of ages andmetallicities, 4 Myr
|A Database of 2MASS Near-Infrared Colors of Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters|
The (rest-frame) near-IR domain contains important stellar populationdiagnostics and is often used to estimate masses of galaxies at low, aswell as high, redshifts. However, many stellar population models arestill relatively poorly calibrated in this part of the spectrum. Toallow an improvement of this calibration we present a new database ofintegrated near-IR JHKs magnitudes for 75 star clusters inthe Magellanic Clouds, using the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Themajority of the clusters in our sample have robust age and metallicityestimates from color-magnitude diagrams available in the literature, andpopulate a range of ages from 10 Myr to 15 Gyr and a range in [Fe/H]from -2.17 to +0.01 dex. A comparison with matched star clusters in the2MASS Extended Source Catalog (XSC) reveals that the XSC only provides agood fit to the unresolved component of the cluster stellar population.We also compare our results with the often-cited single-channel JHKphotometry of Persson and coworkers and find significant differences,especially for their 30" diameter apertures, up to ~2.5 mag in the Kband, more than 1 mag in J-K, and up to 0.5 mag in H-K. Usingsimulations to center apertures based on maximum light throughput (asperformed by Persson et al.), we show that these differences can beattributed to near-IR-bright cluster stars (e.g., carbon stars) locatedaway from the true center of the star clusters. The wide age andmetallicity coverage of our integrated JHKs photometry sampleconstitute a fundamental data set for testing population synthesis modelpredictions and for direct comparison with near-IR observations ofdistant stellar populations.
|Resolved Massive Star Clusters in the Milky Way and Its Satellites: Brightness Profiles and a Catalog of Fundamental Parameters|
We present a database of structural and dynamical properties for 153spatially resolved star clusters in the Milky Way, the Large and SmallMagellanic Clouds, and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal. This databasecomplements and extends others in the literature, such as those ofHarris and Mackey & Gilmore. Our cluster sample comprises 50 ``youngmassive clusters'' in the LMC and SMC, and 103 old globular clustersbetween the four galaxies. The parameters we list include central andhalf-light-averaged surface brightnesses and mass densities; core andeffective radii; central potentials, concentration parameters, and tidalradii; predicted central velocity dispersions and escape velocities;total luminosities, masses, and binding energies; central phase-spacedensities; half-mass relaxation times; and ``κ-space'' parameters.We use publicly available population-synthesis models to computestellar-population properties (intrinsic B-V colors, reddenings, andV-band mass-to-light ratios) for the same 153 clusters plus another 63globulars in the Milky Way. We also take velocity-dispersionmeasurements from the literature for a subset of 57 (mostly old)clusters to derive dynamical mass-to-light ratios for them, showing thatthese compare very well to the population-synthesis predictions. Thecombined data set is intended to serve as the basis for futureinvestigations of structural correlations and the fundamental plane ofmassive star clusters, including especially comparisons between thesystemic properties of young and old clusters.The structural and dynamical parameters are derived from fitting threedifferent models-the modified isothermal sphere of King; an alternatemodified isothermal sphere based on the ad hoc stellar distributionfunction of Wilson; and asymptotic power-law models withconstant-density cores-to the surface-brightness profile of eachcluster. Surface-brightness data for the LMC, SMC, and Fornax clustersare based in large part on the work of Mackey & Gilmore, but includesignificant supplementary data culled from the literature and importantcorrections to Mackey & Gilmore's V-band magnitude scale. Theprofiles of Galactic globular clusters are taken from Trager et al. Weaddress the question of which model fits each cluster best, finding inthe majority of cases that the Wilson models-which are spatially moreextended than King models but still include a finite, ``tidal'' cutoffin density-fit clusters of any age, in any galaxy, as well as or betterthan King models. Untruncated, asymptotic power laws often fit about aswell as Wilson models but can be significantly worse. We argue that theextended halos known to characterize many Magellanic Cloud clusters maybe examples of the generic envelope structure of self-gravitating starclusters, not just transient features associated strictly with youngage.
|Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations of Magellanic Star Clusters|
We present surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) in the near-IR for 191Magellanic star clusters available in the Second Incremental and All SkyData releases of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and compare themwith SBFs of Fornax Cluster galaxies and with predictions from stellarpopulation models as well. We also construct color-magnitude diagrams(CMDs) for these clusters using the 2MASS Point Source Catalog (PSC).Our goals are twofold. The first is to provide an empirical calibrationof near-IR SBFs, given that existing stellar population synthesis modelsare particularly discrepant in the near-IR. Second, whereas mostprevious SBF studies have focused on old, metal-rich populations, thisis the first application to a system with such a wide range of ages(~106 to more than 1010 yr, i.e., 4 orders ofmagnitude), at the same time that the clusters have a very narrow rangeof metallicities (Z~0.0006-0.01, i.e., 1 order of magnitude only). Sincestellar population synthesis models predict a more complex sensitivityof SBFs to metallicity and age in the near-IR than in the optical, thisanalysis offers a unique way of disentangling the effects of age andmetallicity. We find a satisfactory agreement between models and data.We also confirm that near-IR fluctuations and fluctuation colors aremostly driven by age in the Magellanic cluster populations and that inthis respect they constitute a sequence in which the Fornax Clustergalaxies fit adequately. Fluctuations are powered by red supergiantswith high-mass precursors in young populations and by intermediate-massstars populating the asymptotic giant branch in intermediate-agepopulations. For old populations, the trend with age of both fluctuationmagnitudes and colors can be explained straightforwardly by evolution inthe structure and morphology of the red giant branch. Moreover,fluctuation colors display a tendency to redden with age that can befitted by a straight line. For the star clusters only,(H-Ks)=(0.21+/-0.03)log(age)-(1.29+/-0.22) once galaxies areincluded, (H-Ks)=(0.20+/-0.02)log(age)-(1.25+/-0.16).Finally, we use for the first time a Poissonian approach to establishthe error bars of fluctuation measurements, instead of the customaryMonte Carlo simulations.This research has made use of the NASA/ IPAC Infrared Science Archive,which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Instituteof Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration.
|Surface brightness profiles and structural parameters for 53 rich stellar clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
We have compiled a pseudo-snapshot data set of two-colour observationsfrom the Hubble Space Telescope archive for a sample of 53 rich LMCclusters with ages of 106-1010 yr. We presentsurface brightness profiles for the entire sample, and derive structuralparameters for each cluster, including core radii, and luminosity andmass estimates. Because we expect the results presented here to form thebasis for several further projects, we describe in detail the datareduction and surface brightness profile construction processes, andcompare our results with those of previous ground-based studies. Thesurface brightness profiles show a large amount of detail, includingirregularities in the profiles of young clusters (such as bumps, dipsand sharp shoulders), and evidence for both double clusters andpost-core-collapse (PCC) clusters. In particular, we find power-lawprofiles in the inner regions of several candidate PCC clusters, withslopes of approximately -0.7, but showing considerable variation. Weestimate that 20 +/- 7 per cent of the old cluster population of theLarge Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has entered PCC evolution, a similarfraction to that for the Galactic globular cluster system. In addition,we examine the profile of R136 in detail and show that it is probablynot a PCC cluster. We also observe a trend in core radius with age thathas been discovered and discussed in several previous publications bydifferent authors. Our diagram has better resolution, however, andappears to show a bifurcation at several hundred Myr. We argue that thisobserved relationship reflects true physical evolution in LMC clusters,with some experiencing small-scale core expansion owing to mass loss,and others large-scale expansion owing to some unidentifiedcharacteristic or physical process.
|A comparative study of the spatial distributions of Cepheids and star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
A new simple method for the comparison of two-dimensional distributionsis elaborated and applied to the observed spatial distributions ofCepheids and open clusters in the LMC. This method is particularlysuited to pick out the clusterings within non-uniform fields. Thecomparative study of the spatial distributions for objects with knownages provides useful hints on the dominant mode of large scale starformation. We found that only one clump, out of four evident groups ofopen clusters coeval with the observed Cepheids (i.e. logt ~ 7.5/8.5)coincides with a local density enhancement of Cepheids. A relationbetween the age range inside a clump and its size is found; this isconsistent with the theory of star formation in a turbulent medium.
|A Revised and Extended Catalog of Magellanic System Clusters, Associations, and Emission Nebulae. II. The Large Magellanic Cloud|
A survey of extended objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud was carriedout on the ESO/SERC R and J Sky Survey Atlases, checking entries inprevious catalogs and searching for new objects. The census provided6659 objects including star clusters, emission-free associations, andobjects related to emission nebulae. Each of these classes containsthree subclasses with intermediate properties, which are used to infertotal populations. The survey includes cross identifications amongcatalogs, and we present 3246 new objects. We provide accuratepositions, classification, and homogeneous measurements of sizes andposition angles, as well as information on cluster pairs andhierarchical relation for superimposed objects. This unification andenlargement of catalogs is important for future searches of fainter andsmaller new objects. We discuss the angular and size distributions ofthe objects of the different classes. The angular distributions show twooff-centered systems with different inclinations, suggesting that theLMC disk is warped. The present catalog together with its previouscounterpart for the SMC and the inter-Cloud region provide a totalpopulation of 7847 extended objects in the Magellanic System. Theangular distribution of the ensemble reveals important clues on theinteraction between the LMC and SMC.
|The evolution of theV-Kcolours of single stellar populations|
Models of evolutionary population synthesis of galaxies rely on theproperties of the so-called single stellar populations (SSP). In thispaper, we discuss how the integrated near-infrared colours, andespecially V-K, of SSPs evolve with age and metallicity. Some of theuncertainties associated with the properties of the underlying stellarmodels are thoroughly discussed. Our models include all the relevantstellar evolutionary phases, with particular attention being dedicatedto the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), which plays a fundamental role inthe evolution of the near-infrared part of the spectrum. First, wepresent the effects that different formulations for the mass-loss ratesproduce on the final remnant mass (i.e., on the initial-final massrelation), and hence on the AGB-termination luminosity and the relativecontribution of these stars to the integrated light. The results for theevolution of the V-K colour are very different depending on the choiceof the mass-loss prescription; the same is true also for the B-V colourin the case of low-metallicity SSPs. Secondly, we describe the changesoccurring in the integrated colours at the onset of the AGB and redgiant (RGB) branches. According to the classical formalism for the AGBevolution, the onset of this evolutionary phase is marked by a colourjump to the red, the amplitude of which is shown here to be highlydependent on the metallicity and mass-loss rates adopted in the models.We then consider the effect of the overluminosity with respect to thestandard core mass-luminosity relation that occurs in the most massiveAGB stars. Different simplified formulations for this effect are testedin the models; they cause a smoothing of the colour evolution in the agerange at which the AGB starts to develop, rather than a splitting of thecolour jump into two separate events. On the other hand, we find that atemporary red phase takes place ~1.5x10^8 yr after the RGB develops.Thanks to the transient nature of this feature, the onset of the RGB isprobably not able to cause marked features in the spectral evolution ofgalaxies. We then discuss the possible reasons for the transition of V-Kcolours (from ~1.5 to 3) that takes place in LMC clusters of SWB typeIV. A revision of the ages attributed to the single clusters revealsthat the transition may not be as fast as originally suggested. Thecomparison of the data with the models indicates that the transitionresults mainly from the development of the AGB. A gradual (or delayed)transition of the colours, as predicted by models which include theoverluminosity of the most massive AGB stars, seems to describe the databetter than the sudden colour jump predicted by classical models.
|Cepheids in MC Clusters: New Observations|
|The initial conditions of young globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
N-body simulations are used to model the early evolution of globularclusters. These simulations include residual gas which was not turnedinto stars, which is expelled from the globular cluster by the actionsof massive (>8Msolar) stars. The results of these simulations arecompared with observations of eight LMC globular clusters less than 100Myr old. These observations are used to constrain the initial conditionsthat may have produced these clusters. It is found that the observationscan be accounted for in a model where the globular clusters form fromproto-cluster clouds similar to Plummer models with length-scales in therange 1
|Integrated UBV Photometry of 624 Star Clusters and Associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
We present a catalog of integrated UBV photometry of 504 star clustersand 120 stellar associations in the LMC, part of them still embedded inemitting gas. We study age groups in terms of equivalent SWB typesderived from the (U-B) X (B-V) diagram. The size of the spatialdistributions increases steadily with age (SWB types), whereas adifference of axial ratio exists between the groups younger than 30 Myrand those older, which implies a nearly face-on orientation for theformer and a tilt of ~45^deg^ for the latter groups. Asymmetries arepresent in the spatial distributions, which, together with thenoncoincidence of the centroids for different age groups, suggest thatthe LMC disk was severely perturbed in the past.
|Blue-violet spectral evolution of young Magellanic Cloud clusters|
We study the integrated spectral evolution in the blue-violet range of97 blue star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, from those associatedwith gas emission to those as old as a few hundred Myr. Some clustersare dominated by the flux of those massive stars that pass throughevolutionary stages such as Wolf-Rayet, Luminous Blue Variable, Be, andsupergiant stars of different temperatures. The relationships amongspectral features such as absorption and emission lines, Balmerdiscontinuity and Balmer continuum are used to study the spectralevolution of the clusters. Finally, we sort into groups spectra ofsimilar evolutionary stages, creating a template spectral library withpossible applications in stellar populations syntheses of star-forminggalaxies and in the spectral simulation of bursts of star formation withdifferent mean ages and durations.
|The structure and evolution of rich star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
The present evaluation of surface brightness profiles andcolor-magnitude diagrams for 18 rich star clusters in the LMC, whoseages range from 10 million to 1 billion years, notes that while theprofiles of the older clusters are representable by models withKing-like cores, those of many younger clusters resist such modeling invirtue of bumps, sharp 'shoulders', and central dips. If the clustershave undergone violent relaxation, then the small cores of the youngestones may be indicative of formation from relatively 'cool' initialconditions. The sharp shoulders would then point point toward 'warmer'initial conditions, although they are alternatively explainable assignatures of merging subcondensations.
|The cluster system of the Large Magellanic Cloud|
A new catalog of clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud has beenconstructed from searches of the IIIa-J component of the ESO/SERCSouthern Sky Atlas. The catalog contains coordinate and diametermeasurements of 1762 clusters in a 25 deg x 25 deg area of sky centeredon the LMC, but excluding the very crowded 3.5 sq deg region around theBar. The distribution of these clusters appears as two superimposedelliptical systems. The higher density inner system extends over about 8deg; the lower density outer system can be represented by a 13 deg x 10deg disk inclined at 42 deg to the line of sight. There are suggestionsof two weak 'arms' in the latter.
|Core expansion in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
The core radii of 18 rich star clusters in the LMC with ages from 10 Myrto 1 Gyr. Data for an additional 17 clusters with ages from 1 Myr to 10Gyr are available in the literature. The combined sample shows that thecore radii increase from about 0 to about 5 pc between about 1 Myr and 1Gyr, and then begin to decrease again. The expansion of the cores isprobably driven by mass loss from evolving stars. Models of clusterevolution show that the rate of increase in core radius is sensitive tothe slope of the initial mass function. The observed core radius-agerelation for the LMC clusters favors an intial mass function with slopeslightly flatter than the Salpeter value.
|The initial mass functions of Magellanic Cloud star clusters|
The values of the initial mass function (IMF) and the luminosity of sixMagellanic Cloud (MC) star clusters ranging in age between 10 Myr and2.5 Gyr (and including the NGC 330 cluster in the SMC) were determinedfrom the results of B and V observations obtained with the CTIO 0.9 mand 4 m telescopes. Results indicate that the IMFs of all six clustersare consistent with a single IMF slope of x = 2.5, where the Salpetervalue is 1.35. This result does not depend on the passband or on thedetailed stellar evolution models that are used. A comparison betweenthe present IMF results and those of other studies on galactic clusterssuggests that the IMF slopes of MC clusters vary over a wide range andthere are no apparent correlation between the IMF slope and anyglobal-cluster properties.
|An automated search for star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. I - Description of the technique and application to a 6 square degree field near the bar of the LMC|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989A&A...211....9B
|The stellar content of rich young clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
Initial mass functions (IMFs) of six young rich clusters in the LMC havebeen determined from star counts on photographic plates with differentlimiting magnitudes. Over the range of stellar masses from 1.5 to 6solar masses, very flat IMF slopes between -0.2 and 0.8 are found.Possible explanations for the discrepancy between these results andthose of Mateo (1988), who found step IMFs for a different sample ofclusters in the Magellanic Clouds, are considered, and no obvious onesare found. The flat IMFs imply smaller mass-to-light ratios thanpreviously assumed and reinforce previous conclusions that the clustershave unbound halos. Flat IMFs also imply that stellar winds would havebeen very important in restructuring and expelling the gas from aprotocluster and that there would have been many supernovae early in thehistory of a supercluster.
|LMC clusters - Age calibration and age distribution revisited|
The empirical age relation for star clusters in the Large MagellanicCloud presented by Elson and Fall (1985) are reexamined using ages basedonly on main-sequence turnoffs. The present sample includes 57 clusters,24 of which have color-magnitude diagrams published since 1985. The newcalibration is very similar to that found previously, and the scatter inthe relation corresponds to uncertainties of about a factor of 2 in age.The age distribution derived from the new calibration does not differsignificantly from that derived in earlier work. It is compared with agedistributions estimated by other authors for different samples ofclusters, and the results are discussed.
|The structure of young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
The surface brightness profiles presented for 10 rich star clusters inthe LMC extend over 8-10 mag in surface brightness, and to radii of 4arcmin. The crossing times are shorter than the ages of the clusters,and the two-body relaxation times, except in a few of the cores, arenoted to be significantly longer than the ages; the clusters aretherefore well mixed, but not relaxed through stellar encounters. Thepossibility that the expansion of a newly formed cluster through eithermass loss or violent relaxation could form a halo of unbound stars isexamined in light of a calculation of the LMC's tidal field.
|Radial-velocity determinations of six LMC superluminous giant candidates|
Blue spectra at 121 A/mm have been obtained for 12 candidatesuperluminous giant stars (SLGs) in ten clusters of the LMC. For ten ofthese stars, red spectra at 125 A/mm were also obtained. Spectralclasses are given for the 12 stars. Of the six measured for radialvelocities, four are found to be foreground objects. The possibilitiesthat all SLG stars are foreground objects or the combined light of morethan one normal star are discussed.
|Non-membership of two superluminous giant candidates in the LMC|
Two superluminous giant candidates in the LMC, identified fromphotometry, have been classified as G8 III and G5 V. The average radialvelocities for both stars are approximately + 15 km/s. It is evidentthat neither star is an SLG or is in the LMC.
|Age calibration and age distribution for rich star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
An empirical relation is presented for estimating the ages of rich starclusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), to within a factor ofabout 2, from their integrated UBV colors. The calibration is based onpublished ages for 58 LMC clusters derived from main-sequencephotometry, integrated spectra, or the extent of the asymptotic giantbranches. Using stellar population models, a sample of LMC clusters moremassive than about 10,000 solar masses is isolated, which is correctedfor incompleteness as a function of magnitude. An unbiased agedistribution for three clusters is then determined. The number ofclusters decreases with increasing age in a manner that is qualitativelysimilar to the age distribution for the open clusters in our Galaxy. TheLMC age distribution is, however, flatter, and the median age of theclusters is greater. If the formation rate has been approximatelyconstant over the history of the two galaxies, then the age distributionobtained here implies that clusters are disrupted more slowly in theLMC. The results contain no evidence for bursts in the formation ofclusters, although fluctuations on small time scales and slow variationsover the lifetime of the LMC cannot be ruled out.
|Photometric studies of composite stellar systems. V - Infrared photometry of star clusters in the Magellanic clouds|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983ApJ...266..105P
|An ellipticity - age relation for globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. I - Measurements|
It is pointed out that the rich star clusters of the Magellanic Cloudsresemble the globular clusters of the Galaxy. The present investigationhas the objective to determine the shapes of these clusters and theirdependence on age. The study has been restricted to the Large MagellanicCloud (LMC) because the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) does not provide alarge enough sample for the statistical analysis. The shapes of globularclusters are usually expressed in terms of ellipticities. Attention isgiven to the measurement of ellipticities with the aid of a ruler and agraduated magnifying glass, star count data on 12 LMC clusters, and ageestimates. It is found that estimates of the ellipticities of globularclusters made by eye are in excellent agreement with those based on starcounts. The ellipticity-age relation is probably explained mostnaturally by internal evolution in the structure of globular clusters.
|UBV photometry of the anticenter cluster Berkeley 21|
Results are presented for a UBV photometric study of about 200 stars inthe faint populous anticenter cluster Be21. Color-magnitude andtwo-color diagrams for two concentric rings centered on star 401 areanalyzed. The cluster stars are found to exhibit a large UV excess, a(B-V) color excess of about 1.0 mag is determined, and a distance of 10to 15 kpc from the sun or 20 to 25 kpc from the galactic center isderived. The color-magnitude diagram of Be21 is shown to bemorphologically quite similar to those of Magellanic Cloud clusters andremarkably dissimilar from those of Milky Way clusters. It is concludedthat Be21 is a highly reddened young metal-poor open cluster located inthe periphery of the galactic disk and that the nature of Be21 issignificant because the cluster may provide important evidence in favorof the ideas that abundance gradients exist across the galactic disk andthat the periphery of the Galaxy is just now condensing.
|Instrumental color-magnitude diagrams for 24 Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976ApJS...32..283H
|Color-magnitude diagrams for four rich clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud|
Color-magnitude diagrams are presented for four very rich clusters ofthe Large Magellanic Cloud. Comparisons with theoretical color-magnitudediagrams show good agreement in the location and distribution of starsin the giant regions. All four have nearly identical ages ofapproximately 50 million years. Each cluster has at least oneanomalously luminous giant of intermediate color and magnitude of about-5.7, over a magnitude brighter than both the observed and predictedgiant branch.
|A Catalogue of Clusters in The LMC|
|NGC 1783, A cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1962MNRAS.124..201G
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