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|Planets around evolved intermediate-mass stars. I. Two substellar companions in the open clusters NGC 2423 and NGC 4349|
Context: Many efforts are being made to characterize extrasolarplanetary systems and unveil the fundamental mechanisms of planetformation. An important aspect of the problem, which remains largelyunknown, is to understand how the planet formation process depends onthe mass of the parent star. In particular, as most planets discoveredto date orbit a solar-mass primary, little is known about planetformation around more massive stars. Aims: To investigate this point,we present first results from a radial velocity planet search around redgiants in the clump of intermediate-age open clusters. We chooseclusters harbouring red giants with masses between 1.5 and 4Mȯ, using the well-known cluster parameters toaccurately determine the stellar masses. We are therefore exploring apoorly-known domain of primary masses, which will bring new insightsinto the properties of extrasolar planetary systems. Methods: We followa sample of about 115 red giants with the Coralie and HARPSspectrographs to obtain high-precision radial velocity (RV) measurementsand detect giant planets around these stars. We use bisector andactivity index diagnostics to distinguish between planetary-induced RVvariations and stellar photospheric jitter. Results: We present thediscoveries of a giant planet and a brown dwarf in the open clusters NGC2423 and NGC 4349, orbiting the 2.4 Mȯ-star NGC 2423 No.3 (TYC 5409-2156-1) and the 3.9 Mȯ-star NGC 4349 No. 127(TYC 8975-2606-1). These low-mass companions have orbital periods of 714and 678 days and minimum masses of 10.6 and 19.8 M_Jup, respectively.Combined with the other known planetary systems, these detectionsindicate that the frequency of massive planets is higher aroundintermediate-mass stars, and therefore probably scales with the mass ofthe protoplanetary disk.Based on observations made with the ESO 3.6 m-telescope at La SillaObservatory under program IDs 075.C-0140, 076.C-0429, 077.C-0088 and078.C-0133. Tables 2-5 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.aanda.org
|Crux - our southern heritage.|
|Proper motion determination of open clusters based on the UCAC2 catalogue|
We present the kinematics of hundreds of open clusters, based on theUCAC2 Catalogue positions and proper motions. Membership probabilitieswere obtained for the stars in the cluster fields by applying astatistical method uses stellar proper motions. All open clusters withknown distance were investigated, and for 75 clusters this is the firstdetermination of the mean proper motion. The results, including the DSSimages of the cluster's fields with the kinematic members marked, areincorporated in the Open Clusters Catalogue supported on line by ourgroup.
|Astrophysical parameters of Galactic open clusters|
We present a catalogue of astrophysical data for 520 Galactic openclusters. These are the clusters for which at least three most probablemembers (18 on average) could be identified in the ASCC-2.5, a catalogueof stars based on the Tycho-2 observations from the Hipparcos mission.We applied homogeneous methods and algorithms to determine angular sizesof cluster cores and coronae, heliocentric distances, mean propermotions, mean radial velocities, and ages. For the first time we derivedistances for 200 clusters, radial velocities for 94 clusters, and agesof 196 clusters. This homogeneous new parameter set is compared withearlier determinations, where we find, in particular, that the angularsizes were systematically underestimated in the literature.
|Astrophysical supplements to the ASCC-2.5. II. Membership probabilities in 520 Galactic open cluster sky areas|
We present a catalogue (CSOCA ) of stars residing in 520 Galactic opencluster sky areas which is the result of the kinematic (proper motion)and photometric member selection of stars listed in the homogeneousAll-sky Compiled Catalogue of 2.5 Million Stars (ASCC-2.5). We describethe structure and contents of the catalogue, the selection procedureapplied, and the proper motion and photometric membership constraintsadopted. In every cluster area the CSOCA contains the complete list ofthe ASCC-2.5 stars regardless of their membership probability. Forevery star the CSOCA includes accurate J2000 equatorial coordinates,proper motions in the Hipparcos system, BV photometric data in theJohnson system, proper motion and photometric membership probabilities,as well as angular distances from the cluster centers for about 166 000ASCC-2.5 stars. If available, trigonometric parallaxes, spectral types,multiplicity and variability flags from the ASCC-2.5, and radialvelocities with their errors from the Catalogue of Radial Velocities ofGalactic Stars with high precision Astrometric Data (CRVAD) are alsogiven.
|On the Galactic Disk Metallicity Distribution from Open Clusters. I. New Catalogs and Abundance Gradient|
We have compiled two new open cluster catalogs. In the first one, thereare 119 objects with ages, distances, and metallicities available, whilein the second one, 144 objects have both absolute proper motion andradial velocity data, of which 45 clusters also have metallicity dataavailable. Taking advantage of the large number of objects included inour sample, we present an iron radial gradient of about -0.063+/-0.008dex kpc-1 from the first sample, which is quite consistentwith the most recent determination of the oxygen gradient from nebulaeand young stars, about -0.07 dex kpc-1. By dividing clustersinto age groups, we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past,which is consistent with the recent result from Galactic planetarynebulae data, and also consistent with inside-out galactic diskformation scenarios. Based on the cluster sample, we also discuss themetallicity distribution, cluster kinematics, and space distribution. Adisk age-metallicity relation could be implied by those properties,although we cannot give conclusive result from the age- metallicitydiagram based on the current sample. More observations are needed formetal-poor clusters. From the second catalog, we have calculated thevelocity components in cylindrical coordinates with respect to theGalactic standard of rest for 144 open clusters. The velocitydispersions of the older clusters are larger than those of youngclusters, but they are all much smaller than that of the Galactic thickdisk stars.
|Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy|
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.
|The Distance Scale for Classical Cepheid Variables|
New radii, derived from a modified version of the Baade-Wesselink (BW)method that is tied to published KHG narrowband spectrophotometry, arepresented for 13 bright Cepheids. The data yield a best-fittingperiod-radius relation given bylog=1.071(+/-0.025)+0.747(+/-0.028)logP0. In combination with other high-quality radiusestimates recently published by Laney & Stobie, the new data yield aperiod-radius relation described bylog=1.064(+/-0.0006)+0.750(+/-0.006)logP0, which simplifies to ~P3/4.The relationship is used to test the scale of Cepheid luminositiesinferred from cluster zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) fitting, for whichwe present an updated list of calibrating Cepheids located in stellargroups. The cluster ZAMS-fitting distance scale tied to a Pleiadesdistance modulus of 5.56 is found to agree closely with the distancescale defined by Hipparcos parallaxes of cluster Cepheids and alsoyields Cepheid luminosities that are a good match to those inferred fromthe period-radius relation. The mean difference between absolute visualmagnitudes based on cluster ZAMS fitting,C, and those inferred for 23 clusterCepheids from radius and effective temperature estimates,BW, in the sense of C-BW is+0.019+/-0.029 s.e. There is no evidence to indicate the need for amajor revision to the Cepheid cluster distance scale. The absolutemagnitude differences are examined using available [Fe/H] data for thecluster Cepheid sample to test the metallicity dependence of theperiod-luminosity relation. Large scatter and a small range ofmetallicities hinder a reliable estimate of the exact relationship,although the data are fairly consistent with predictions from stellarevolutionary models. The derived dependence isΔMV(C-BW)=+0.06(+/-0.03)-0.43(+/-0.54)[ Fe/H].
|Abundance Gradient from Open Clusters and Implications for the Galactic Disk Evolution|
We compile a new sample of 89 open clusters with ages, distances andmetallicities available. We derive a radial iron gradient of about-0.099±0.008 dexkpc (unweighted) for the whole sample, which issomewhat greater than the most recent determination of oxygen gradientfrom nebulae and young stars. By dividing the clusters into age groups,we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past and has evolvedslowly in time. Current data show a substantial scatter of the clustermetallicities indicating that the Galactic disk has undergone a veryrapid, inhomogeneous enrichment.Also, based on a simple, but quitesuccessful model of chemical evolution of the Milky Way disk, we make adetailed calculation of the iron abundance gradient and its timeevolution. The predicted current iron gradient is about -0.072 dexkpc.The model also predicts a steady flattening of the iron gradient withtime, which agrees with the result from our open cluster sample.
|Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data|
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Some Revised Observational Constraints on the Formation and Evolution of the Galactic Disk|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.2556T&db_key=AST
|Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Disk: Evidence for a Gradient Perpendicular to the Galactic Plane|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.2813P&db_key=AST
|Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.|
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.
|Integrated photometric properties of open clusters|
Galactic open clusters provide an abundant sample of stellar aggregatesof various sizes, ages and metal abundances, apt to constitute atemplate for comparison with star systems in other galaxies. In thispaper we present and discuss a standard methodology to synthesize U,B,Vfluxes and colours, and apply it to a set of 138 open clusters. Resultsare compared with previous ones available in the literature. We wereable to calibrate a mass-luminosity relation by which we evaluated themass of ~400 open clusters, leading to a well defined present-day massfunction. The number-complete sample of galactic open clusters presentedin Battinelli & Capuzzo-Dolcetta (1991) is enlarged of a 15%.
|Formation and evolutionary properties of the Galactic open cluster system|
Results are reported from a statistical analysis of observational dataon 100 open clusters within 2 kpc of the sun, selected from the catalogof Lynga (1987). The selection criteria and the completeness of thesample are discussed; the data are compiled in a table; and the analysisresults are presented in a series of graphs and characterized in detail.A cluster formation rate of 0.45 clusters/kpc Myr is found,significantly lower than the rates determined previously (using clusterswithin 1 kpc of the sun) and corresponding to a cluster star-formationefficiency of 0.0063. The low average cluster lifetime (about 10 Myr)suggests that clusters are formed as unstable systems.
|Estructura del diagram HR para gigantes rojas de poblacion i de masas intermedias.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1990RMxAA..21..351C&db_key=AST
|Population-I Pulsating Stars. VI - Ages of Star Clusters and Associations|
On the basis of our age estimations of Population I pulsating stars inour Galaxy (Tsvetkov, 1986a), the mean ages of 6 open star clusterscontaining 21 Delta Scuti-variables and of 8 star clusters andassociations containing 13 classical cepheids, have been evaluated.These mean cluster age estimations weighted according to theprobabilities for different evolutionary phases of the pulsating stars,are obtained in the evolutionary track systems of Iben (1967) andPaczyÃ±ski (1970); the cluster ages are larger in theformer system. Our results are compared with those obtained from variousmethods by other authors. Clusters with classical cepheids and withDelta Scuti-stars have ages, respectively, in the ranges 107_108 yearsand 106_109 years. It is shown that the use of simpleperiod-age(-colour) relations for Population I pulsating stars givessufficiently accurate cluster age estimations. By use of our period-agerelations for classical cepheids (Tsvetkov, 1986a), the mean ages of 56other star clusters and associations in our Galaxy, the MagellanicClouds, and M 31 galaxy have been estimated in both systems of tracks.The results are generally in agreement with those obtained from variousmethods by other authors. The use of Population I pulsating stars instar clusters and associations is one of the simplest and most easilyapplied methods for determining cluster ages; but there are somelimitations in its application
|Young stellar-gas complexes in the Galaxy|
It is found that about 90 percent of OB-associations and o-b2 clusterssituated within 3 kpc of the sun can be united into complexes withdiameters of 150-700 pc. Almost all of these clusters contain giantmolecular clouds with a mass greater than about 100,000 solar masses. Anumber of complexes are associated with giant H I clouds; a few of thesmall complexes are situated in the HI caverns. The concentration ofOB-associations and young clusters in star complexes attests to theircommon origin in the supergiant gaseous clouds.
|The classification of open clusters by the centroid method of cluster analysis|
The distribution of open clusters in the Galaxy are considered, withspace coordinates including mass, absolute magnitude, integrated colorindex, diameter, metallicity, and age. It is shown that the majority ofclusters belong to several classes which have parameter values in asufficiently narrow range. The classes form a linear sequence by age andmonotonic sequence on a color-magnitude diagram. They are not isolated,but move into each other continuously. This suggests that the process ofcluster formation contains no significant gaps. The bifurcation of theage sequence of classes depending on the mass and diameter values isfound. This bifucation makes an evolutionary interpretation possible.
|Star-forming loops in the IRAS sky images|
Loops containing diffuse and discrete emission are a feature of the IRASsky images. Some of these loops are limb-brightened shells resultingfrom supernovae or stellar winds acting on the interstellar medium.Secondary star formation appears to have occurred at the surface ofthese shells. A significant proportion of the early-type stars in thesolar neighborhood appear to have formed in stellar loops.
|Yellow evolved stars in open clusters|
This paper describes a program in which Galactic cluster post-AGBcandidates were first identified and then analyzed for clustermembership via radial velocities, monitored for possible photometricvariations, examined for evidence of mass loss, and classified ascompletely as possible in terms of their basic stellar parameters. Theintrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters.With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by thesupergiants decline. It appears that the evolutionary tracks ofluminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than ofclass III. Only two superluminous giant star candidates are found inopen clusters.
|Mass-losing red giants in open clusters|
Mass-losing stars in open clusters with main-sequence turn-offs atintermediate mass have been searched for by using the IRAS data base.The absence of many strong 60 micron sources in open clusters impliesthat intermediate-mass stars lose much of their mass during an intensewind phase of rather short duration. For stars of about seven solarmasses, this phase, if it exists at all, lasts for not much more than100,000 yr. For stars of about four solar masses, the intense wind phaseappears to last considerably less than 10 million yr; it may well lastfor less than a million yr.
|Catalogue of UBV Photometry and MK Spectral Types in Open Clusters (Third Edition)|
|The spectra and ages of blue stragglers|
A mechanism similar to Wheeler's 'quasi-homogeneous evolution' and Finziand Wolf's proposal for blue stragglers is proposed as the origin of theblue stragglers in intermediate-age clusters. Blue stragglers are starswhose positions in color-magnitude diagrams of open and globularclusters are significantly above the turn-off points and in the regionof the (former) main sequence; they seem to represent a conflict withthe general conclusion that all stars in a cluster originated at aboutthe same time. It is concluded that there are at least two kinds of bluestragglers: (1) those stars of types about B3-A2 are primarily Ap starsand slow rotators, occur in the intermediate age clusters and remain inthe main sequence region probably through magnetic mixing; and (2) thestars of type O6-B2 frequently have emission lines, are rapid rotators,occur in the young cluster, and remain in the main sequence regionprobably by rotational mixing.
|Investigation of the initial mass spectrum of open star clusters|
The mass spectra of 228 open star clusters were derived by comparison ofcolor-magnitude diagrams with evolutionary tracks. The application tobinary stars showed the reliability of the mass determination. Thederived mass spectra were fitted by power laws as well as exponentiallaws. It could be shown that both approximate the mass spectra of openstar clusters on the same average significance level. The presentinvestigation revealed a correlation of the slope of the mass spectrawith the cluster age, whereas a detected correlation of the slope withgalactocentric distance is slight. The results suggest that the slope ofthe mass spectrum increases with increasing cluster and galactocentricdistance. These findings are discussed with respect to their reasons andprevious results concerning open clusters and field stars.
|Catalogue of Eclipsing and Spectroscopic Binary Stars in the Regions of Open Clusters|
|Open clusters and galactic structure|
A total of 610 references to 434 clusters are employed in thecompilation of a catalog of open clusters with color-magnitude diagramson the UBV or RGU systems. Estimates of reddening, distance modulus, ageand number of cluster members are included. Although the sample isconsidered representative of the discoverable clusters in the galaxy,the observed distribution is nonuniform because of interstellarobscuration. Cluster distribution in the galactic plane is found to bedominated by the locations of dust clouds rather than by spiralstructure. The distributions of clusters as a function of age andrichness class show that the lifetimes of poor clusters are much shorterthan rich ones, and that clusters in the outer disk survive longer thanthose in the inner disk. An outer disk age which is only about 50% theage of the globular clusters is indicated by cluster statistics. Thethickening of the galactic disk with increasing galactocentric distancemay be due to either a younger dynamical age or a lower gravitationalpotential in the outer regions.
|Comparative Studies of Young Open Clusters - Part Two - an Atlas of Composite Colour-Magnitude Diagrams|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981A&AS...44..467M
|DDO photometry of giants in four southern open clusters|
Results are presented for photoelectric photometry in the DDOintermediate-band system of G and K giants in the very old open clusterMelotte 66 and the old clusters NGC 4349, 5822, and 5823. Averagereddenings, corrected mean distance moduli, and mean cyanogen anomaliesare derived for the giants in these clusters, and several peculiar starsare identified. The results indicate that: (1) the giants in Melotte 66are deficient in CN (and therefore in metallicity) relative to nearby Kgiants; (2) there is no evidence for a change in overall CN strengthbetween the giant and horizontal branches of Melotte 66; (3) NGC 4349and 5822 appear slightly richer in metals than nearby K giants; (4) NGC5823 does not constitute a coherent sample of giants and is likely to beaffected by considerable field-star contamination; and (5) there is onlymarginal evidence for a physical association between NGC 5822 and 5823.
|Uniform survey of clusters in the southern Milky Way.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975AJ.....80...11V
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